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JL. ^^J O O '■^^ 
The object of this work is to give an account of the out- 
ward Hfe of the Franciscans. This might be fairly taken to 
■ include the whole activity of the friars with the exception of 
their contribution to scholastic philosophy; for that clearly 
forms a subject by itself. But even with this limitation the 
account here given of the Franciscans' work does not pretend 
Q to be complete. The documents which remain to us do not 
^ by any means cover the whole of the active life of the Fran- 
I ciscans. While for the thirteenth century and the Dissolution 
the records are fairly numerous, the materials for the inter- 
^ vening period are very scanty. Thus any attempt at a 
^' chronological narrative was out of the question. And the 
almost total absence of all Franciscan records (properly so 
called) in England, has proved an effectual bar to any com- 
pleteness of treatment at all. The arrangement here adopted, 
both in the choice of subjects and in the relative prominence 
given to each of them, is due simply to the exigencies of the 
available materials relating to the Oxford Convent. The 
topographical information derived from records and other 
sources has been neither full enough nor accurate enough 
to enable me to supply a map or plan of the property and 
buildings of the Grey Friars. 

A few words will be necessary to explain the plan pursued 
in Part II. An endeavour has been made to collect the names 
of all the Grey Friars who lived in the Convent at Oxford or 
who/studied in the University : the list, if complete, would have 



included all the names which were, or ought to have been, 
entered in the ' Buttery-books ' or ' Admission-books ' of the 
house. To show how far short of this aim the result falls, it 
is only necessary to point out that the names of friars actually 
included in Part 1 1 number little more than three hundred : 
and the connexion of some of these with Oxford is doubtful. 
The bibliographies, appended to the biographical notices, are 
intended to include all the extant works of each friar, but not 
all the MSS. nor all the editions of each work. Occasionally 
works are added which have not been identified, but of whose 
previous existence there is sufficient evidencCo For this part 
of the book I have used, besides the well-known mediaeval 
bibliographies, a number of catalogues of manuscripts ; a list 
of these is given below, with the object of showing not so 
much what has been done, as what has been left undone. 

Among unpublished sources, the most valuable have been 
various collections in the Public Record Office, especially the 
Patent, Close, and Liberate Rolls ; the Registers of Congre- 
gation (Reg. Aa, G 6, H 7, 1 8), the records of the Chancellor's 
Court (Acta Curiae Cancellarii Q, '5, EEE, or 9), and Brian 
Twyne's collections, in the Oxford University Archives. 
Further, I have had occasion to consult the Oxford City 
Archives, some of the old registers of wills at Somerset 
House, and various manuscripts in the British Museum, 
Lambeth Palace, and Gray's Inn ; the Bodleian and several 
College libraries at Oxford ; the University (or Public) 
Library and several College libraries at Cambridge ; the 
library of Sir Thomas Phillipps at Thirlestaine House, 
Cheltenham ; the National Library at Paris, and the Muni- 
cipal Library at Assisi. I have had no opportunity of ex- 
amining the episcopal registers of the diocese of Lincoln, 
extracts from which, however, are contained in Twyne's 

The Index, so far as it deals with the names of persons and 
places, will, I hope, be found complete, with the following 



limitations. The authorities quoted, either in the text or in the 
notes, the places where the manuscripts cited were written, or 
were formerly or are now kept, or where the editions referred 
to were printed, are not mentioned in the Index, unless there 
is some particular reason for including them. So far as it 
deals with subjects, the Index is meant to be supplementary 
to the Table of Contents. The writings of the friars are not 
classified in the Index, except those which come under the 
headings Aristotle^ Bible ^ Evangelical Poverty and Sentences. 

.Finally, I wish to express my thanks to those who have 
given me aid, namely, to the Rev. W. G. D. Fletcher, Vicar 
of St. Michael's, Shrewsbury, author of ' The Black Friars in 
Oxford,' who generously placed a valuable collection of re- 
ferences at my disposal ; to Mr. Falconer Madan for assistance 
and advice ; to the Keeper of the University Archives and the 
Town Clerk of Oxford for allowing me free and repeated 
access to the documents under their respective charges ; and 
to the authorities in the various offices and libraries in which 
I have worked, for their unfailing courtesy. 


30 November^ 1891. 


For the compilation of the bibliographies in Part II the following 
catalogues of manuscripts have been consulted ^ : — 

Bernard de Montfaucon, Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum Manuscriptorum ; 
Paris, 1739, 2 vols. fol. 

Haenel, Catalogi Librorum Manuscriptorum qui in Bibliothecis Galliae, 
Helvetiae, Belgii, Britanniae M., Hispaniae, Lusitaniae, asservantur ; Lipsiae, 

Edward Bernard, Catalogi Librorum Manuscriptorum Angliae et Hiberniae 
in unum collecti ; Oxon.,1697, 2 vols., fol. Vol. I, Bodleian ; Oxford Colleges ; 
Cambridge Colleges and Public (University) Library. Vol. II, Cathedral 
and other libraries in England ; Irish libraries. 

Catalogues of the following collections in the British Museum : — Royal 
MSS. 1734, 4to (Casley) ; Sloane and Birch, 1782, 2 vols. 4to (Ayscough) ; 
Cotton, 1802, fol.' Harley, 1808-18 12, 4 vols., fol.; Lansdowne, 2 parts, 
1819, fol. ; Arundel and Burney, 1834-40, fol. ; Additional MSS. from A.D. 

A Catalogue of the Archiepiscopal MSS. in the Library at Lambeth 
Palace, by H.J. Todd; 181 2, fol. 

Ancient MSS. in Gray's Inn Library, 1869. 

Catalogues of the following collections in the Bodleian : — Laudian MSS., 
1858-1885; Canonician MSS., 1854; Tanner MSS., i860; Rawlinson, 
1862-1878; Digby, 1883 ; Catalogue of the Ashmolean MSS., 1845-1866. 

Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum qui in Collegiis Aulisque Oxoni- 
ensibus hodie adservantur (Coxe) ; Oxon., 1852, 2 vols., 4to. 

A Catalogue of the Manuscripts preserved in the Library of the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge, edited for the Syndics of the University Press ; Cam- 
bridge, 1856, &c., 6 vols., 8vo. 

Nasmith, Catalogue of the Parker MSS. in Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge; 1787, 4to. 

Catalogue of MSS. in the library of Gonville and Caius, by J. J. Smith ; 
1849, 4to. 

Catalogus Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae Regiae Parisiensis; Paris, 1739 — 
1744, 4 vols., fol. 

^ A few others have been used oc- lo£^ue (1B37), and Ulysse Robert's 
casionally, such as the Phillipps cata- Inventaire sommaire. 


Inventaire des Manuscrits conserves a la Bibliotheque Imperiale sous les 
Nos. 882 3-1 86 1 3, du Fonds Latin et faisant suite a la serie dont le 
Catalogue a ^te publie en 1744 par Leopold Delisle; Paris, 1863, &c., 8vo. 

Inventaire des MSS. de la Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds de Cluni, par 
L. Delisle. 

Catalogue general des Manuscrits des Bibliotheques Publiques des De- 
partements ; Paris, 1849-1885, 7 vols., 4to. 

Catalogue general des Manuscrits des Bibliotheques Publiques de France ; 
(a) Paris: (i) BibUotheque Mazarine, by A. MoHnier, 3 vols. 8vo. ; (2) 
Bibliotheque de I'Arsenal, by H. Martin, 1885, &c. (vols, i and 2 contain 
the Latin MSS.). (/3) Departements, vols. 1-12, 1886-1889. 

Catalogue des Manuscrits de la Bibliotheque Publique de Bruges (P. 
J. Laude), Bruges, 1859, 8vo. 

Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae Regiae Monacensis, 
Cod. Lat. vols, i and 2^; Monachii 1868-1874. 

Katalog der Handschriften der konigl. ofFentlichen Bibliothek zu 
Dresden; Leipzig, 1882-3, 2 vols., 8vo. 

Tabulae Codicum Manuscriptorum praeter Graecos et Orientales in 
Bibliotheca Palatina Vindobonensi asservatorum ; Vienna, 1864-1875, 
7 vols., 8vo. (Codices 1-14,000). 

Catalogus Codicum Latinorum Bibliothecae Mediceae Laurentianae 
(Bandini), 1774, 5 vols,, folio. 

Bibliotheca Leopoldina Laurentiana (Bandini); Florence, 1791, 3 vols., 

Bibliotheca Manuscripta ad S. Marci Venetiarum (Valentinelli) ; Venet. 
1868-1873, 6 vols., 8vo. 

Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, Codices Palatini Latini, torn. I, codices 
1-92 1 ; 1886. 

Bibhothecae Patavinae Manuscriptae publicae et privatae opera Jacobi 
Philippi Tomasini ; Utini, 1639, 4to. (Tomasin). 

Bibliothecae Venetae Manuscriptae publicae et privatae opera Jacobi 
Philippi Tomasini ; Utini, 1650, 4to. (Tomasin). 

^ I have not seen Part 3 of Vol. 2 (Codices 15029-21405), which is missing 
in the British Museum. 


Anal. Franc. = Analacta Franciscana, sive chronica aliaque varia documenta ad 

historiam Fratrum Minorum spectantia, edita a Patribus Collegii S. Bona- 

venturae, Quaracchi, 1885-7, 2 vols. 
Archiv f. L. u. K. Gesch. = Archiv fur Literatur- und Kirchengeschichte des 

Mittelalters, herausgegeben von H. Denifle und F. Ehrle. 
Bale, Script. = Illustrium Majoris Britanniae Scriptorum . . . Summarium, 1559, 

2 vols. 

B. of Pisa = Bartholomew of Pisa, Liber Conformitatum, ed. Milan, 1510. 
Bernard = Catalogi Librorum MSS. Angliae et Hiberniae, Oxon., 1697. 
Burnet, Reformation = History of the Reformation of the Church of England, 
Oxford, 1829. 

Foxe = The Acts and Monuments of John Foxe, edited by Cattley, 1841. 

Hist. Litt. = Histoire Litteraire de la France (by the Benedictines of St. Maur, and 

the Members of the Institute), 1733-1873. 
Lyte = Maxwell Lyte, History of the University of Oxford, 1886. 
Montfaucon = B. Montfaucon, Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum MSS., &c. 
P. C. C. = Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Wills proved in the, now at Somerset 


Q. R. Misc. = Queen's Remembrancer, Miscellaneous Accounts, now in the Public 
Record Office. 

Q. R. Wardrobe = Queen's Remembrancer, Wardrobe Accounts, now in the Public 

Record Office. 
R. 0. = Public Record Office. 

R. S. = Rolls Series, or Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland 
during the Middle Ages, published under the direction of the Master of the 

Tomasin = Bibliotheca Patavinae MSS. , and Bibliothecae Venetae MSS. &c. (see 

Wadding = L. Wadding, Annales Minorum, Romae, 1731, &c. 

Wadding, Script. = L. Wadding, Scriptores Ordinis Minorum, Romae, 1806. 

Wadding, Sup. ad Script. = Supplementum et castigatio ad Scriptores trium 

Ordinum S. Francisci a Waddingo aliisve descriptos . . . opus posthumum Fr. 

Jo. Hyacinthi Sbaraleae, Romae, 1806. 
Wood-Clark ^Survey of the Antiquities of the City of Oxford, by Anthony Wood, 

edited by Andrew Clark, 1 889-1 890. [The MS. from which this edition is 

printed is often referred to in the following pages, namely ' Wood MS. F. 29 a' 

in the Bodleian.] 


PART 1. 

History of the Convent. 

chapter i. 

Early Years. 


Arrival and first settlement of the Franciscan Friars at Oxford . . . i 

Their early poverty and cheerfulness 3 

Oxford Friars as peacemakers and Crusaders 7 

Relations to the University and to the earliest Colleges 8 

Their strict observance of the Rule lo 


Property and Buildings. 

First settlement of the Friars was within the City Wall . . . .12 
They acquire the houses of William, son of Richard de Wileford (1229), and 

Robert, son of Robert Oen . L3 

Increase of the in 1 244-1 245 ........ 14 

Grants from the King, Thomas de Valeynes, and others . . . .15 

The island in the Thames, 1245 ......... 16 

Messuage of Laurence Wych, Mayor of Oxford, 1 246 . . . . '17 

Friars of the Sack settle in Oxford . . 17 

Their property granted to the Minorites by Boniface VIII, Clement V, and 

Edward II, 1310 18 

Grants from various persons, 1310 19 

Inquisitiones ad quod Damnum, concerning properties belonging to Richard 

Cary and John Culvard, 1319 19 

Grants by Walter Morton (1321) and John de Grey de Rotherfield (1337) . 20 

To what classes did the donors belong ? 20 

Buildings of the Grey Friars, absence of information about . . . .21 

Original houses and chapel 21 

School built by Agnellus 21 

The stricter Friars oppose the tendency to build .22 

Building of the new Church of St. Francis 22 

It-s site and appearance . . . . 23 



William of Worcester's description of it 34 

Monuments and tombs in the Church 24 

Grave of Roger Bacon 26 

Cloisters, Chapter-house, Refectory, and other buildings . . . -27 
Conduit and Gates 28 


Franciscan Schools at Oxford. 

Learning necessary to the Friars 29 

The first readers or lectors to the Franciscans at Oxford . . . -3° 
Nature of the office of lector, as understood by Grostete and Adam Marsh . 31 

The lector and his socius 33 

Later lectors were ordinary Regent Masters in Theology . . . -34 

Appointment to the office of lector 34 

Special regulations concerning the lectors 3^ 

System of instruction in theology recommended by Grostete . . . • 3^ 

Lectures by the Friars 37 

Controversy with the University about theological degrees in 1253 . . • 3^ 
Controversy between the University and the Dominicans . . . -39 
Study of Arts (philosophy) before Theology, insisted on by the University . 41 
Roger Bacon on the need for some preliminary training for the Friars . . 42 
Extortion of graces by external influence ; ' wax-doctors ' . . . -42 

Career of a student Minorite 43 

On the numbers of Friars sent to Oxford . . . . . • • -43 

Course of study before ' opposition ' 44 

' Opposition ' and ' Responsion ' 45 

The degree of Bachelor of Divinity 4^ 

Exercises before ' Inception ' 47 

' Vesperies ' and Inception 4^ 

Questions disputed on these occasions in the thirteenth century . . -49 
How far were the statutable requirements as to the period of study really carried 

out ? 49 

Expenses at Inception 5° 

Necessary Regency . . . . . . . • • • 

Conditions on which dispensations were granted 52 

Maintenance of Franciscan students at the University 53 

What proportion took degrees 54 

Relative numbers of the various Religious Orders at Oxford . . . .54 


Books and Libraries. 

Absence of privacy in a Franciscan Friary 55 

Books of individual Friars 50 

The two libraries, and their contents 57 

Grostete's bequest of books . . . • • • • • • -57 



Extant MSS. formerly in the Franciscan Convent 59 

Alleged illegal detention of books by the Friars in 1330 . . . .60 

Richard Fitz-ralph's statements . 60 

Richard of Bury, on the libraries of Mendicant Friars 61 

Dispersion of the books of the Oxford Franciscans 61 

Leland's description of the library in his time 62 

Place of Oxford in the Franciscan Organization. 

Learned Friars as practical workers among the people . . ... 63 

Their Sermons 64 

E)ducational organization throughout the country ...... 64 

Relations of the Franciscan School at Oxford to the other Franciscan Schools 

of Europe 66 

English Franciscans teach in foreign Universities 67 

Oxford as the head convent of a custodia .68 

Provincial Chapters held at Oxford 69 

Rivalry between the Orders : Attacks on the Friars. 

Rivalry between the Friars Preachers and Minors : proselytism . . -71 

Politics and Philosophy . . . 72 

Peckham and the Oxford Friars 73 

Evangelical Poverty 75 

Contrast between theory and practice 78 

Attack on the Friars by Richard Fitz-ralph 79 

Charge of stealing children • • 79 

Wiclif's early relations to the Friars 81 

His attack on them in his later years 82 

Charges of gross immorality made not by Wiclif, but by his followers . . 83 
The University and the Friars ; summary of events in 1382 . . . .84 

Unpopularity of the Friars in the fifteenth century 85 

Foreign Minorites expelled from Oxford . . . . . . .86 

Conspiracies against Henry IV ; part taken by the Oxford Franciscans . -87 
Relations between the Conventual and Observant Franciscans . . -87 


Illustrations of the Friars' Manner of Life and Means 
OF Livelihood: Benefactors. 

On the loss of Franciscan Records 89 

Mendicancy as a means of livelihood 91 

Procurators and limitors .92 

Career of Friar Brian Sandon, legal syndicus of the Oxford Friary in the six- 
{ teenth century 93 



Charges of immorality against the Friars . 94 

Their worldly manner of life before the Dissolution 96 

Poverty of the Convent 97 

Sources of income 97 

Annual grants from the King and others . . . . . . -97 

Frequency of bequests to the Friars . 100 

List of benefactors . 102 

Some other sources of income . . . . . . . . .110 

Classes from which the Friars were drawn iii 

Motives which led men to enter the Order 1 1 1 

The Dissolution. 

Attitude of the Grey Friars towards the Reformation in its intellectual, re- 
ligious, and political aspects 112 

The Royal Divorce . . . 114 

Visitation of Oxford University in 1535 116 

Suppression of the Friaries in 1538 116 

Condition of the Grey Friary 117 

Expulsion of the Friars ; their subsequent history ; Simon Ludford . .119 

Houses and site of the Grey Friars . . » 120 

Dr. London tries to secure the land for the town 121 

Lease and sale of the property 121 

Notes on its subsequent history 123 

Total destruction of the buildings 124 


Biographical and Bibliographical Notices of 
Individual Friars. 

chapter I. 

Custodians and Wardens 125-133 

chapter II. 

Lectors or Regent Masters of the Franciscans 134-175 

chapter III. 

Franciscans who studied in the Convent at Oxford, or had some other 

connexion with the Town or the University 176-294 



Appendices of Original Documents. 

A. Documents relating to the acquisition of land property by the 

Grey Friars. 


1. Grant of a house by William, son of Richard de Wileford . . . 295 

2. Grant of a house by Robert, son of Robert Oen, 1236 .... 296 

3. Royal license to enclose their possessions and throw down part of the old 

City Wall, 1 244 296 

4. Island in the Thames acquired by Henry III, 1245 .... 297 

5. Grant of the same island to the Friars, 1 245 297 

6. Grant of two messuages by Thomas de Valeynes, 1 245 .... 298 

7. Grant of a messuage by Laurence Wych, Mayor of Oxford, 1246 . . 299 

8. License to enclose their new possessions; the City Wall to be repaired, 

1248 299 

9. Royal grants to the Friars of the Sack, 1262, 1265 300 

0. Grants to the Friars Minors from various persons, 1310 .... 301 

1. Property of the Friars of the Sack conferred on the Friars Minors, 1310 301 

2. Re-grant of the same property to them, 1 3 1 9 . ..... 302 

3. Inquiry held at Oxford in 13 19 as to the advisability of allowing John 

Culvard to grant a parcel of ground to the Friars Minors , . 303 

4. Grant of a parcel of ground by John de Grey de Rotherfield . . . 305 

B. Miscellaneous Documents. 

1. Food for the Friars Minors and others, 1244 307 

2. Adam Marsh as royal mmcius, 1247 307 

3. For the same, 1257 308 

4. The Church of the Minorites used as a Sanctuary, 1284-5 . . . 308 

5. Royal grant of 50 marcs, 1289 308 

6. Decree of the General Chapter at Paris, 1292 309 

7. Royal grant of 50 marcs, 1323 309 

8. ' Receptor Denariorum ' of the Grey Friars, 1 341 ..... 310 

9. Goods and chattels of Friar John Welle, S.T.P., 1378 . . . .311 

10. Expulsion of foreign Minorites, 1388 312 

11. William Woodford; confirmation of his privileges by Boniface IX, 1396 312 

12. Appointment of a lecturer to the Convent at Hereford, c. 1400 . . 313 

13. Decree of the General Chapter at Florence, 1467 314 

14. Recovery of debt from a Sheriff, 1488 315 

15. Documents relating to the lease of a garden at the Grey Friars to 

Richard Leke, 15 1 3-1 5 14 316 

16. Extracts from the Will of Richard Leke, 1526 318 

17. An ex-warden called to account, 1529 318 

C. Controversy between the Friars Preachers and Friars 

Minors at Oxford, 1269 320 



D. Supplications and Graceis from the Registers of Congregation. 

John David, 145^, 145! ... 336 

John Sunday, 145! 336 

Richard Ednam, 1462, 1463 336 

Walter Goodfeld, 1506-15 10 337 

John Thornall, 1525 338 

Thomas Kirkham, 1527 . 338 

Index 341 


P. 6, n. ^.for tempora, read temporalem. 

P. 33, There was no house of Grey Friars at Evesham. Simon de Montfort 
was buried by the monks of Evesham [see Rishanger). The Miracula Symonis de 
Montfort, however, bears evident traces of Franciscan influence. 

P. 49, n. 2>,for Church, Quarterly Review, read Church Quarterly Review, 

P. 54, /. 1 1, /iJr because, read heczme. 

P. 56, n. 5 for quos, read quas. 



PART /. 




Arrival of the Franciscans at Oxford. — Their early Poverty, and Cheerfulness. — 
Oxford Friars as Peacemakers, and Crusaders. — Relations to the University, 
and to the first Colleges. — Their strict observance of the Rule. 

The Franciscans first arrived in England in 1224 \ On Tuesday, 
the loth of September in that year (to follow the account of Friar 
Thomas Eccleston, the earliest historian of the Order in this country), 

' Chronicle of Thomas Eccleston, 
• De Adventu Minorum,' Mon. Francisc. 
I, p. 5 : *A.D, MCCXXiv . . . feriatertia 
post festum nativitatis Beatae Virginis.' 
This date has been disputed. Wadding 
(Annales Minorum, I, 303, 362) places 
the arrival in 12 19. The arguments in 
favour of this view are, (1) that St. 
Francis appointed Agnellus minister of 
England in 1 2 19; (2) the statement of 
Matthew Paris sub anno 1243, that the 
friars 'built their first houses in Eng- 
land scarcely twenty-four years ago ' 
(Chron. Majora, IV, 279). But the evi- 
dence in favour of (i) is not conclusive ; 
the letter of St. Francis to Agnellus 
( Wadding, I, 303 ; Collectanea Anglo- 
Minoritica, pp. 5-6) is undated. The 
contention however seems to be sup- 
ported by a passage in Eccleston (Mon. 
Franc. I, 10), identifying the 32nd 
year after the settlement of the friars in 
England with the second year of the 
ministry of Peter of Tewkesbury, who 
accordiag to the received chronology 

became minister in 1250 (more pro- 
bably 1 251). From this one might con- 
jecture that the establishment of the 
English province was officially dated 
from 1 2 19. But the fragment in Mon. 
Franc. II, and another MS. of Eccleston 
in the Phillipps Library at Thirlestaine 
House, No. 31 19, fol. 71-80 (a MS, 
unknown to either of the editors of the 
Monumenta Franciscana), read here (fol. 
73) ' qimito anno ad?ninistrationis Fra- 
tris Fetri^ instead of ' seciindo anno^ 
and this is probably the correct version. 
As to argument (2), Paris probably 
wrote his account (of 1243) a few years 
later than 1243, and dated accordingly ; 
again the passage refers to Dominicans 
as well as Franciscans. The evidence 
in favour of the later date is much 
stronger. Besides Eccleston, the best 
authority, we have the statement of the 
author of the Lanercost Chronicle, him- 
self a Friar Minor : ' Quo et anno (1224) 
post festum natalis Virginis gloriosae 
aj^plicuerunt fratres Minorum in An- 



[Ch. I. 

a company of nine friars, four of them clerks and five laymen, landed 
at Dover, under the leadership of Agnellus of Pisa, the first Provincial 
Minister. After staying two days at Canterbury, four of them pro- 
ceeded to London ; and at the end of the month, two of these, Friar 
Richard of Ingeworth and Friar Richard of Devon, set out for Oxford. 
It is perhaps to this place that the well-known story told by Bartholo- 
mew of Pisa properly belongs ^ As they neared Oxford they were 
stopped by the floods, and finding themselves at nightfall ' in a vast wood 
which lies between Bath and Oxford,' they sought refuge ' for the love 
of God ' at a grange belonging to the monks of Abingdon, ' lest they 
should perish from hunger or the wild beasts in the forest.' The prior, 
judging them to be jesters^, had them turned out ; but a young monk, 
when the rest had gone to bed, put them into a hayloft and brought 
them bread and beer. That night he had a dream. The prior and his 
brethren were summoned before the judgment-seat of Christ ; and 

* there came a certain poor man, humble and despised, in the habit of those 
poor friars, and he cried with a loud voice : " O most impartial Judge, the 
blood of my brethren, which hath been shed this night, crieth unto Thee. 
The guardians of this place have refused them meat and lodging, although 
they have left all for Thy sake, and were now coming here to seek those 
souls which Thou hast redeemed with Thy blood ; they would not, in fact, 
have refused as much to jesters and mummers." .... Then the Judge 
commanded them to be hanged on the elm that stood in that cloister.' 

In the morning the young monk found his companions dead, and 
became an early convert to the order of St, Francis. 

On their arrival at Oxford, the two friars were received with great 
kindness by the Dominicans. 

' They ate in their refectory, and slept in their dormitory, like conventuals 
for eight days 

They then hired a house in the parish of St. Ebbe from Robert le 
Mercer*. Alms sufficient for the purpose were probably already forth- 

gliam' (p. 30). This may be derived 
from Eccleston, but on the next page is 
a statement v/hich is certainly indepen- 
dent of him : 'Eodemanno (1224) vene- 
runt primo fratres Minores in Angliam, 
in fcsto beati Bartholomaei apostoli ' 
(Aug. 24). Cf. 'Annals of Worcester,' 
sub anno 1224 (Ann. Monast. IV, 416). 

* If so, Bartholomew's narrative is in- 
accurate ; according to him the adven- 
ture happened to Agnellus and his four 
companions (among whom was Albert 

of Pisa) on their way from Canterbury 
to Oxford. But Bartholomew is not 
remarkable for accuracy. Liber Confor- 
mitatum, fol. 79 (ed. Milan, 1510). 

^ ' Joculatores et non dei servos.' 
Wood's version of the story differs in 
several points from that of Bartholo- 
mew of Pisa, from whom it is pro- 
fessedly derived. (MS. F 29a, f. 175 a, 
quoted in Dugdale, VI, pt. 3, p. 1524.) 

^ Eccleston, Mon. Franc. I, p. 9. 

* Ibid. p. 1 7. 

Ch. I.] 



coming, as the new Order did not have to wait long for recognition. 
Though they only occupied this house till the following summer \ 
they were there joined by * many honest bachelors and many eminent 
men and it may have been owing to this increase in their numbers 
that they left their first abode in 1225 and hired a house with ground 
attached from Richard the Miller ^ It is significant of the rapid growth 
of opinion in their favour that Richard 

* within a year conferred the land and house on the community of the 
town for the use of the Friars Minors.' 

Enthusiasm and self-sacrifice were the powerful agents which 
ensured success and favour to the early Franciscans, and many are 
the stories of their primitive poverty and its effects ; and if the convent 
at Oxford was not especially distinguished like that at Cambridge by 

* paucilitas pecuniae'^ or like that at York by * zelus paupertatis the 
Oxford Minorites, during the time of Agnellus at least, departed but 
little from the ideal of their founder^, and lived the Hfe of the poor 
among whom they ministered. The pangs of hunger were not un- 
known in the convent ; and on one occasion the friars were in debt 
to the amount of ten marks for food^. Their first houses were mean 
and small — too small for the numbers who flocked to their Order ; 
and the infirmary was 

* so low that the height of the walls did not much exceed the height of a 

When at length they built their church, the brethren worked with 
their own hands, and a bishop and an abbat who had assumed the 
coarse habit of the friars are said to have ' carried water and sand and 
stones for the building of the place 

^ Eccleston, Mon. Franc. I, p. 9. solutionem.' The whole account of the 

^ Ibid. p. 17: 'In qua intraverunt or- circumstances is very curious, but too 

dinem multi probi baccalaurei et multi long to quote here. The date is about 

nobiles.' Cf. ib. p. 61. 1280. 

^ Ibid. Denifle (' Die Universitaten Mon. Franc. I, p. 1 7 : ' Fuit autem 

des Mittelalters,' I, 245) puts the arrival area ipsa brevis et arcta nimis'; p. 34, 

of the Franciscans at Oxford in the year ' Usque ad tempus Fratris Alberti do- 

1225, the hiring of their first house in mus ipsa diversorio careret.' Wiclif 

1226, of their second * at the beginning attributed the great plague in a large 
of the thirties,' on the authority of measure to the friars herding toge- 
Eccleston. ther in cities; Trialogus, IV, cap. 32 

* Mon. Franc. I, p. 27. (p. 370). 

^ See, e.g., Wadding, Ann. Minorum, ^ Mon. Franc. I, 34. 

I, 10, 302, &c. ; Mon. Franc. I, 567 seq., ^ Earth, of Pisa, Liber Conform. 

&c. f. 79 b: cf. Mon. Franc. I, 16, 542. 

^ Lanercost Chron. 130 : * Tenemur The prelates referred to are Ralph Maid- 

credi^oribus in urbe decern marcarum stone and John Reading. 

B 2 



[Ch. I. 

The appearance of the Minorites was no less humble than their 
buildings. Their habits of coarse gray or brown cloth ^, tied round 
the waist with a cord, often worn and patched, as Grostete loved to 
see them, hardly^ distinguished them from 'simple rustics V In the 
convent at Oxford, pillows were forbidden, and the use of shoes was 
permitted only to the infirm or old, and that by special licence ^ We 
hear of two of the brethren returning from a chapter held at Oxford at 
Christmas time singing as they 

' picked their way along the rugged path over the frozen mud and rigid 
snow, whilst the blood lay in the track of their naked feet, without their 
being conscious of it ^' 

Even from the robbers and murderers who infested the woods near 
Oxford the Barefoot Friars were safe®. 

* Three things,' said Friar Albert, Minister General, ' tended to the 
exaltation of the Order, — bare feet, coarse garments, and the rejecting 
of money'^'; and the Oxford Franciscans were as zealous in the last 
respect as in the other two. The Archdeacon of Northampton sent a 
bag of money to Friar Adam Marsh, and when the latter refused it, 
the messenger threw it down in the cell and left it : — 

* Wherefore,' writes Adam to the Archdeacon, ' the bearer of these presents 
has at the instance of the brethren taken the said money, just as it was, 
sealed with your seal, to your lordship, to dispose of according to your 
pleasure ^' 

The evidence of the Public Records, containing scattered notices of 
grants from the Crown, is striking on this point, and the poverty of 
these early Franciscans can hardly be better illustrated than by the 

^ Liberate Roll, 23 Hen. Ill, m. 6 : 
'ccc ulnas panni grisei' for Mino- 
rites ; and m. 3 : * Lij ulnas Russetti ad 
tunicas faciendas ad opus xiij fratrum 
Minorum de Rading', scilicet ulnam de 
precio xi denariorum ad plus.' Four 
ells went to make a habit. The quality 
was not the best, the ordinary price for 
russet — i. e. undyed cloth of black wool 
— was IS. ^d. an ell ; Rogers, ' Hist, of 
Prices,' 11,536-7. At the end of the four- 
teenth century Friar W. Woodford says 
that the friars were better clothed in 
England than elsewhere owing to the 
abundance of wool in this country ; 
Twyne, MS. XXI, 501. 

Mon. Franc. I, 66: cf. ibid. 55. 
3 Or ' idiots,' as Brewer translates 

(Mon. Franc. I, 631) the original ' om- 
nes fatui nativi,' Lanerc. Chron. 30. 
Cf. Mon. Franc. I, 564 (Testament of St. 
Francis) : * We were content to be taken 
as ideotis and foolys of euery man,' 

* Mon. Franc. I, 28; other convents 
were less scrupulous ; see Liberate Roll, 
23 Hen. Ill, m. 6 — an order to buy 
' ccc paria sotularium ' at the Win- 
chester fair for the Friars Minors there. 

^ Lanerc. Chron. 31. 

^ Eccleston, p. 38. 
Ibid. p. 52. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, p. 195 ; the date of 
the letter is probably about 1250. On 
the other hand, Adam seems to have 
accepted 'small coins' (quatrinos) byway 
of alms from a friend ; ibid. p. 229. 

Ch. I.] 



means taken to relieve it. During the long reign of Henry III, the 
Patent, Close, and Liberate Rolls contain only three grants of money 
to the house of the Minorites at Oxford, and all of them are due 
to exceptional circumstances. They are, ten marks for the support 
of a provincial chapter in 1238, 60^. for their houses in 1245 in lieu of 
six oaks which the king had before given them, and three marks 
for the fabric of their church in 1246 ^ The alms to the house at 
Oxford are almost wholly in kind, and consist chiefly of supplies 
of firewood from the royal forests round Oxford. The earliest 
recorded instance of royal bounty was a grant of thirteen oaks in 
' Brehuir (Brill) forest for fuel on the 9th Jan. 1231^ A few years 
later they received fifteen cartloads of brushwood from Shotover 
forest^, and in 1237 fifteen oaks in Wychwood Forest ' to make char- 
coal V Similar notices occur almost every year — sometimes twice 
a year — throughout the reign of Henry IIP. In 1240 the keepers of 
the wines at Southampton were ordered to deliver one cask of Gascon 
wine, of the king's bounty, to the Friars Minors at Oxford 'to 
celebrate masses V In 1248 the Sheriff of Oxford received orders to 

* give to the Friars Minors of Oxford one cask of wine of the six casks 
which he took into the king's hand of the wine of those who lately killed a 
clerk in the town of Oxford \' 

But a fortnight later the king repented of his generosity and assigned 
the same cask to one of his numerous relatives ^ Of more interest, as 
showing that the friars were really classed with the poor of the town, 
is a royal brief of the 12th of Dec. 1244 to the bailiffs of Oxford, bid- 
ding them 

*give of the ferm of their town to Friar Roger, King's Almoner, on 

^ Liberate Rolls, 22 Hen. III,in. 15 ; 
29 Hen. in, m. 5 ; 30 Hen. HI, m. 17. In 

making this statement, I have relied on 
the MS. Calendar of the Patent Rolls 
for Hen. Ill (3 vols, folio, containing 
some 4000 pages), the MS. Cal. of the 
Close Rolls from the 1 2th year of Hen. 
Ill to the end of his reign (10 vols, folio), 
both in the Public Record Office ; the 
Liberate Rolls of the same reign, for 
which no Calendar exists, I have gone 
through; after Hen. Ill these latter 
become less full and interesting. 

2 Close, 15 Hen. Ill, m, 11. 

^ Ibid. 20 Hen, III, m. 11. 

* Ibid. 21 Hen. Ill, m. i. 

^ See Close Rolls for the following 

years of Hen. Ill: 15 (m. 2), 17 (m, 15, 
and 10), 18 (m. 28, and 18), 19 (pt. I, 
m. 8), 20 (m. 6), 22 (m. 16), 26 (m. 4), 
30 (m. 17, and 2), 36 (m. 24), 39 (m. 15), 
40 (m. 8), 41 (m. 10), 42 (m. 6), 43 (m. 
9), 45 (m. 21), 47 (m. 8), 48 (m. 6), 50 
(m. 3), 51 (m. 4), 54 (m. 8), 55 (m. i). 
Liberate Rolls, 17 (m. 6), 22 (m. 9), 23 
(m. 10), 24 (m. 13), 26 (m. 5), 30 (m. 
16), 32 (m. 4), 36 (m. 14). 

® Close, 24Hen.III,m.ii {Custodibus 
vinorum Suhant) and Liberate, 24 Hen. 
Ill, m. 12 {Custodibus vinorum R. 

^ Close, 32 Hen. Ill, m. 9 ; cf. Lyte, 

P- 43- 

« Ibid. m. 8. 



[Ch. I. 

Wednesday the morrow of the feast of St. Lucy the Virgin, ten marks, to 
feed a thousand paupers and the Friars Preachers and Minors of Oxford, 
for the soul of the Lady Empress sister of the King, on the day of her 
anniversary ^* 

With all their poverty and holiness they were singularly free from 
that form of piety which consists in wearing a sad countenance and 
appearing unto men to fast. We hear indeed of strict silence, of 
constant prayer, of vigils that lasted the whole night^. 

'Yet,' continues Eccleston^, *the brethren were so full of fun among 
themselves, that a mute could hardly refrain from laughter at the sight. 
So when the young friars of Oxford laughed too frequently, it was en- 
joined on one that as often as he laughed he should be punished. Now it 
happened that, when he had received no punishments in one day, and yet 
could not restrain himself from laughing, he had a vision one night, that 
the whole convent stood as usual in the choir, and the friars were beginning 
to laugh as usual, and behold the crucifix which stood at the door of the 
choir turned towards them as though alive, and said : " They are the sons 
of Corah who in the hour of chanting laugh and sleep." .... On hearing 
this dream, the friars were frightened and behaved without very noticeable 

Grostete said to "a Friar Preacher, ' Three things are necessary to 
temporal health — to eat, sleep, and be merry Excessive austerity 
was discountenanced by the authorities of the Oxford convent. Friar 
Albert of Pisa, who was himself ' always cheerful and merry in the 
society of the brethren^' compelled Friar Eustace de Merc, con- 
trary to custom, to eat fish, saying that the Order lost many good 
persons through their indiscretion'^. Grostete again 

* commanded a melancholy friar to drink a cup full of the best wine as a 
penance, and when he had drunk it up, though most unwillingly, he said to 
hkn, " Dear brother, if you often performed a penance like that, you 
would have a better ordered conscience ' 

The friars lovingly treasured up the great bishop's puns and jokes and 

1 Liberate, 29 Hen. Ill, m. 14. Isa- 
bella, sister of Henry III, married Frede- 
rick II in 1235, and died Dec. i, 1241. 

2 Mon. Franc. I, p. 19. 
^ Ibid. p. 20. 

* Earth, of Pisa has changed this 
story from a dream into a reality and 
added miraculous incidents : * Crux lig- 
nea . . . fragore stupendo se vertit ad 
fratres ; . . . et plures eorum mortui 
sunt in brevi.' Liber Conform, f. 80. 

^ 'Tria sunt necessaria ad salutem 
tempora, cibus, somnus et jocus.' Mon. 
Franc. I, 64. 

« Ibid. p. 56. 

^ Ibid. p. 58; he added, that, 'when 
he was with St. Francis, the saint com- 
pelled him to double every day what 
he had been accustomed to eat.' Cf. 
Mrs. Oliphant's 'Francis of Assisi,' 
p. 85. 

^ Mon. Franc. I. 64-5. 

Ch. I.] 



wise sayings ^ and were always ready to tell or appreciate a good 
story. From first to last they had the reputation of being excellent 
company 2, and were welcome at the tables of the rich or well-to-do ^ 
They were allowed by the rule to 

* eat of all manner of meats which be set before them 

a practice which occasionally caused some scandaP; and Friar 
Albert of Pisa ordered them to keep silence in the house of hosts, except 
among the preachers and friars of other provinces °. Like St. Francis 
himself, the Oxford friars often possessed the courtesy and charm of 
manner which is born of sympathy"^ ; and it was perhaps to this 
quality that their employment as diplomatic agents is to be attributed. 
Thus Agnellus was chosen in 1233 to negotiate with the rebellious 
Earl Marshall and try to bring him back to his allegiance ^ Adam 
Marsh was on more than one occasion sent beyond the sea as royal 
emissary^, and Edward I sent Oxford Minorites to treat for peace 
with his enemies But to the mediaeval mind, there was a cause 
more sacred than that of peace or good government ; and the Fran- 
ciscans would not have had their great influence — would not have 
become leaders of men throughout the world — had they not shared the 
one ideal, which still even in the thirteenth century appealed to every 
class in every country of Europe. The Crusades attracted the 
scholastic philosopher no less than the baron with his sins to expiate, 
or the serf with his liberty to win. It was partly to increase his 
influence as a missionary^* that Adam of Oxford, one of the first 

* masters' who joined the Order*-, took the vows of St. Francis; 

^ Mon. Franc, pp. 64-66. 
Bishop Gardiner's description of 
a Cambridge Augustinian, quoted by 
Dixon, 'Church of England,' II, p.253,n.: 
he ' was of a merry scoffing wit, friar^ 
like ; and as a good fellow in company 
was beloved of many.' 

^ In 1 398, e. g. ' On Sunday came 
two Friars Minors to dine with the 
fellows (of New College), also the 
farmer of Heyford.' Boase, Oxford, 
p. 78. 

* Mon. Franc. 11, 68. St. Francis 
used to sprinkle sumptuous fare with 
ashes ; Oliphant, p. 86. 

^ See story of the warden who on the 
day that he preached to the people 
cracked jokes with a monk after dinner 
in tKe presence of a secular ; Mon. 

Franc. I, 53. 'Oxonice' in the same 
paragraph should be * Exoniae ' : Serlo 
was Dean of Exeter, 1225-1231, Le 
Neve, Fasti. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, p. 55. 

' Cf ibid. p. 6, W. of Esseby ; and p. 
23, Haymo of Faversham; 'fuit enim 
ita gratiosus et eloquens, ut etiam ad- 
versantibus Ordini gratus et acceptus 

* Ibid. 52 ; M. Paris, Chron. Majora, 
IV, p. 257. Cf. ibid. p. 251 ; Annals 
of Tewkesbury (Ann. Monast. I, 92). 

^ Liberate Rolls, 31 Hen. HI, m. 4, 
42 Hen. Ill, m. 3. 

See Part II, W. of Gainsborough, 
H. of Hertepol. 

^1 Grosseteste, Epistolae, p. 21. 

^- Mon. Franc, I, p. 15. 



[Ch. r. 

against the wishes of his brethren in England, who hoped to keep 
among them so famous and learned a convert, and who indeed feared 
lest he should come under heretical influences \ he went to Gregory 
IX, and at his own prayer was sent by the Pope to preach to the 
Saracens ^ When Prince Edward went to the Holy Land in 1270, 
he took with him as preacher Friar William de Hedley, the lecturer 
and regent master of the Friars Minors at Oxford ^ Hedley died 
before the army reached Acre; but these learned friars did not 
flinch when summoned to meet a sterner fate. In 1289 Tripoli 
was captured by the Saracens : an English friar led the last charge of 
the despairing Christians, carrying aloft the cross till his arms were 
hewn off ; 

*the above-mentioned friar,' continues the chronicler, *who by his 
example provoked very many to martyrdom, had been no small space of 
time warden of the Oxford Convent 

The friars of both Orders soon took a leading part in the affairs of 
the University. As Bishop of Lincoln °, Grostete continued to exercise 
a kind of paternal authority over the University^, and his high 
character and long connexion with Oxford gave him an influence 
which was denied to his successors. It was natural that this influence 
should be reflected on the Franciscans, whom he had taken under his 
especial care and among whom was his ' true friend and faithful coun- 
sellor"^' Adam Marsh. The latter was specially summoned to the 
congregation to hear and advise on the answer sent by Grostete 
to some petitions of the University ^, and we find him interceding 
with the Bishop on behalf of the Chancellor, Radulph of Sempring- 
ham^ One of the most important stages in the constitutional 
development of the University is marked by the charter of Henry III 
in 1244, which constituted a special tribunal for the scholars, and 
formed the basis of the Chancellor's jurisdiction. On the nth of 
May of the same year, a deed of acknowledgment was executed at 
Reading and signed and sealed on behalf of the University by the 
Prior of the Friars Preachers, the Minister of the Friars Minors, 

^ Grosseteste, Ep. p. 21, ' nec moveat that in the early thirteenth century the 

aliquem,' &c. : a striking illustration of Chancellor of the University was in 

the fascination of Eastern heresies at the fact as in legal theory the delegate of 

time. the bishop of the diocese. 

^ Ibid, and Mon. Franc, p. 16. ^ Lyte, p. 38. 

^ Lanerc. Chron. p. 81. ' Grosseteste, Ep. Letter XX. 

* Ibid. p. 128. His name is not given. * Mon. Franc. I, p. 99. 

^ It will of course be remembered ^ Ibid. p. loo-ioi. 

Ch. I.] 



the Chancellor of the University, the Archdeacons of Lincoln and 
Cornwall, and Friar Robert Bacon \ Edward I in 1275^ appointed 
'Friars John de Pecham and Oliver de Encourt' royal commissioners 
to decide a suit between Master Robert de FlemengvilP and a Jewess 
named Countess, the wife of Isaac Pulet, which had long been pending 
in the Chancellor's court; this however was not to be treated as 
a precedent to the prejudice of the Chancellor's jurisdiction. 

It is probable that the example afforded by the houses of student 
friars was not lost on the founders of the early colleges. We know 
that Walter de Merton was a friend of Adam Marshy and a bene- 
factor of the friars, but it would be dangerous to attempt to trace any 
direct Franciscan influence in the statutes of his college "\ There 
is however no doubt about the connexion of the Franciscans with the 
foundation of Balliol College. Sir John de Balliol died in 1269 
without having established his house for poor scholars on a permanent 
footing. His widow Devorguila first gave them a definite organisation 
in 1282. According to an old tradition ^ she was induced to take 
this step by her Franciscan confessor. Friar Richard de Slikeburne. 
It is clear that the latter was her most trusted and energetic agent 
in carrying out the plan. Devorguila urges him by all means in his 
power to promote the perpetuation of * our house of BallioF,' and the 
executors of Sir John de Balliol assigned certain moneys to the 
scholars of the house 

* with the consent of Devorguila and at the advice of Friar Richard de 
Slikeburne ^' 

Nor was the connexion merely a transitory one. The statutes of 

^ Pat. 28 Hen. Ill, m. 7 in dor so. 
Mr. M, Lyte (p. 42, note 3) makes the 
date of the king's writ May 10, 1246, of 
the deed of acknowledgment. May 11,28 
Hen. Ill (i.e. 1244) ; and adds to the 
confusion about the Bacons by reading 
John instead of Robert. 

^ Close, 3 Edward I, m. 18 in dorso, 
writ to the Chancellor. Oliver was 
Prior of the Dominicans about this time, 
Wood-Clark, II, 337. 

2 fflemeguiit. 

* Mon. Franc. I, 405. 

^ The Wardens of the college and 
of the convent were liable to be deposed 
on the petition of the members of their 
respective houses, and the system of 

* exhibitions ' for scholars must have 
resembled that in vogue among the 
friars at the University. But the year of 
probation, the observance of silence, the 
'scrutinies' or chapters, were common to 
all monastic institutions. 

6 Twyne,MS. XXII, 103c; Cap.32of 
Woodford's Dcfensoriu?n : * It is mani- 
fest that one friar minor confessor to a 
venerable Lady moved her to make that 
Hall at Oxford which is called the Hall 
of Balliol.' 

^ Letter of Devorguila to Friar R. de 
Slikeburne, dated 1284, in College Ar- 
chives : Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. IV, p. 442. 

^ Ibid. pp. 442, 444, four deeds from 
1285 to 1287. 



[Ch. L 

1282^ are addressed to Friar Hugh de Hertilpoll and Master William 
de Menyl, who are evidently the two ' proctors ' mentioned in the 
document. To the proctors (who did not belong to the house but 
were in the position of permanent visitors) was entrusted the insti- 
tution of the principal after his election by the scholars, together 
with a general supervision over the economy of the college. They 
alone could expel a refractory scholar, and they were constituted 
the special guardians of the poorer students^. Nothing remains to 
show how long the first proctors held their office, or how their 
successors were appointed. It is probable however that the office 
was intended to be a perpetual one not a temporary expedient to be 
called into existence from time to time, — and further that one of the 
proctors was always a Franciscan. Two other documents bearing on 
the subject are known to exist. In 1325 a doubt had arisen whether 
the members of the college might study any science except the 
Hberal arts ; it was declared to be unlawful to do so and contrary 
to the mind of the founder, and was consequently forbidden 

* by Masters Robert of Leicester, of the Order of Friars Minors, S.T.P., 
and Nicholas de Tyngewick, M.D. and S.T.B., then Magistri Extranet of 
the said House 

The second document^ is a letter dated 1433 addressed to the Bishop 
of London by 

' Richard Roderham, S.T.P., and John Feckyngtone of the order of 
Minorites in Oxford, Rectors of Balliol College.' 

The Rectors having, ' according to the exigency of the office which we 
discharge upon the rule of the said college and the observance of the 
statutes thereof,' inquired into the working of the first statute, decided, 
with the consent of the majority of the house, that it was prejudicial to 
the college, and asked the Bishop to consent to the modification of it^ 
It will be readily admitted that in the thirteenth century the Oxford 
Franciscans deserved their high reputation. It is true, that frequent 

^ Preserved in the College Archives : 
printed in Savage's Balliofergus,-^. 1 5 seq. 

^ The care taken of the poorer stu- 
dents, of their feelings no less than of 
their purses, is particularly interesting 
in connexion with the Franciscans. 

^ Cf. the Statutes of 1282, which are 
to be observed ' in the time of all proc- 
tors whatsoever ; ' the Statates of Sir 
Philip Somerville (1340) mention * duo 

Magistri extrinsecV (Statutes of the 
Oxford Colleges, Vol. I, Balliol, p. x). 

* History MSS. Com. ut supra. 

^ Ibid, (abstract). 

^ The clause to which objection was 
made was, that if the Master obtained a 
benefice of the annual value of ^10, 
' ipso facto noverit {ab officio^ se amoium^ 
Statutes of the Oxford Colleges, Vol. I, 
Balliol, p. XX. 

Ch. I.] 



complaints arc heard of the decline of the Order ^ — that many relaxa- 
tions had been introduced into the Rule. But these were not de- 
manded by the English province. When Haymo was General, orders 
were issued by the Chapter that friars should be elected in each 
province to note any points in the Rule which seemed to require 
revision, and send them to the Minister General. Eccleston ^ gives 
the names of three friars elected for this purpose in England — Adam 
Marsh, the foremost of the Oxford friars ; Peter of Tewkesbury, 
Custodian of Oxford ; and Henry de Burford. 

* Having marked some articles, the said friars sent them to the General, in 
a schedule without a seal, beseeching him, by the sprinkling of the blood of 
Jesus Christ, to let the Rule stand, as it was handed down by St. Francis, 
at the dictation of the Holy Spirit V 

^ E.g. in 1257, Bonavcntura investi- 
gates the causes ' cur splendor nostri 
Ordinis qiiodammodo obscuratiir! 
Wadding, IV, 58 ; cf. M. Paris, Chron. 
Majora, IV, 279-8; Mon. Franc. I, 361- 
3, 40S, &c. 

Mon. Franc. I, 48. 

^ Ibid. 48. Friar Albert of Pisa, who, 
as Minister of seven provinces and 

General of the Order, had no lack 
of experience, * died commending the 
English above all nations in zeal for 
their Order' (ibid.). Cf. ibid. p. 68, 
John of Parma, General, fre(iuently ex- 
claimed when in England : * Would 
that such a province had been set in the 
midst of the world to be for an example 
to all the churches ! ' 



First Settlement inside the City Wall. — Acquisition of the houses of W. de Wile- 
ford (1229) and Robert Oen (1236). — Increase of the area in 1 244-1 245. — 
Grants from the King, Thomas Valeynes, and others. — Island in the Thames, 
1245. — Messuage of Laurence Wych, 1247. — Friars of the Penitence of Jesus 
Christ. — Their property in Oxford granted to the Minorites by Clement V, 
and by Edward II, 1310. — Grants from various persons, 13 10. — Richard 
Gary and John Culvard, 1319. — Walter Morton, 132 1. — To what classes did 
the donors belong ? 

Absence of information about the buildings at the Grey Friars. — Original houses 
and chapel. — School built by Agnellus. — The stricter friars oppose the tendency 
to build, without success. — Building of the new church, 1246, &c. — Its site and 
appearance. — William of Worcester's description of it. — Richard Plantagenet, 
Earl of Cornwall, buried there, 1272, — Other tombs in the church, especially 
that of Agnellus. — Grave of Roger Bacon. — Cloisters, Chapter House, Re- 
fectory, and other conventual buildings. — Conduit and Gates. 

For about a hundred years from the date of their settlement in 
Oxford, the Friars Minors were gradually acquiring property. We 
have seen that after a short sojourn in the house of Robert le Mercer, 
the house of Richard le Muliner became their first permanent abode. 
The position of the former cannot be at all definitely ascertained ; it 
was in the parish of St. Ebbe's probably near the church and within 
the city walls ^ Wood places it between the church and the Water- 
gate. But he is certainly wrong in the position he ascribes to the 
second house, namely, 

' without the towne wall, and about a stone's cast from their first hired 
house V , 

^ Eccleston, p. 9. 

^ An entry in 'Placita Corone 25 
Hen. Ill, Oxon. M. f } 2, m. i b,' may 
lead to the identification of the site ; it 
is an agreement between Robert, Master 
of the Hospital of St. John, outside the 
East Gate, and Roger Noyf, 'de escam- 
bio unius messuagii cum pertinenciis 
in Oxonia . . . videlicet quod idem 

Rogerus dedit et concessit predict© 
magistro in escambium predicti messua- 
gii magnam domum ipsius Rogeri lapi- 
deam, que est ante ecclesiam See Abbe 
cum pertinenciis. Et quod situm est 
inter terram Roberti le Mercer et ter- 
ram quam tenet de Abbate de Aben- 

^ Wood-Clark, II, 358. 



The house of Richard the Miller was undoubtedly between the wall 
and Freren Street (Church Street). In 1244 Henry III allowed the 
friars to throw down the wall of the town in order to * connect their 
new place with the old one ^' Even apart from the fact that the 
Mercer s house did not at this time belong to them, it is obvious that 
the houses which they acquired in 1224 and 1225 would not in 1244 
be distinguished as the ' old place ' and the ' new place ' respectively. 
The ' new place ' refers to lands which came into their possession 
about the time of this grant, and of which Wood knew nothing, while 
the Miller's house formed part of the ' old place.' 

In fact, several years elapsed before the friars obtained property 
outside the city wall, their first efforts being directed to secure the land 
between the wall and Freren Street. It was not long before their 
cramped area was enlarged. In the Mayoralty of John Pady ^ the 
citizens of Oxford subscribed ^ forty-three marks sterling to buy from 
William, son of Richard de Wileford, his house in St. Ebbe's, with all 
its appurtenances, ' to house the Friars Minors for ever,' the said good 
men of Oxford giving to William one pound of cummin annually in 
lieu of all service *. The next grant of which we find mention seems 
also to have been an act of municipal, rather than of private, charity. 
In 1236^ Robert, son of Robert Oen, had given them a house 
adjoining their land, on condition that he, 

* having been a free tenant of the prior and brethren of St. John of 
Jerusalem in England in the aforesaid place,' 

should have the same privilege attaching to his new house in the 
parish of St. Michael at the North Gate. This house of Robert 
Oen's in St. Ebbe's was one of the ' mural mansions,' on the occu- 
piers of which the duty of repairing the city wall fell*'. The obli- 
gation, however, was now, when the house came into the hands of the 
friars, willingly undertaken with the King's assent by the Mayor and 
good men of Oxford. 

Under the ministry of Agnellus any tendency to accumulate pro- 
perty was rigorously suppressed"^, nor does his successor Albert 

1 Pat. 29 Hen. Ill, m. 9 ; cf. Pat. 33 ^ Close Roll, 20 Henry IH, m. 9 : 

Hen. Ill, m. 10 ; both printed in Mon. printed in Appx. A. 2. 

Franc. I, 616-7, and in Appx. A. ^ Parker, 'Early History of Oxford,' p. 

^ Mayor in 1227, 1228, 1229, Wood- 342 : extracts from Domesday Book. 

Peshall, * City of Oxford,' p. 355. ' Eccleston, Mon. Franc. I, p. 34: 

^ * Ex elemosyna collecta.' * Tantus erat zelator paupertatis, nt vix 

* The original of this grant is in the permitteret vel ampliari areas vel domos 

Oxford^ City Archives, marked ' 1 7.' See aedificari, nisi secundum quod exegit in- 

Appx. A. I. evitabilis necessitas.' 



appear to have been more lenient ^. But under Haymo of Faversham 
(1238-9) and William of Nottingham (1239-51) a different spirit be- 
gan to prevail, and one far less in accordance with the original idea of 
the Order. Haymo 

* preferred that the friars should have ample areas and should cultivate 
them, that they might have the fruits of the earth at home, rather than 
beg them from others V 

And under William of Nottingham the Oxford house gained a large 
increase of territory^ 

It was in 1245 that this took place, and a remarkably full series of 
records relating to the event is still extant. By a deed dated 22nd 
December, 1244 the King gave the Friars Minors permission, 

'for the greater quiet and security of their habitation, to inclose the 
street which extends under the wall of Oxford, from the gate which is 
called Watergate ^ in the parish of St. Ebbe, up to the postern in the same 
wall towards the Castle ; so that a crenellated wall like the rest of the wall 
of the same town be made round the foresaid dwelling, beginning from the 
west side of Watergate, and reaching southwards as far as the bank of the 
Thames, and extending along the bank westwards as far as the fee of the 
Abbat of Bee in the parish of St. Bodhoc, and then turning again north- 
M'ards till it joins the old wall of the foresaid borough on the east side of 
the small postern ; ' 

and they were further allowed to throw down the old wall which 
stretched across their habitation. But in 1248*^ this grant, as far 
as it related to the wall, was cancelled; the old wall was to be 
repaired, and the proposed new wall was not mentioned. 

There can be little doubt that in December, 1244, the friars did 
not possess the land which they were then allowed to enclose ; it is 
indeed very doubtful whether they had any property south of the wall. 
Possibly they may have acquired already the place which they held in 

'of the gift of Agnes widow of G uy do which the said Agnes had by 

1 Mon. Franc. I, p. 55. 
8 Ibid. pp. 34-5. 

^ ' Sufficienter ampliatus,' Eccleston, 
p. 35 : cf. Wykes, Ann. Monast. IV, 93 
(1245): 'The Friars Minors at Oxford, 
hitherto confined to narrow limits, began 
to widen their boundaries and build new 

* Pat. 29 lien. Ill, m. 9 ; Appx. A. 3. 

' i. c. Liltlegate, not South Gate (as 
lioase, p. 68), which was in St. Aldate's 

^ Pat. 32 Hen. Ill, m. 10; Appx. A. 
8 ; Mon. Franc. I, p. 617. It was this 
grant of 1248 that remained in force : see 
confirmation of it in Pat. 18 Edw. Ill, 
m. 19. 

It is uncertain who this Guydo 
was: a 'Guido filius Roberti' was 
Sliei iff of Oxfordshire in 1249: Liberate, 
33 lien. Ill, m. 9; and two sons of 
Guydo had a lawsuit in 13 Ed. I: 
Placita Coronc, Oxon. M. \ | i, m. 5 d, 


descent from her predecessors, and they pay thence to Walter Goldsmith 
one pound of cummin \' 

The value was then unknown, nor is the position specified ^. It was, 
however, no doubt situated in the suburb of St. Ebbe's parish. Two 
other plots of ground are mentioned in the same document as be- 
longing to the Friars : of one of these (that granted by Thomas 
Walonges) we have accurate information, and shall mention it in 
its due place. Of the other nothing further is known than that 
they held it by grant from Master Richard de Mepham. But the 
grant was probably of later date than 1244. Richard was Arch- 
deacon of Oxford in 1263, became Dean of Lincoln in 1273, and 
probably died in 1274 at the council of Lyons ^ 

But the royal grant in the Patent Roll of 29 Henry III is ex- 
plained by the fact that the Franciscans, or rather their benefactors, 
were already negotiating for the transfer of a large part of the pro- 
perty there described, if not of the whole of it. 

In February, 1245, Thomas Valeynes, or Valoignes (or Walonges 
as he is called in the Inquisition of 6 & 7 Edward I), carried 
into effect a plan for the benefit of the Friars Minors which it 
must have taken long to bring to a successful conclusion It 
consisted in begging or buying out a number of holders of pro- 
perty in the south-west ' suburb of Oxford,' and granting in one 
case at least tenements in another part of the town as compensa- 
tion. Thus, in exchange for two messuages with their appurtenances 
on the south-west of the town, Symon son of Benedict and Leticia 

1 Brian Tywne, MS. XXII, 131 : ' Ex 
Rotulo general, Inquis. com. et villae 
Oxon. per hundred capta hP 6° et 7° 
Ed' r per sacramentum inhabitantium.' 
Wood (MS. F 29 a, f. 176 a) copies this 
from B. Twyne : Peshall and Stevens, 
copying carelessly from Wood, speak of 
it as an ' Inquisition taken in the year 

2 Wood (MS. F 29 a, f. 176) after quo- 
ting this Inquisition, goes on : ' besides 
w<''i they had another large piece of 
ground of y^ said Agnes since knowne 
(as now tis) as part of paradise garden;' 
and he adds in the margin : ' another 
piece of land they had w'='^ was Tho. 
FuUonis or Alice Foliot ut in Carta 66 
ex lib. S. frid. v. AV. p. 19,' i. e. Wood 
MS. G 2, p. 19 in Bodleian — a charter 

from Stephen to St. Frideswide's, con- 
firming the property of the Priory in 
and outside Oxford : among the tenants 
is Tho. Fullo, who pays 5^-. for land in 
St. Ebbe's ; the charter is No. 66 in the 
Corpus Copy of St. Frideswide's Chartu- 
lary, and dates in its present form from 
c. 33 Hen. III. (I am indebted to Rev. 
S. R. Wigram for this reference.) This 
tenement of Tho. Fullo was very likely 
near St. Budhoc's, where William and 
Rad. Fullo had land. See B. Twyne, 
MS. Ill, 8-9, Charter of R. de Hoke- 
norton, in 'libro Osneyensi;' and XXII, 

^ Le Neve, Fasti. 

* Feet of Fines, Oxon., -29 Hen. Ill, 
m. 40-44, and 46. For first grant see 
Appx. A. 6. 


his wife, received one messuage outside the North Gate, together 
with a building then held by Hugh Marshall, 

* which same messuage and building were formerly held by Benedictus le 
INIercer father of the foresaid Symon.' 

One messuage with appurtenances was acquired from John Costard 
and INIargery his wife, two from Warin of Dorchester and Juliana his 
wife, one from William ' le Barbeur ' and Alice his wife, one from 
Henry ' le Teler ' and Alice his wife, and a little later ^ one curtilage 
Mn the suburb of Oxford in the parish of St. Budoc,' from John 
Aylmer and Christiana his wife. All these eight tenements Thomas de 
Valeynes, ' at the petition ' of the former owners, assigned 

' to the increase of the area in which the Friars Minors dwelling at Oxford 
are lodged in pure and perpetual alms free and quit of all secular service 
and exaction for ever ; ' 

and we may reasonably conclude that they filled the space from the 
City Wall on the north to Trill Mill Stream on the south, and from 
Littlegate Street on the east to a Hne drawn from the ' fee of the Abbat 
of Bee in the parish of St. Bodhoc's ' to the West Gate on the west ^ 
Shortly after this, namely, on the 22nd of April, 1245^, Henry 
III gave the Friars, to enlarge their new area, 

'our island in the Thames, which we have bought from Henry son of 
Henry Simeon,' 

with permission to make a bridge over the arm of the river dividing 
it from their houses, and to enclose it with a wall, or in any other 
way which would insure * the security of their houses and the tran- 

^ Feet of Fines, Oxon., 29 Hen. Ill, 
m. 46, 'a die S. Johannis Baptiste In 
tres septimanas.' 

^ This fee of the Abbat of Bee be- 
longed to Steventon Priory, Berks, a 
cell of the Abbey of Bee in Normandy. 
Dugdale, Vol. VI, p. 1044. 

2 Pat. 29 Hen. Ill, m. 6 (Appx. A. 5). 
Whether the island lay to the south or 
west of the Friary is not certain. Wood 
says : ' This piece of ground I suppose 
was part of (or at least near adjoyning 
to) paradise garden though wee now 
see it all one intire piece ; for in ancient 
time it was divided in severall Islands, 
as may be scene by the arches under a 
ruinous stone wall to this day remaining 
in the same garden.' MS. Y 29 a, f. 
I 76 (Wood Clark, TI, 396). Cf. Clark's 
edition of Wood's 'City of Oxford,' Vol.1, 

p. 578, note 37. 'Paradise Garden for- 
merly belonging to the Grey Fryers. 
There was a rivulet running sometimes 
through and made it two. The arch is in 
the wall to this day that parts Paradise 
and the Grey Friers. It came from the 
east part of Paradice and soe I'an downe 
as far as the brewhouse which brewhous 
was formerly part of Paradise.' Else- 
where he says : ' Which isle was situated 
on the south side of their habitation (the 
rivulet called Trill Mill running between) 
and on the west side of the habitation of 
the Black Fryers ; and is now belonging 
to Sir William Morton, Kt' &c. ; ibid, 
Vol. II, p. 361 ; cf. p. 396, n. 2, where 
he identifies this piece of land (i. e. the 
ground between the present New St., Nor- 
folk St., and Friars St.) with the friars' 
grove as distinguished from the island. 

Ch. II.] 



quillity of their religion/ On the same day^ the King ordered the 
Barons of the Exchequer to deduct from the fine of sixty marks, 

* imposed on Henry son of Henry Simeonis because he was implicated in ^ 
the murder of a scholar of Oxford, twenty-five marcs, for twenty-five 
marcs which we owed to Henry Simeonis his father for an island in the 
Thames at Oxford which we have bought from him, and which said marcs 
he begged should be reckoned to his son in the aforesaid fine.' 

The next grant is dated the 27 th of November, 1246^ The 
King announces that he has handed over to the friars, for the en- 
largement of their premises, the whole messuage, with its appurten- 
ances, which Laurence Wych (or Wyth), Mayor of Oxford, com- 
mitted to him for that purpose, desiring them to enclose the same as 
they shall see fit \ 

* and the Sheriff of Oxfordshire was commanded to receive the messuage 
in place of the King for the use of the said friars.' 

It is quite uncertain where this land lay, and whether Wych granted 
it in his public or private capacity. 

For the next fifty years, excepting the undated grants of Richard 
Mepham and Agnes widow of Guydo, which probably belong to 
this period, there is no record of a gift of land to the Minorites. 
On the east they had already reached the permanent limit of their 
property*, and the Friars of the Penitence of Jesus Christ settled 
about the year 1260 on the ground lying to the west. This 
formed the parish of St. Budoc. In 1262 ^ the King allowed these 
friars to build an oratory here; in 1265® he granted them, as 
patron, the church of St. Budoc (which adjoined their premises, and 
which, owing to the removal or death of the parishioners, was too 
impoverished to support one chaplain), * to make thence a chapel for 
themselves.' With the church they acquired 

* the cemetery and the houses standing in the same and belonging to the 
said church,' 

^ Liberate Roll, 29 Hen. Ill, m. 9 
(Appx. A. 4). 

^ Or ' present at ' — interfuit. 

^ Pat. 3iHen. III,m. 8(see Appx. A. 7). 

* Ingrain in his Memorials of Oxford, 
published 1837 (Vol. Ill, under St. 
Ebbe's), says, speaking of Pat. 29 Hen. 
Ill, m. 9 : 'A great part of the wall built 
according to this agreement is still in 
existence, or at least an old wall on the 

same site.' Some of it, on the west side 
of Littlegate Street, south of Charles 
Street, is still to be seen. Cf. Wood, 
MS. 29 a, fol. 179 : 'On the east side 
of it (i.e. Minorites' property) . . . was 
the way leading from Watergate to 
Preachers Bridge.' 

5 Pat. 46 Hen. ITT, m. 11 (May 7). 

6 Pat. 49 Hen. Ill, m. 24 (Feb. 5). 
' Ibid. (^Feb. 8), Appx. A. 9. 




[Ch. II. 

with the proviso that the cemetery should always be treated as conse- 
crated ^ ground. The value of the church was 2 0j-. a year ^. 

At the Council of Lyons in 1274 the Friars of the Penitence of 
Jesus Christ, or ' Friars of the Sack/ were forbidden to admit new 
members^, and the Order came to an end when the old members 
died out. The Minorites and their friends therefore applied them- 
selves to secure the property. As early as 1296 Boniface VIII 
wrote to the Bishop of Lincoln, ordering him* to allow the Friars 
Minors to take possession of the house or area of the Friars of the 
Sack, whenever the five remaining brethren should die or transfer 
themselves to other religious Orders. At the court of Clement V, 
the first of the Avignon popes, the claims of the Minorites were 
urged by John of Britanny, Earl of Richmond ; and Clement issued 
a Bull in their favour, dated the 27th of May, 1309 (vi Kal. 
Jun. Ap iv) ^ 

* In a petition exhibited to us on your part,' runs the document, * it is 
contained that owing to the narrowness of your place at Oxford, you and 
other friars, there flocking together to the University from divers parts of 
the world in great multitude, do endure manifold wants and various in- 
conveniences. Since therefore the place of the Friars of the Penitence of 
Jesus Christ of the same place of Oxford adjoining your place, is shortly, 
as is believed, to be relinquished by the said Friars, to remain at the 
disposal of the Apostolic Seat, according to the tenor of the Constitution 
published by Pope Gregory X, our predecessor, in the Council of Lyons, it 
is humbly prayed us, that we deign to concede to you that place for the 
enlargement of your place aforesaid.' 

This prayer the Pope goes on to grant ' of his special favour,' men- 
tioning the earnest supplications of John of Britanny ^ on behalf of 
the friars. 

The King, however, also had a claim to dispose of lands which 
his grandfather had granted, and which, in default of heirs or suc- 
cessors, legally escheated to the Crown. By Letters Patent dated 
the 28th of March, 1310^ Edward II assigned to the Friars 
Minors the property which Henry III had previously given to the 

^ B. Twyne (MS. Ill, 13) seems to 
have been led astray by the word * bene- 
dictum' into thinking there was a Bene- 
dictine church here. 

* Placila Coronae, Oxon. 13 Edw. I, 
M. 1} 3, m. 55. 

^ Chronicles of Edw. I & II, Vol. I, 
P. 83 (R. S.). 

* Wadding, V, p. 575, No. xxii Ex 
parte dilectoruni. The date is vi Kal. 
Sept. An. 2. 

° Wadding, Ann. Min. Vol. VI, p. 

^ Wadding calls him * Earl of Ki- 

Pat. 3 Edw. II, m. 9 (Appx. A. 11). 



Penitentiary Friars, with the same stipulation as to the cemetery. 
The land is accurately described ; it was contiguous to the place of 
the Friars Minors, in the suburb of Oxford, twenty and a half 
perches long from north to south, six perches wide at the south 
end, two and a half at the north, and four perches seven feet in 
the middle. 

Letters Patent of the same day ^ confirmed the grant of four other 
parcels of ground to the Friars Minors: some of these may have 
been previously held by the Friars of the Sack. The * plot of ground 
in Oxford,' five perches two feet from east to west, two perches and 
a half from north to south, conferred on the Minorites by John 
Wyz'and Emma -his wife, may have been within the walls, near the 
West Gate; the others were in the suburb. Henry Tyeys gave 
land measuring six perches by five, and lying between the site of St. 
Budoc's Church and the Thames (Trill Mill Stream) ; Richard le 
Lodere's land, measuring fourteen and a half perches five feet, by 
four perches and three feet, and stretching from the Thames to the 
above-mentioned place of Henry Tyeys, was included in the grant, 
as was a larger plot ^, measuring sixteen and a half perches from the 
Thames to the ' royal way,' and ten perches in breadth ; which seems 
to have included the south part of Paradise Gardens ^. 

All these places are described as adjoining the property of the 
Warden and Friars Minors of Oxford. 

It was probably at the instance of the Crown and as a protest 
against the papal claims that the Minorites a few years later formally 
surrendered to the King the area which had belonged to the Peniten- 
tiaries, ' in its entirety as it came into their hands,' and received it 
back of the King's special favour in pure and perpetual alms *. 

One fragment of the Penitentiary Friars' property came into the 
hands of the Franciscans somewhat later. In October, 13 19, an 
Inquisitio ad quod Damnum ^ was held in Oxford to decide whether 
Richard Gary could, without prejudice to the King or others, bestow 
on the Friars Minors a place in the suburb of Oxford, adjacent to 

1 Pat. Edw. II, m. 14 (Appx. A. 10). 

^ No donor's name occurs. 

^ This is probably the land which 
Wood refers to as having belonged to 
Thomas FuUo. The charter of Rob. 
Hokenorton to Osney mentions *land 
which Will. Fullo held of Reginald de 
Sub ^uro, juxta ecclesiam S. Budoci, 

Oxon., quae tendit a Regia Semita usque 
ad aquam Thamesis in profundum, et 
usque ad terram Radulfi FuUonis in 
latum, ex australi parte predicte Eccle- 
sie.' B. Twyne, MS. Ill, 8-9. 

* Pat. 12 Edw. II, m. 25 (6 March, 
1319) ; Appx. A. 12. 

^ Inquis.a. q.D. 13 Edw. II, No. 31. 




their property, and measuring five perches in length and five in 
breadth. The jurors declared that the grant would not be injurious 
to the King or others, and that Gary possessed sufficient property 
in the town to discharge all his civic duties. The place 'at the 
time when it was built ' was worth 20s. a year, but now, owing to 
its ruinous condition, only 2^". Gary held it for a rent of 8j. a 
year of Johanna, wife of Walter of Wycombe, Agatha her sister, and 
John son of Alice, who was wife of Andrew Gulvard, the heirs of 
Henry Owayn ; they held it of the Prior of Steventon, paying 4^/. a 
year in lieu of all services. The plot was therefore the fee of the 
Abbat of Bee mentioned above, and is probably the same as 

* the place which the Friars of the Penitence bought of Walter Aurifaber, 
and they pay thence to the Prior of Steventon 2 j.^ ' 

A few months previously a similar inquisition ^ was held at Oxford, 
which resulted in an addition to the Minorite property on the east 
side within the wall. This was a plot of ground of the annual value 
of 2s., five perches by six, granted to them by John Gulvard. The 
town, however, claimed the right, 

*at all times when it shall be necessary, to have free entry and egress 
thence to restore, repair and defend the wall of the said town.' 

In 132 1 ^ Walter Morton obtained leave to grant in mortmain to 
the Franciscans a place with its appurtenances, measuring five perches 
by five, in the suburb of Oxford ; and similar licence was given to 
John de Grey de Retherfeld* in 1337 to bestow on them a tenement, 
six perches by five, lying next their habitation on the east side within 
the town. This brings us to the end of the list of grants of 
landed property to the Oxford Minorites — a list which we may claim 
to be fairly complete. It is interesting to note from what classes the 
donors were drawn. Most of them were men of business — the lead- 
ing tradesmen of the town ^. Three of them, Laurence Wych, John 
Gulvard, and Richard Gary, were at various times Mayors of Oxford, 

^ Inquis. Oxon. Capta 6 and 7 Edw. 
1; Brian Twyne, III, 8-9. Walter Auri- 
faber had a daughter named Agatha ; 
ib. XXIV, 253. 

^ Inquis. a. q. D. 12 Edw. II, No, 
47 (5 March, 18 May), Appx. A. 13 ; 
Pat. 13 Edw. II, m. 44 (8 July). 

2 Pat. 14 Edw. II, m. 10 (12 May). 

* Pat. n Edw. Ill, pt. 2, m. 6 (19 

Aug.), Appx. A. 14. 

^ Rob. le Mercer and others are 
commanded to help the Mayor, Peter 
son of Thorald, in building the city wall 
(Claus. 18 Hen. Ill, m. 23). Robert 
Owen and Ric. the Miller witness 
William of Wileford's deed, see App. 
The names are significant — the Mercer, 
the Miller, the Barber, the Tailor. 



and the two latter represented the city in Parliament ^ Richard 
Mepham belonged to the higher rank of ecclesiastics. Master 
Thomas de Valeynes seems to have been a person of some import- 
ance in Oxfordshire and the adjoining counties ^. 


Of the buildings of the Friars Minors in Oxford we have disap- 
pointingly little information — with the exception of the boundary wall 
already mentioned there are no remains of their house now visible. 
Excavations might perhaps yield interesting results, but most of the 
ground is thickly built over, and the information derived from the re- 
cords and other sources is rarely precise enough to enable us to 
identify with any certainty the sites of the various buildings. 

For the first twenty years the Friary must have presented a very 
modest, not to say mean, appearance, and the brethren were probably 
contented to take the accommodation afforded by the houses, which 
were granted them, with Uttle alteration. The infirmary built by 
Agnellus has already been noticed. After they had been nearly a 
year in Oxford, the friars built a small chapeP. In 1232, the King 
gave them 

* thirty beams in the royal forest of Savernak for the fabric of their chapel 
which they are having built at Oxford,' 

adding that 

* if any one in the same bailiwick shall wish to give them timber, the bailiff 
shall permit them without hindrance to carry through the forest free of 
toll oaks to the number of thirty 

Probably this refers to the original chapel. It had a choir where 
the brethren attended and celebrated divine service ^, and at, or over, 
the door of which stood a crucifix, or wooden cross ^. It was here, 
in the choir before the altar, that Agnellus was buried in a ' leaden 
box,' as became the zelator paupertatis'^ . The chapel was pulled 
down when the new church was finished^. Under the auspices of 
Agnellus rose their first school, which was apparentiy the finest of 

^ Wood-Peshall, Ancient and Present 
State, &c., p. 355. 

2 One of this name was Commissioner 
of gaol delivery for Dorchester, Wy- 
combe, Aylesbury, &c. : Pat. 54 Hen. 
Ill, m. 17 d, 12 d ; and 55 Hen. HI, m. 
28 d. 

^ Eccieston, Mon. Franc. I, p. 9. 

* Close Roll, 16 Hen. IH, m. 9 (June 

5 Eccieston, p. 20. 

'° Ibid. ; and Barth. of Pisa, Lib. Con- 
form, fol. 80. 

Eccieston, p. 54. Barth. of Pisa 
says, 'in capsa lignea,' fol. 80. 

* Eccieston, ibid. 



[Ch. 11. 

their early buildings ^. Whether this was afterwards enlarged, or 
whether new schools were built on the same site or elsewhere, 
there is no longer any means of deciding. 

These houses were situated within the wall, and it was not till the 
increase of the ' area^ between 1240 and 1250 that building on a large 
scale was commenced between the wall and Trill Mill Stream ^. The 
tendency to build was strenuously resisted by the stricter party among 
the friars — the party which upheld the early traditions of the Order. 
Eccleston relates how an Oxford friar appeared after death to the 
custodian and warned him that, 

* if the friars were not damned for their excess in building, they would at 
any rate be severely punished 

An obscure passage in a letter of Adam Marsh probably refers to 
the same tendency ; even novices, he laments, are taught to neglect 
the things of the spirit 

* for flesh and blood, for mud and walls, for wood and stone, for any kind 
of worldly gain 

The opposition of the older generation was, however, unavailing, 
and a ' stately and magnificent ^ ' convent began to rise. But of 
the new friary, too, there are but scanty notices. No English king 
bestowed on the house of Franciscans at Oxford that loving care 
which Henry III bestowed on the Minorite Church at Reading, or 
Edward II on the Dominican Church which rose over the tomb 
of his ill-fated favourite at Langley. From royal grants we learn 
that building was going on at the Grey Friars of Oxford in 
1240, when ten oaks were given to them by the King for timber^. 
In 1245 (July 7th), 

* the Sheriff of Berkshire was ordered to give to the Friars Minors of 
Oxford for the works of their houses sixty shillings instead of six oaks 
which the King gave them before ; ' 

and a further grant of six oaks for timber in 1272 shows that the 
operations were of a protracted nature ^. From similar sources we 
find that the Church, which was dedicated to St. Francis, was in 

^ Eccleston, p. 37, 'Scholam satis 

Pat. 32 Hen. Ill, m. 10. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 25. 

^ Ibid. 362 : ' quasi cami et san- 
j^iini, fjuasi luto et lateribus, quasi 
lignis ct lapidibus, quasi quibuscunquc 

qualicunque compendiolo mundanis 
questibus totum dandiim esset.' 

5 Wood, MS. F 29 a, f. 179 a. 

« Claus. 24 Hen. lU, m. 17 (Feb. 5) ; 
Liberate, 24 Hen. IH, m. 19 (Feb. 7). 
liberate, 29 Hen. HI, m. 5. 

» Claus. 56 Hen. HI, m. 7. 

Ch. II.] 



process of erection in February, 1246^ and February, 1248^. At 
the latter date the friars are again permitted to 

'enclose the street which extends under the wall of Oxford from the 
Watergate ... to the small postern in the wall near the Castle . . . We 
grant also that the north side of the chapel built and to be built in the 
aforesaid street may supply the interruption of the wall as far as it is to 
reach, the other breaches in the wall being fully repaired as before, except 
the small postern in the wall, through which the said friars can go and 
return from the new place where they now live, to the former place in 
which they used to live. 

It would appear from this that the street was outside the wall. 
Mr. Parker, however, states positively that it was ' the inner road ' 
which they were "permitted to enclose ^ ; in Wheeler's Garden, 
south-west of St. Ebbe's Churchyard, there used to be a line of old 
walling, running parallel to the city wall inside, and the space be- 
tween these walls may have been the street in question*. It must 
be remembered, however, that the friars had already in 1244 ac- 
quired the road with the right to enclose it, and to throw down this 
section of the city wall. In 1248, therefore, we may well believe 
that httle existed of the wall, which on the south side was never a 
very prominent feature. The church running due east and west 
would extend along and across the site of the wall, the west end 
being outside, the east end inside. From the south end of Para- 
dise Place, where the wall juts out southwards for a few yards, to 
a point about the north end of King's Terrace, there have long 
been no signs of the city wall; and it is probably here that the 
Grey Friars' Church stood. The tradition is still preserved in the 
name Church Place. Of the appearance of the church we know 
little. The roof was tiled ^, like that of the Grey Friars' Church 
at Reading ; it is probable the east end was flat, and there was no 
triforium ^. Wood thinks that one of the eight towers which 
figured in the pageant at the inthronization of Warham in 1504, 

^ Liberate, 30 Hen. Ill, m. 16 : *Man- 
dattim est Vicecomiti Oxonie quod de 
amerciamentis Itineris Robert! Passe- 
lewe et sociorum suorum Justiciariorum 
qui ultimo Itinerauerunt ad placita fo- 
reste in Comitatu suo faciat habere fra- 
tribus minoribus Oxonie iij Marcas et 
fratribus predicatoribus eiusdem ville iij 
ad fabricam ecclesie sue de done Regis.' 

2 P^t 33 Hen. HI, m. 10. 

^ Early Hist, of Oxford, p. 298 : his 
map of Oxford gives a street outside the 

* I am indebted to Mr. Parker for 
this information and suggestion. 

^ Cromwell Corresp., 2nd series, Vol. 
XXni, fol. 709 b (Record Office). 

6 Cf. Walcott's ' Church and Conven- 
tual Arrangement,' on Friars' Churches, 



represented the tower of the Grey Friars \ William of Worcester 
has left a somewhat puzzling^ description of the church in 1480^ 

* The length of the choir of the church of St. Francis at Oxford contains 
68 steps. The length from the door {'val'va) of the choir to the 
west window contains 90 steps ; so in the whole length it contains 
150 (?) steps. The width of the nave of the said church on the east 
{ab orienti farte) contains with the aisle 28 steps. The length of the nave 
from the south side to the north door contains 40 steps only, and there 
are ten chapels in the said north nave of the church. The width of the 
north nave of the church contains 20 steps. The width of each chapel 
contains 6 steps, and so the width of the whole nave of the church with 
the ten chapels contains 26 steps. And each chapel contains in length 6 
steps. And each glass window of the ten chapels contains three dayes 
(or lights) glazed.' 

Reckoning WiHiam's ' steps ' at half a yard each ^, and correcting 
his apparent mistake in addition, we find that the church measured 
seventy-nine yards from east to west, the choir containing thirty-four 
yards, and the nave forty-five. At its widest part the church 
measured twenty yards, ten yards of which were taken up by the 
north aisle. Hence the width of the have properly so called, and 
of the choir, which in friars' churches is, where it exists, of the 
same width as the nave ^, was ten yards. The choir was aisleless, 
and the north aisle was probably the only one in the church : this, 
too, narrowed from ten yards to four towards the east end of the 
nave. In 1535 Friar Henry Standish, Bishop of St. Asaph, be- 
queathed £40 'for the building of an aisle joining to the church 
of the Grey friars, Oxon*^,' probably on the south side, but it is 
almost certain that this was never built. 

The wider aisle must have extended nearly the whole length of 
the nave to allow space for the north door and the ten chapels, all 
of which were built on to the north wall. They would be in part 
sepulchral chantries, supported by noble families or gilds, often con- 
taining the image or shrine of some saint, while the shrine of the 
patron saint stood behind the high altar. They were presumably 
later additions, and whether the church in its original form attained 

' Annals, 662. 

2 Stevens, ' Hist, of Abbeys,' &c., I, 
137 : ' This account appears to me very 
confuse and unintelligible.' 

^ Itincrarium, p. 296. 

* Tbirl. p. 83, ' Memorandum quod 
24 stcppys sive grcssus mei faciunt 12 

virgas . . . Item 50 virgae faciunt 85 
gradus sive steppys mei:' and p. 281, 
' quaelibet virga tres pedes,' &c. 

^ Walcott, as above. 

« P.C.C. Regist. liogen, qu. 26 (in 
Somerset House), 



the proportions here described must remain doubtful. But there is 
no reason to suppose it was afterwards enlarged to any great ex- 
tent. In the thirteenth century, benefactors, great and small, were 
willing and eager to help the friars to raise those splendid build- 
ings which drew forth the fierce denunciations of later reformers ; 
and though much of the church was doubtless built, like that at 
London, * from good common alms \' there can be Httle question 
that the chief ' founder and benefactor ' was the wealthy Richard 
Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall, and King of the Romans ^. It was 
in the choir of this church that his heart was buried ^ 

under a sumptuous pyramid of admirable workmanship 

Here, too, five years later the remains of his third wife, Beatrice of 
Falkenstein, were interred, * before the great altar ^ ; ' and many 
other monuments of nobles and famous men must have given the 
interior of the church an imposing appearance. Among those buried 
here were several of the Golafres : the tomb of Sir John Golafre, 
who died at Quinton, Bucks, in 1379 ^, was in the chancel; that of 
his younger brother, William, was probably in the same part of the 
church ^. Sir John s illegitimate son, John Golafre, knight and lord 
of Langley, bequeathed his body to be buried next his father's, if he 
should die in England ^ ; but 

'at the time of his death (1396) he altered his will in that part in which he 
bequeathed his body to be buried in the chancel of the church of the 
Friars Minors at Oxford, and willed and also bequeathed his body to be 
buried in the Conventual Church of Westminster where our lord the 
King shall dispose ^' 

* Mon. Franc. I, 508, &c. 

2 Wood-Clark, II, 407. Adam Marsh 
was personally known to the Earl of 
Cornwall ; in a letter to the Queen of 
England he mentions having been with 
him; Mon. Franc. I, 291 : cf. ibid. 
105-6, 400. A letter from Adam to 
Senchia, Richard's wife, is extant, ibid, 
p. 292. The following character of 
Richard is curious as being drawn pro- 
bably by a Franciscan : ' Hie erga 
omnes mulieres cujuscunque professionis 
luxuriosissimus, thesaurorum collector 
cupidissimus et avidissimus, pauperum 
oppressor insolentissimus.' MS. Cott. 
Cleop. B xiii, f. 148: cf. Hardy, De- 
script. Catal. &c. 

^ He died 1270, according to Wal- 

syngham, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 165 
(R. S.); 1272 according to Trivet, Ann. 
279. The latter is probably correct : 
see Foedera, I, 489. 

* J. Rouse, p. 199 (ed. Hearne). 
Rouse studied at Oxford, and died 1491. 

5 Chron. of Osney, 17 Oct. 1277: R. 
S. ed. p. 274. 

^ Wood, MS. F 29 a, fol. 179 b. 

' Ibid. 

^ Regist. Arundel, I, fol. 155. Sir H, 
Nicolas reads Exon. instead of Oxon : 
p. 135- 

9 Ibid. fol. 155 b. The Golafre 
property at Fyfield now belongs to St. 
John's College ; the President informs 
me that the College has no documents 
relating to the Golafre family. 



William Lord Lovell, by a will dated i8 March, 145I, made provision 

*to be buried at the Grayfreris of Oxenford in suche place as I have 
appoynted \' 

The wills of less distinguished persons occasionally contain information 
as to the interior of the church. In 1430 Robert Keneyshame, 
Bedel of the University, willed to be buried in the Franciscan Church, 

* in the midst between the two altars beneath the highest cross in the body 
of the church 2.' 

James Hedyan, bachelor in both laws and principal of Eagle Hall, 
was buried in the nave ^ Agnes, wife of Michael Norton, was in 
1438 buried 

' in the Conventual Church of the Friars Minors of Oxford before the 
image of the blessed Mary the Virgin of Pity 

And in 1526 Richard Leke, ' late bruer of Oxford,' desired 

* to be buried within the Graye ffreres in Oxford before the awter where 
the first masse is daily vsed to be saide 

But more honoured than any of these was the ' fair stone sepulchre ^ ' 
in which the body of Agnellus, the only Provincial Minister known to 
have been buried at Oxford, found its final resting place. For the 
shrine of Agnellus possessed all the fascination of miraculous associa- 
tion and miraculous power. When the friars, many years after his 
death, went in the night to remove the body from the original chapel 
before its demoHtion, 

* they found the little leaden box in which it lay, together with the grave, 
full of the purest oil, but the body itself with the vestments uncorrupted 
and smelling most sweetly 

Here, too, we are told, was the tomb of one greater than Agnellus ; 
but if the statement of John Rouse, that Roger Bacon was buried 
among the Franciscans at Oxford, is anything more than a tradition, 
it was perhaps not in the church, but in the common burial place 
of the brethren of the convent, that the Warwick antiquary found 
his grave ^. 

^ Early Lincoln Wills (A. Gibbons, 
1888), p. 186. 

B. Twyne, MS. XXIII, 478. He 
altered this part of his will in a codicil, 
and was buried in St. Ebbe's. 

" Mun. Acad. : Anstey, p. 543. 

* 'Coram ymaginc bcalc Marie Vir- 

ginis de pyte.' Oxford City Records, 
Old White Book, f. 90 a. , 

■'' P.C.C. Porch, fol. 9. 

6 Barth. of Pisa, fol. 80. 

' Eccleston, 54. 

^ J. Rouse, Hist. p. 29 : 'et modo in or- 
dinis sui fratrcs Minorca Oxon sepultum.' 

Ch. II.] 



The cloisters, of which we find no mention till the dissolution, were 
no doubt situated on the south of the church, round ' Penson's Gar- 
dens.' Whether the friars were buried in the cloisters, the garth, the 
chapter-house, or ' the cemetery of the Friars Minors,' in which John 
Dongan was interred in 1464 \ or sometimes in one place, sometimes 
in another, is unknown. On the east of the cloisters would be the 
chapter-house ^ ; over it, and joining the church, a dormitory ^ On 
the south of the cloisters, opposite the church, stood the refectory. It 
is possible, but not probable, that the long narrow building stretching 
down towards Trill Mill Stream, which is marked in old maps of Ox- 
ford was the refectory : Bridge Street marks the site. The library 
may have been on the west side of the cloisters, but no hint remains 
as to the building or its position, while the contents may be more ap- 
propriately treated elsewhere. The warden's house is equally un- 
known; he may perhaps merely have had rooms set apart in some 
one of the larger buildings as was probably the case with the vice- 
warden ^ From the Lanercost Chronicle we learn that in the thir- 
teenth century the ' master of the schools * had a chamber of his 
own ; and Wiclif tells us that in his time 

* Gapped Friars, that beene called Maisters of Diuinitie, haue there 
chamber and service as Lords or Kings 

Ample accommodation for guests was a marked feature in most re- 
ligious houses, and there is no reason to suppose that the Oxford 
Franciscan Friary formed an exception to a custom which, while it 
excited some animosity against the apostles of poverty, tended to en- 
sure the favour and secure the alms of the rich ^ 

1 Oxford Univ. Reg. A a a, fol. 213. 
First mention is in 1370: Anstey's 
Mun. Acad. 232-3. 

3 At Reading, the chapter-house and 
dormitory seem to have formed one 
building. Liberate Rolls, 23 Hen. Ill, 
m. 6, and 24 Hen. HI, m. i. 

* Agas map of 1578, engraved by 
Neale 1728 ; Hollar's map, 1643. 

^ The warden at Reading occupied 
one of ' thre prety lodginges ' at the 
Grey Friars; Cromwell Corresp., Vol. 
xxni, f. 742. 

^ Gf. Inventory of the Grey Friars, 
Ipswich ; Ghapter House Bks. A -^^ ; 
' owthe of the Vicewarden's Ghamber.' 

' P/130. 

^ ' Two short treatises against the 
Begging Friars' (Oxf. 1608), p. 30; 
cf. Roy's Satire on Gard. Wolsey, Harl. 
Misc., Vol. IX, p. 42, &c. 

^ See Pecock's Repressor, p. 543, on 
the objection that * religiose monasteries 
(nameliche of the begging religiouns) 
han withinne her gatis and cloocis grete 
large wijde hi5e and stateli mansiouns 
for lordis and ladies ther yn to reste, 
abide, and dwelle ; ' and p. 548-50. 
Edward III stayed at the Grey Friars, 
York, in 1335 (Rymer, Foed., Vol. II, 
pt. ii, p. 909). In the Record Office 
(Excheq. Q. R. Wardrobe \^ is a docu- 
ment containing details as to feasts in 
the Dominican Gonvent at Oxford in 



[Ch. II. 

The convent was supplied with good water by a conduit of leaden 
pipes, which, according to Wadding, was made in the thirteenth cen- 
tury by a magnate at his own expense, and extended many miles under 
the watersheds of the Isis and Cherwell \ In 1246-7 we hear that 
the Friars Preachers and Minors had appropriated many places on the 
Thames, and had made there * ditches and walls and other things 
Lastly, there were three gates : one in Freren Street ^, perhaps an en- 
trance to the church through ' Church Place ; ' another in St. Ebbe's 
Street, opposite Beef Lane ^, where St. Ebbe's Churchyard now ex- 
tends ; and a third — their principal entrance, which existed in Wood's 
time — in Littlegate Street, apparently where the latter is now joined 
by Charles Street^. 

This completes the list of conventual as distinct from the farm 
buildings, and if the account is meagre and unsatisfactory, we may 
try to console ourselves with William of Nottingham's retort, when a 
friar threatened to accuse him before the Minister General ' because 
the place at London was not enclosed : ' 

' And I will answer to the General, that I did not enter the Order to build 

walls V 

connexion with the burial of Piers 
Gaveston ; the feasts were continued for 
four weeks. The Earl of Hereford, who 
spent Christmas at Grey Friars, Exeter, 
in 1288, found his lodgings detestable 
and the stench insupportable: Oliver, 
Monast. Exon. p. 331. 

^ ' Ex magnatibus unus rem magnam 
ausus est et perfecit, ut suis sumptibus 
a multis milliaribus Anglicanis ductis 
sub Isidis et Chervelli fluminum divortiis 
phimbeis canalibus, corrivaretur ad 
omnes Monasterii officinas aqua salubris 
in magna abundantia.' Ann. Minorum, 

I, 364, A.D. 1 221. Wadding gives no 
authority for the statement. 

^ Placita Coronae, 31 Hen. Ill, 
Oxon. M 1^} 3, f. 40 : ' Jurati presentant 
quod fratres predicatores et fratres mi- 
nores ceperunt in pluribus locis super 
aquam Thamesis et ibi fecerunt fossata 
et muros et alia.' 

3 B. Twyne, MS. XXHI, 151 (11 
Hen. VII). 

* Oxford City Records, 191. 

5 Wood, MS. F 29 a, fol. 179 a. 

^ Eccleston, p. 35. 



Learning necessary to the friars. — The first readers to the Franciscans at Oxford. — 
Nature of the office of lector ; Grostete and Adam Marsh. — The lector and 
his socius. — Later lectors were ordinary Regent Masters. — Appointment to 
the lectureship. — Special regulations concerning the lectors. — System of in- 
struction recommended by Grostete. — Lectures by friars. — Controversy with 
the University about theological degrees in 1253. — Controversy between the 
University and Dominicans, and its results. — Study of philosophy (Arts) 
before theology insisted on by the University. — Roger Bacon on the necessity 
of a preliminary training for friars. — Extortion of graces by external influence : 
' wax-doctors.' — Career of a student Minorite. — On the numbers of friars sent 
to Oxford. — Course of study before * opposition.' — ' Opposition ' and ' Re- 
sponsion.' — The degree of B.D. — Exercises before inception. — The degree of 
D.D. : the licence. — Vesperies. — Inception. — Questions disputed on these 
occasions in the thirteenth century. — How far the statutable requirements as 
to the period of study were a reality. — Expenses at inception. — Necessary 
Regency. — Conditions on which dispensations were granted. — Maintenance of 
Franciscan students at the University. — "What proportion took degrees. — 
Relative numbers of the various religious Orders at Oxford. 

St. Francis himself was always strongly opposed to the learning of 
his age. 

* Tantum habet homo de scientia quantum operatur,' he said, * et religiosus 
tantum est bonus orator quantum operatur 

But it was inevitable that the missionaries to the towns should be 
armed with a knowledge of theology to enable them to cope with the 
numerous heresies of the thirteenth century, and with a knowledge of 
physical science to enable them to cope with the frequent pestilences 
caused by the disregard of sanitary conditions^. In addition to this 
the influence of many learned men in the Order could not but be 
felt ; and the early Franciscans in England were as zealous for learn- 
ing as for good works. 

^ Wadding, I, 346 ; cf. Mon. Franc. I, and Opera Inedita, 374 — 'regimen sanita- 

xxx-xxxii. tis.' Grostete's * interest in physical 

^ Cf. Bacon's works, De retarda- science seems to date from his connexion 

tione senectutis, Antidotarius, 8cc. ; with the friars.' M. Lyte, p. 30. 



* They were so fervent,' Eccleston tells us, * in hearing the divine law and 
in scholastic exercises, that they hesitated not to go every day to the 
schools of theology, however distant, barefoot in bitter cold and deep 
mud \' 

Agnellus, though in Wood's words ' he never smelt of an Academy 
or tasted of humane learning^,' frankly recognised the necessity. 
The school which he built at Oxford has already been noticed : 

' but afterwards,' adds Bartholomew of Pisa ^, * he had reason for regret, 
when he saw the friars bestowing their time on frivolities and neglecting 
needful things ; for one day when he wished to see what proficiency they 
were making, he entered the schools whilst a disputation was going on, and 
hearing them wrangling and questioning, Utrum sit Deus, he cried : " Woe 
is me, woe is me ! Simple brothers enter Heaven, and learned brothers 
dispute whether there is a God at all!" Then he sent lol. sterling to 
the Court to buy the Decretals, that the friars might study them and give 
over frivolities.' 

Agnellus rendered the greatest service to his Order by persuading 
Robert Grostete, the foremost scholar of his time, and the most in- 
fluential man at Oxford, to accept the post of lecturer to the friars 
The exact date at which he undertook these duties is uncertain. He 
resigned the archdeaconries of Northampton and Leicester in 1231, 
but he may have been lecturer to the Franciscans some time before 
this ; certainly he was closely connected with their house at Oxford °. 
He was resident in the University in 1234^, and according to both 
Eccieston and the Lanercost Chronicle ^ he gave up his lectureship 
only to accept the bishopric of Lincoln in 1235. 

He was succeeded by Master Peter ^, who afterwards became a 
bishop in Scotland. The third reader was Master Roger Wesham 
who afterwards (namely in or before 1239) was made Dean of Lin- 
coln, and then (1245) Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. The fourth 
was Master Thomas Wallensis, who, 

* after he had lectured laudably at the Friars' in the same place, was ap- 
pointed (in 1247) to the bishopric of St. David's in Wales 

* Mon. Franc. I, 24. 
2 MS. F 29 a, f. 176. 

2 Liber Conf. fol. 79 b. 

* Mon. Franc. I, 37. 

^ Grostete, Epistolae, p. 17 sqq., letter 
to Agnellus and the convent at Oxford, 
written between 1225 and 1231. 

« Lyte, 'Hist, of Univ. of Oxford,' p. 

Mon. Franc. I, 37: 'Ipso igitur 

ab cathedra magisteriali in cathedram 
pontificalem . . . translate.' 

^ P. 45 : ' Vir iste primus cathedram 
scholarum fratrum minorum rexit Oxo- 
niae, unde et assumptus fuit ad cathe- 
dram praelatiac.' 

" Mon. Franc, ibid. 

^'^ Ibid. p. 38. The dates arc from 
Le Neve, 

" Ibid. 

Ch. III.] 



Thomas was made Archdeacon of Lincoln by Grostete in 1238, at 
which time he was lecturing in Paris * ; he was then young ^ and it 
is probable that he was already archdeacon when he lectured to the 
friars at Oxford. 

All these men were seculars, not friars : it was important at a time 
when, as Roger Bacon says \ ' the Order of Minors was new and ne- 
glected by the world,' to secure the services of men of recognised 
position and ability. Of Master Peter nothing further is known. The 
other two were certainly close friends of Grostete ^ Matthew Paris 
bears testimony to the high character and learning, the kindness and 
tact, of Roger Wesham ^ Bacon ranks Thomas Wallensis among 

* the 'v^ise men of old who studied foreign languages and knew the 
value of philology ; and even Paris admits that this enemy of monks 
was a man of lofty purpose, and accepted the bishopric of St. David's, 
though it was the poorest see, 

* because it was in his native country, Wales, and he desired to console his 
wretched fellow countrymen by his presence, advice, and help ^' 

The divinity lecturer to the Franciscans or ' Master of the Schools 
as he was also called, had, as such, no status in the University. It is 
even doubtful whether he counted as a ' regent master,' unless he also 
lectured in the University Schools. Thus Adam Marsh protested 
against being required by the Masters to subscribe a new statute on 
the ground 

* that he had three years ago retired from the office of teaching in their 

^ Grostete, Ep. p. 149. In Letter 
xvii * Magister Thomas Walensis ' is 
mentioned as being in England ; the 
date of the letter must be between 1235 
and 1239 (when W. de Raleger became 
Bishop of Norwich); probably 1238, 
after Thomas had returned from Paris, 
before he became Archdeacon. 

2 Ibid. p. 151. 

^ Opera Ined. p. 325. 

* Grostete, Ep. ut supra. Both re- 
ceived high offices in Lincoln diocese, 
Roger as dean resisted the bishop's 
claims. Paris, Chron. Majora, III, 528; 

IV, 391. 

^ Chron. Majora, IV, 424, *vir mori- 
bus et scientia eleganter insignitus ; ' V, 
644, * vir omni laude dignissimus.' We 

may perhaps see a result of his contact 
with the Franciscans in his exhortation to 
the clergy of his diocese ' to preach often 
in the vulgar tongue, simply and with- 
out discussion, to the people, using 
practical not subtle arguments.' B. 
Twyne,MS. XXI, 280 (Episc. Coventr. 
' in suis institutis MS'). 

^ Opera Inedita, pp. 88, 428. 
Chron. Majora, IV, 245. 

8 Ibid. 647. 

^ Lanerc. Chron. p. 130; cf. ibid. 

pp. 45, 58. 

1" Mon. Franc. I, 348. The statute 
was to be subscribed by ' the Chancellor 
and all the regent masters in Holy 
Scripture . . . and Friar Adam called 
de Marisco.' 


But in a letter written shortly before this, and referring to the same 
subjects, he mentions that he was ' lecturing on Holy Scripture ' to 
the friars \ The position of the lector was, in fact, not unlike that 
of a college tutor, except that he was always a man of proved 
ability and long experience. To the friars he was far more than 
a theological lecturer ; he was a trusted friend, on whose advice 
and sympathy and help they might reckon in all the conduct of 
life. Such at least was the tradition established by Grostete and 
carried on by Adam Marsh ^. Both of them men versed in affairs of 
state, both men of acknowledged weight in the counsels of the 
realm ^, and fearless opponents of illegality and oppression, they not 
only trained the friars in theology and philosophy, but taught 
them to comprehend the social needs of the age. 

' I return your lordship,' writes Adam to Grostete *, * the breviate which 
you wrote, Of the rule of a kingdom and a tyranny as you sent it, sealed 
with the seal of the Earl of Leicester ; ' 

and Simon de Montfort had frequent consultations with the friar 
about his government of Gascony^. It was from their daily inter- 
course with men like these that the Oxford Franciscans became, if 
not the leaders, the spokesmen of the constitutional movement of 
the thirteenth century ^ The corpse of Simon de Montfort was 

1 Mon, Franc. I, 335. 

^ For Grostete, see Lanerc. Chron. 
p. 45 : 'The friars then going to Robert 
as to a pedagogue relate what has 
happened and beg him to say what he 
thought,' &c. The extraordinary activity 
of Adam Marsh in this and in many 
other spheres has been too often and too 
well described to detain us here : see 
Brewer's pref. to Mon. Franc. I, Pauli, 
'Pictures of Old England,' pp. 67, 68 
(extract quoted by Lyte, p. 51), and his 
'Grosteste and Adam Marsh.' Cf. Bacon, 
Op. Ined. p. 186. Adam's description 
of the ideal pastor might be applied to 
himself Mon. Franc. I, 445. 

^ For Adam's influence with Hen. 
Ill, see Lanerc. Chron. p. 24; Mon. 
Franc. I, 142 and 268 (on behalf of 
Earl Simon). He incurred the royal 
displeasure ' propter verba vitae ; ' ibid. 
275. Cf. ibid. 335 : one of the grounds 
on which he declines to assist the Arch- 

bishop in his visitation is ' districtum 
domini regis mandatum, quo interdictum 
fuit domino archiepiscopo ne me, velut 
proditorium inimicum, ad comitivam 
suam evocaret.' Cf. p. 387, he is 
summoned to Reading and London 
' on matters of the highest import- 
ance, touching the sceptre and the 

* Ibid. p. no. Compare Nicholas 
de Lyra's commentary on Psalm xliv. 
quoted by J. Rouse, ' Hist. Regum 
Anglie,' ed. Hearne, p. 38. 

^ Mon. Franc, I, 267. 

^ Stubbs, Const. Hist. II, p. 313, n. 
I : • The sentiments not of the people 
but of the Universities, and incidentally 
of the Franciscans also, are exemplified 
in the long Latin poem printed in 
Wright's Political Songs, pp. 72-121. 
... It was clearly a manifesto, amongst 
themselves, of the men whose preaching 
guided the people.' 



buried by the Grey Friars of Evesham, and it is probably to the 
Franciscan school that the Latin poems in his honour are to be 
ascribed \ as well as the form of prayer addressed to him : — 

' Sis pro nobis intercessor 
Apud Deum, qui defensor 
In terris extiteras 

The Oxford Franciscans regarded him as a saint and a martyr, 
though he died excommunicate, and testified to the miracles which 
he wrought ^ 

The lector had also his socius a younger friar who acted as his 
secretary, and whose time was almost entirely at his disposal. The 
position of both lector and socius will be best illustrated by two ex- 
tracts from the letters of Adam Marsh. 

In the first of these ^, addressed to the Provincial, he writes that 
he has found Friar A. de Hereford, whom the Provincial had 
assigned to him as his socius, affectionate and of good character, 
docile and well-read, and far more capable than ' some of those who 
are appointed by the counsel of the discreet to instruct in Holy 

' I see.' he continues, * that any friar who is associated with me to help me 
in my various ^ and constant toil, will have to subordinate his ecclesiastical 
labours and apply himself continually to supplying my defects, and 
directing my goings, and supporting my burdens, though this might some- 
times produce in him virtue and industry and endurance. Far be from me 
therefore such impious tyranny, as that I should be willing to see the 
great gifts and spiritual progress in the said friar stunted or retarded or 
thwarted by any consideration of private convenience i, especially as I can 
through the Saviour's pity, be provided, as I have heretofore been by your 
grace, with a competent companion without injury to the general welfare. 
I have also reason to think that Friar A., however great be his willingness 
and energy, will be unable without bodily suffering and mental disquietude 
to continue permanently with me, unless the stringent rules are relaxed in 

^ See note 6, p. 32. The poem ex- 95, 96. Cf. Dictum de Kenilworth, 

presses the constitutional view of mon- cap. 8 (Stubbs' Select Charters, pp. 420- 

archy with extraordinary clearness. 421). 

Parts of it are translated by Mr. York * Cf. Bacon, Op. Ined. 329. It was 

Powell, 'Hist, of England,' pp. T 48-9, apparently in this relationship that 

and 152. 'Juvenis Johannes' stood to Roger 

^ Polit. Songs (Camden Soc), p. Bacon. 

124. ^ Mon. Franc. I, 314-316. 

2 'Miracula Symonis de Montfort' ^ Adam's position was exceptional, 

(printed at the end of Rishanger's and his socius no doubt exceptionally 

Chronicle, Camden Soc. 1840), pp. 87, hard-worked. 



his favour [nisi quatenus urgentia mitigat obedientiae salutaris d'mrnos aestus 
et •vigilias nocturnas). 

' .... I ask therefore confidently, that you will, if it be not displeasing 
to your holy paternity, send to me without delay Friar Laurence de 
Sutthon, as my socius, if he consents, and that you will send Friar A. to 
London to study, as he himself greatly desires, if it be your good pleasure. 
And though Friar Laurence suffer some tolerable defect, he is yet 
pecuharly fitted to help me, though vulgar obstinacy may not think so.' 

The other letter ^ is also directed to the P^o^dncial. 

* I am not a little surprised,' he writes, ' that through some excessive 
caution and severity, no provision has yet been made for the beloved Friar 
W. de Maddele, who has up to now diligently borne the burden of teaching 
{eruditionis impendendae) , long since imposed on him. He is thus compelled, 
not only to exhaust the vital spirit by excessive studies, but also to wear 
out his bodily powers by writing every day with his own hand, though his 
strength is not the strength of stone, nor his flesh the flesh of brass. And 
while the other friars who have been deputed to the office of lecturing, 
especially those to whom he has succeeded, had great volumes and the 
assistance of socH provided for them, he alone does not seem to be cared 
for ; though I hear that he has a pleasant faculty of lecturing, is acute in 
arguing, and in writing and speaking useful and acceptable to both friars 
and seculars. It will therefore be for you, if you please, without delay to 
take thought for the peace of mind and provide for the advancement 
{pronjectui) of those who study.' 

The position of the socius probably altered but little after this time. 
That of the lector underwent a change. The Franciscans assimilated 
their system of teaching to the system in vogue in the University 
generally : from the time of Adam Marsh the lecturers to the Fran- 
ciscans were merely ordinary Regent Masters in theology belonging 
to the Order. This will be evident from a comparison of the dates 
at which the various lecturers, whose names have been preserved, 
held the office : a sufficient number of these dates has now been re- 
covered, on the indisputable evidence of contemporary records, to put 
the matter beyond all doubt 

The appointment to the lectureship was in the hands of the Pro- 
vincial Chapter ^ ; practically the person recommended by the leading 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 354. 

^ See the list of 67 lec fores in Part II. 
The list is taken from the Cottonian 
MS. of Eccleston. In the same MS. 
(Cott. Nero A IX, fol. 78) is a similar 
list of readers at Cambridge under the 
heading, ' Fratrum Minorum Magistri 

3 Mon. Franc. I, 335 ; cf. Harl. MS. 
431, fol. 100 b, election of J. David to 
be lector at Hereford: Wadding, X, 
p. 156 (A.D. 1430); XIII, 73. At first 
the lecturers seem to have been ap- 
pointed by the Provincial Minister 
(Mon. Franc. I, 37, 354), or, when 
a friar was sent from one province 



brethren at Oxford was elected ^ This is true of the later as well as 
of the earlier lectors. No Minorite could proceed to any degree un- 
less he were first authorised to do so by papal ordinance or by the 
election of his Order ^. 

According to the Constitutions of Benedict XII, no Minorite might 
lecture on the Sentences in a University e. become B.D.), 

' unless he had first lectured on the four books of the Sentences with the 
writings of the approved doctors in other studia which are in the same 
Order called Generalia,' 1388005 
or in one of certain specified convents^. The friars of the English 
province were specially favoured in respect to the degree of D.D. It 
was decreed in the General Chapter at Rome in 141 1 

' that no one shall be promoted to the degree of master, unless he first go 
to Paris, according to the papal statutes and the general institutes, and do 
all that he is bound to do, Pro-vincia Angliae excepta^H 

However, the Franciscans at Oxford never obtained the right 

to another, by the General (Ibid. 39, 
R. de Colebruge). In the 14th and 15th 
centuries, the reader had to be confirmed 
by the General, and might be appointed 
by him : MS. Canonic. Misc. 75, f. 77 b ; 
and Wadding, X, 156. Anal. Franc. 
II, 240 (a.d. 141 1 ). 
^ Mon. Franc. I, 357. 
Woodford in his reply to Armacha- 
mus (cap. 8) says : * Pope Benedict 
ordained statutes for the order of friars 
Minors, of great and mature counsel, 
which are called among the Minorities 
statuta papalia ; in these it is decreed 
concerning which parts of the Order 
ought to lecture on the Sentences at 
Paris, which parts at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, how they ought to be elected 
in general and provincial chapters, and 
how consequently they ought to ascend 
to the doctor's degree by papal or- 
dinance or election of the Order.' The 
constitutions of Benedict XII, de stu- 
diis (a.d. 1336), were printed in Chrono- 
logia historico-legalis seraphici Ordinis 
Fratrum Minorum, Neapoli 1650, torn, 
I, p. 46 (referred to in Anal. Franc. II, 
1 65) ; I have not seen this book. They 
are omitted by Baronius et Raynaldus, 
Annales Eccles. Vol. XXV, p. 92 seq. 

They are contained in Bodl. MS. Canonic. 
Misc. 75, ff. 73 seq., but no mention of 
Oxford occurs here. The following 
regulations are given for Cambridge 
(fol. 77b): ' Simili quoque modo, alio- 
rum (qui) ordinabuntur ad legendum 
sentencias in studio Cantabrigie, duo 
assumantur duobus annis de provincia 
Anglie per ipsius provincie provinciale 
Capitulum eligendi, et tercius anno 
tercio de aliis partibus ordinis per 
generale capitulum tam de cismontanis 
quam de ultramontanis eligendus.' 

^ MS. Canonic. Misc. 75, fol. 78 : 
'Nullus quoque frater dicti ordinis ad 
legendum in prenominatis studiis (i.e. 
recognised Universities) sententias assu- 
matur, nisi prius legerit 4*"^ libros 
sententiarum cum scriptis approbatorum 
doctorum in aliis studiis qui {sic) in 
eodem ordine dicuntur generalia vel 
conventibus infrascriptis, vidz. . . Lon- 
doniensi, Eboricensi, . . . Novi castri, 
Stramforicensi (?)... Exoniensi,' &c. 
Nineteen convents in all are mentioned ; 
only those which are, or may be, in 
England are here quoted. I have found 
no evidence to show whether this rule 
was or was not carried out. 

* Anal. Franc. II, 241. 

D 2 



[Ch. III. 

which was enjoyed by the Dominicans at Paris, of being the sole 
judges of the fitness of any friars of their own Order for academical 
degrees ^ In the case of Adam Marsh, the term of office was one 
year ^ ; and this was probably the general rule ^, though the readers 
might perhaps be re-elected in the anuual Provincial Chapter They 
often remained at Oxford after the expiry of their year ^, and no 
doubt continued to lecture, though they ceased to be ex officio re- 
presentatives of the friars in their dealings with the University or 
other bodies. 

Even in the earliest times it was found necessary to modify the 
stringency of the rule in favour of the lecturers. Visiting and good 
works were subordinated to their scholastic duties ^. They were pro- 
vided with more ample accommodation than the other friars, and 
their privacy was at certain times inviolable'''. In the Constitutions 
of Benedict XII (1337) regulations for their support are given with 
some detail ^. Masters, lectors, and bachelors in Universities were to 
be provided with the necessaries of life by the convents of the places 
where they lectured. But their other expenses, such as those con- 
nected with the necessary books, were to be assessed by the General 
or Provincial Minister and to fall on the convent from which they 
were sent ; or, if the convent was unable to ' procure ' the funds, 
these were to be supplied by the custody or province in which the 
native convent of the lecturer was situated. In addition to this, 
seculars and members of other religious Orders who attended the lec- 
tures, would no doubt have to pay fees ^ 

We may reasonably infer that Grostete practised in the Franciscan 
school the system of instruction in theology which he subsequently 
recommended to the University. When consulted by the latter, he 
answered that the Regent Masters in theology ought to take the Old 
and New Testaments as the only sure foundations of their teaching 
and make them the subject of all their morning lectures, according to 

* Lyte, p. 107. " e. g. Adam Marsh, T. Docking, &c. 
Mon. Franc. I, 232. " Mon. Franc. I, 40. 

^ See dates of the Oxford lectors in ' MS, Canonic. Misc. 75, f. 11 b; 

Part II ; Harl. MS. 431, fol. 100 b, &c. Lanerc. Chron. p. 130: ' Non,' inquit 

The period of necessary Regency was at (janitor), * audeo tarn mane ostiolum 

first one year, afterwards two. illius (i. e. magistri scholarum) pulsare, 

* That the Chapters of the Minorites cum ipse studio intendat quid legere 
were actually held yearly in England debeat.' 

maybe seen from Pat. Roll, i Hen. IV, ^ MS. Canonic. Misc. 75, fol. 80. 

part 5, m. 7 : ' ac pro capitulo suo " Mun. Acad. 428; Masters of Arts 

provinciali quod in Anglia singulis annis were comj)elled to exact their fees, 

celcbratur.' Gratuitous lecturing by Franciscans is 



the custom of the Doctors of Paris ^ Roger Bacon laments the exag- 
gerated respect which was paid to the ' Sentences ' in his day, and 
points out that 

*the learned men of old, some of whom we have seen, such as Robert 
bishop of Lincoln and Friar Adam de Marisco, used only the text ' which 
was ' given to the world from the mouth of God and of the Saints 2.' 

At the Friary, as in the rest of the University, much of the teaching 
in the theological faculty was, even in the thirteenth century, done by 
bachelors ^ ; the admission to the degree of B.D. was accompanied 
by a licence to ' lecture on the book of the Sentences.' Some of 
the lectures would probably be for the brethren alone ; others were 
open. to the University ^ The latter would certainly be the case 
when a friar delivered the lectures, which he was bound to give as 
' Necessary Regent/ in his monastery. These courses seem how- 
ever to have been sometimes delivered in the University Schools in 
School Street ^ 

The academic studies of the friars were confined to the faculty of 
theology (in its wide mediaeval sense), and of canon law, the 

* handmaid ' of theology. The regulars were for the most part sub- 
ject to the same statutes as the secular students in these faculties, with 
some important modifications. 

The rules of the two Orders forbade their members to take a degree 

in Arts ^ The customs of the University, on the other hand, required 

always spoken of as exceptional. Thus (after Augustine) of what he understands 

Nic. de Burgo urges his having lectured by 'explaining the Scriptures by natural 

* pene gratis ' as a reason why he should science.' Cf. * Les contes moralises de 
be excused the payment of his com- Nicole Bozon, Frere Mineur,' by Miss 
position (Reg. H. 7, f. 117). A L. T. Smith and Paul Meyer. 

grace to Walter Goodfylde, S.T.B., is ^ Mon. Franc. I, 38. 

conceded ' condicionata .. . quod legat * Cf. Wadding, IV, 14-15, on the 

unum librum sentenciarum publice et schools of the two Orders at Paris, 

gratis.' Tywne, MS. Ill, 300 ; Dominicans com- 

^ Epistolae, pp. 346-7. The biblio- plain that the seculars * prevent scholars 

graphics in Part II will give some idea from going to the schools of the friars,' 

of the subjects chiefly taught by the early &c. (1312). 

Franciscans: see especially John Wal- ^ Cf. Lyte, p. 108; a Dominican 

lensis (ethics and practical theology), Regent goes to the school and finds it 

Thomas Docking (biblical exegesis), occupied by other disputants (13 12). 

Roger Bacon (physics, &c.). ^ Acta Fratrum Praedicatorum, Col- 

2 Op. Ined. 329. Cf. pp. 81 and 82 : lectanea, II, p. 217 ; Archiv fiir Litt. 

'tota sapientia concluditur in sacra u, K. Gesch. I, p. 189. Constitutions 

scriptura . . . sed ejus explicatio est of the Dominicans in 1228: 'inlibris 

jus canonicum cum philosophia ; ' and gentilium et philosophorum non stu- 

this was the system followed by Grosteste deant,' &c. Bacon, Op. Ined. p. 426; 

and Adam. In the Opus Minus (p. Denifle, * Die Universitaten,' &c. 1,701, 

357), Bacon gives a curioits example 719-720. 



that the student of theology should have graduated in Arts^ The 
issue was definitely raised in 1253 2, and we have from the pen of 
Adam Marsh a detailed account of the struggle ^ In February the 
Chancellor and Masters of the University were formally petitioned to 
allow Friar Thomas of York, 

* a man of high repute among the great and the many, on account of the 
eminence of his character, ability, learning, and experience, to ascend the 
chair of ordinary regent in Holy Scripture.* 

The objection was then raised that he had not ruled in Arts. A com- 
mittee of seven was appointed by the Masters to prepare a report, and 
the deliberations lasted, with a short interval, the whole of the next 
fortnight (Feb. 22 to March 8). On Saturday, March 8, ' the chancellor 
and masters and some bachelors ' assembled to consider the report, 
which was to the effect that Friar Thomas should incept this time, but 
that a statute should be passed providing that for the future no one 
should incept in theology unless he had previously ruled in Arts in 
some University, and read one book of the Canon (of the Bible) or of 
the Sentences, and publicly preached in the University ; the Chancellor 
and Masters reserved to themselves the right of granting dispensations, 
but provided against the use of undue influence of powerful patrons in 
procuring such ' graces ' by the clause : 

' but if any one shall attempt to extort a grace from the University through 
the influence of any magnate, he shall ipso facto be expelled from the 
society of the Masters and deprived of the privileges of the University V 

The report was at once accepted as the basis of a statute, to be 
signed by 

' the Chancellor and all the regent masters in theology, and Friar Hugh of 
Mistretune, and the other regent masters in decrees and laws, and the two 
rectors (proctors) for the artists, and Friar Adam called de Marisco 

Adam however refused to sign, and the meeting was prorogued till 
the next day, the first Sunday in Lent, only to be postponed again till 
Monday, when Adam, ' in the presence of the chancellor, masters, and 
scholars,' repeated his objections, adding others. He could not, he 

^ Mun. Acad. p. 25 : 'Statuit Univer- 
sitas Oxoniensis, et si statutum fuerit, 
iterato consensu corroborat,' &c. 

^ Wood gives 1251 as the date. But 
both the statute (Mun. Acad. 25) and 
the letters of Adam Marsh (Mon. Franc. 
], 337 — icferencc to controversy about 

the Southv^ark Hospital, M. Paris, An. 
1252) are clear and at one on the point. 

^ Mon. Francisc. I, 338, 346 sqq. 

* Mun. Acad. p. 25 — the statute 

^ The statute as it exists is not 



argued, agree to a statute of which he disapproved, merely to gain his 
immediate point. The promised ' graces ' were fallacious, 

* since by the opposition of any one man such a grace could be long 
delayed or altogether prevented ; thus even the best men would be rejected, 
and he who was approved by divinity would be reproved by inhumanity.' 

Further, it was unreasonable to require his signature, seeing that he 
was now almost a stranger {quasi for as /actus), having for three years 
retired from the office of lecturing in their University. At length he 
formally washed his hands of the whole matter, withdrawing even his 

* since the measure, dangerous as it was and distasteful to him, did not 
seem to him to be conceived in a spirit of wilful injustice,' {non videtur 
secundum planum sui praeferre imquitatem). 

He then left the assembly, while the seven commissioners withdrew 
to decide on the terms of the statute, which was merely a recapitulation 
of the original report. The Chancellor at once sent Adam the final 
decision, ' written with his own hand,' which the latter duly forwarded 
to the Provincial Minister. He left Oxford on Wednesday, the very 
day on which the statute was passed, while Thomas of York celebrated 
his ' vesperies ' on Thursday and his inception on Friday, under the 
presidency of Friar Peter de Manners. In view of the bitterness which 
marked both the contemporary struggle between the University and 
Mendicants at Paris, and the disputes between the University and 
Dominicans at Oxford sixty years later, it is impossible not to be 
struck with the good feeling and moderation displayed both by Adam 
and his opponents. 

The controversy at the beginning of the fourteenth century was to 
a large extent the sequel to the events we have just related \ The 
Dominicans in 131 1 appealed first to the King, and when this proved 
of no avail, to the Pope, complaining that graces were frequently re- 
fused to fit candidates, and demanding the repeal of the statute of 
1253. The appeal was read in the church of the Minorites, 

* in the presence of a vast multitude of people there assembled on the 
occasion of a public sermon to the clerks,' 

but the Franciscans took no active part in the matter, and the details 
of the struggle belong to the history of the Black Friars. The other 

1 The official account of the proceed- been edited by Mr. Rashdall, Collect, 
ings in the suit between the Friars Vol. II, Oxf. Hist. Soc. 
Preachers and the University has recently 



[Ch. hi. 

]\Iendicant Orders however were no doubt involved in the odium which 
attached to the conduct of the Dominicans, and from this time forth the 
jealous feeling between the friars and the University never died out. 

The issue of the controversy concerned the Franciscans no less than 
the Preaching Friars. In 13 14 the arbitrators to whom the matter 
had been submitted published their award ^. The statute of 1253 ^^^^ 
upheld, but the right of refusing to any one, who had not ruled in 
Arts, the grace to incept in theology, was practically withdrawn from 
each individual member of Congregation and vested in the Regent 
Masters of the Theological Faculty. 

' On such a grace being asked, every Master shall be bound to swear on 
the gospels . . . that he will not refuse such grace out of malice, hatred or 
rancour, but only for the common utility and honour of the university. 
And if notwithstanding this oath such grace be refused by any one, the 
reason of the refusal shall at once be set forth in the same Congregation 
of Masters in the presence of the Chancellor and proctors of the university 
and the Masters ruling in Theology, and within ten days or less it shall be 
discussed for the decision of the university whether that reason be sufficient 
or not. And if the reason of the aforesaid refusal be sufficient in the 
judgment of the Masters then ruling in Theology or of the majority of 
them, the refusal of the grace shall hold good ; but if the reason of the 
refusal be insufficient in the judgment of the same persons, eo ipso the 
grace shall be granted 

The Dominicans however hoped with the Pope's assistance ^ to get 
more favourable terms, and it was not till 1320 that they finally sub- 
mitted to the University ^. The wording of the award was certainly 
vague and required explanation. What, for instance, was the meaning 
of the expression, ' the common utility and honour of the university ' 
It is probably to this period that the following decree is to be referred, 
and it may be regarded as a gloss on the award of 1314^: — 

' Item, quod nuUus de cetero, nisi prius in artibus rexerit, in disputatione 

^ Collectanea, Vol. II, p. 264 seq. 
2 Ibid. p. 271. 

^ John XXII issued several bulls in 
their favour; Anno 2, vii Kal. Nov., 
XVII Kal. Nov., Kal. Nov. ; Anno 4, 
IV Id. Aug. I have not seen this last. 

* Collect. II, 272. 

^ Mun. Acad. 391. This explanation 
or compromise was not suggested in 
any of the three bulls of John XXII, 
which I have seen. The Pope did not 
advance matters much : on this point he 
decreed, * quod fratres predicatores et 

alii religiosi predicti ejusdem loci Oxo- 
niensis, dummodo alias ydonei fuerint, 
ad idem Magisterium in facultate pre- 
dicta (sc. theologica), etiam si antea in 
artibus Magistri non fuerint, non petita, 
eo pretextu quod Magistri non fuissent 
in artibus, ab ipsis Cancellario et Magis- 
tris vel aliis, ad quos id pro tempore 
inibi pertinet, licentia per viam gratiae, 
sed per modum merae justitiae, libere 
assumantur.' Bull of John XXII, viii 
Kal. Nov, A° 2, transcribed by Mr. 
Bliss from Regesta, Vol. 67. 



solemni alicujus doctoris in theologia, publice opponere permittatur, nisi 
prius coram Cancellario et Procuratoribus Universitatis juramentum 
praestiterit corporale, quod philosophiam per octo annos, solis philosophicis 
principaliter intendendo, et postea theologiam per sex annos completos ad 
minus audierit, seu partim audierit et partim legerit, per spatium temporis 
supradicti : ad fidelem vero hujus statuti conservationem, noverint doctores 
in theologia Regentes se fore specialiter obligatos.' 

The award of 1314 remained the permanent law of the University, 
and for the next century the friars confined themselves to insisting on 
the due execution of its provisions. In 1388, Richard 11, hearing that, 

* contrary to the decision of the aforesaid declaration you maliciously 
prevent the friars from taking degrees in theology,' 

wrote two strongly worded letters to the Chancellor, Proctors, and 
Regent Masters of the University, ordering them, ' under pain of our 
heavy displeasure,' to observe the statute of 1314^ In 1421, in con- 
sideration of remonstrances from the King and the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, the University gave a solemn undertaking to carry out the 
same statute, with some changes in detail^. So long however as the 
condition, that the canditate must have ruled in Arts, was inserted in 
the 'form of licensing to incept in theology V the religious felt 
themselves to be at a disadvantage in comparison with the seculars, 
and bitterly resented their inferiority. When therefore, in 1447, the 
University was raising funds for the erection of the new schools, the 
Mendicants seized the opportunity to secure the abolition of this 
clause, promising in return that each friar should pay 40^. to the 
University at the time of receiving the licence ^. This may however 
have been only a temporary arrangement : the Registers of Congre- 
gation supply Httle evidence as to its having been carried out ^. 

The object of these statutes was partly to prevent the regulars from 
having an undue advantage over the seculars in the matter of theo- 
logical degrees, but they must have had the effect of ensuring to the 
friars some preliminary training before the commencement of their 

^ Close Rolls, 1 1 Ric. II, m. 1 5 ; 12 
Ric. II, m. 45. 

2 Wilkins, Concilia, III, 400. 

^ Ibid. 574-5. The same form of 
licensing was used for all faculties, and 
there was no mention of regency in 
Arts in the licence for the faculty of 
theology, strictly speaking : Ibid. 382- 
3. It was however contained among the 
conditions which the licentiate swore he 

had fulfilled or been dispensed from : 
Ibid. 391-2, 394. 
* Ibid. 575, 

^ In 1459 John Alien, B.D. of Cam- 
bridge, supplicated for incorporation 
at Oxford : one of the conditions im- 
posed was, * quod solvat xl^ ad fabrica- 
cionem scolarum.' This condition was 
withdrawn the same day. Regist. Aa, 
{. 119. 



theological studies. Roger Bacon, as usual, has a decided opinion on 
the necessity of such a training. Writing in 1 2 7 1 \ he says : — 

* During the last forty years there have arisen some in the Universities 
(in studio) who have made themselves doctors and masters of theology and 
philosophy, though they have never learnt anything of real value {dignum) 
and are neither willing nor able to do so on account of their ' status.' .... 
They are boys inexperienced in themselves, in the world, in the learned 
languages, Greek and Hebrew ; . . . they are ignorant of all parts and 
sciences of mundane philosophy, when they venture on the study of 
theology, which demands all human wisdom. . . . They are the boys of the 
two student Orders, like Albert and Thomas and others, who enter the 
Orders when they are twenty years old or less. . . . Many thousands enter 
who cannot read the Psalter or Donatus, and immediately after making 
their profession, they are set to study theology. . . . And so it was right 
that they should make no progress, especially when they did not procure 
instruction for themselves in philosophy from others after they entered the 
Order. And most of all because they have presumed in the Orders to 
investigate philosophy by themselves without a teacher — so that they 
have become masters in theology and philosophy before they were 
disciples — therefore infinite error reigns among them.' 

The Oxford friars however could not have acquired their great 
scholastic reputation unless they had been better fitted than the 
seculars for the study of theology ; and Friar William Woodford had 
little difficulty in pointing to many who, having entered the Order in 
their youth, 

' wrote many works of great wisdom, which remain for the advantage of 
the Church 2.' 

The clause of the statute of 1253 which prohibited the extortion of 
graces or dispensations by means of the letters of influential persons 
was not altogether effective. When, in 1358, the bitter feeling against 
the friars found a spokesman in Richard Fitzralph and again burst 
forth into open hostility, the clause was re-enacted in a more stringent 
form ^. Any one using such letters was declared for ever incapable of 
holding or obtaining any degree at Oxford, and the University deter- 
mined to hold up these ' wax-doctors ' to obloquy. 

'These,' begins a proclamation of the same year^, 'are the names of the 
wax-doctors, as they are called who seek to extort graces from the 
University by means of letters of lords sealed with wax, or because they 
run from hard study as wax runs from the face of fire. Be it known that 
such wax-doctors are always of the Mendicant Orders, the cause whereof 

^ Opera Inedita, pp. Iv and 399. 
2 Twyne, MS. XXII, f. 103 c (De- 
fcnsorium, cap. 62). 

^ Mun. Acad. 206. 
* Ibid. 207-8. 


we have found ^ ; for by apples and drink, as the people fables, they draw 
boys to their religion, and do not instruct them after their profession, as 
their age demands, but let them wander about begging, and waste the 
time when they could learn, in currying favour with lords and ladies. . . . 
These are their names-: Friar Richard Lymynster incepted in theology by 
means of the prince's letters, and his grace contained the condition that he 
should incept and not lecture, but that Friar John Nutone his predecessor 
should continue lecturing^: and Friar Giuliortus de Limosano of the 
Order of Minors, who asserted that he was secretary of the King of Sicily, 
extorted from the University, or rather from the theological faculty, by 
letters of the King, grace to oppose.* 

These instances hardly seem to justify the violent language of the 
proclamation, and it is uncertain to what extent the Oxford Minorites 
were guilty of the practice here denounced. Wiclif repeats the charge 
against the Mendicants generally : — 

' A what cursedness is this, to a dead man, as to the world, and pride and 
vanitie thereof, to get him a cap of masterdom by praier of Lords ^ ! ' 

It remains for us to give an account of the academic, or rather 
scholastic career of a Friar Minor at Oxford. As many of the 
friars entered the Order in tender years, there is no doubt that boys' 
schools; formed part of many of the friaries \ There is no evidence of 
such a school at Oxford, but at Paris one existed where the student 
friars received a preliminary education^. It is probable that the names 
of friars who showed ability were sent up by the various convents to 
the Provincial Chapter and that a certain number were elected by the 
' discreet men ' there assembled to go to the University^. There is no 
evidence of any definite rule fixing the number or proportion of friars 
who might be sent from each convent, custody, or province, to 
Oxford'^. The average number of friars living in the convent at 
Oxford at any time during the last quarter of the thirteenth and the 

^ The following passage is taken with 
some alterations from Richard de Bury's 
Philobiblon, p. 51 (edited by E. C. 

^ I do not know to which Order these 
two belonged. 

^ ' Two Short Treatises,' &c., p. 

* Wadding, V, 300 ; statutes made at 
the General Chapter at Paris, 1 292. 
5 Ibid. II, 382. 

^ Cf. Woodford, Defensorium, cap. 
8. Fri'ars are sent to the University by 

papal ordinance or election by the 

Such as existed e. g. among the 
English Benedictines, one monk out of 
every twenty being sent to the Univer- 
sity. Cf. the practice among the 
Dominicans, at Paris : ' Tres fratres tan- 
tum mittantur ad studium Parisius {sic) 
de provincia' (Constitutions, c. 1235, in 
Archiv f. L. u K. Gesch. I, 189), and at 
Oxford, whither two students were sent 
from each province; Fletcher, The Black 
Friars of Oxford, p. 6. 



[Ch. III. 

first half of the fourteenth century was probably between seventy and 
eighty ^. 

A friar usually completed his eight years' study of Arts, and often 
began his course of theology^, at his native convent. On coming up 
to Oxford he at once entered on or continued his theological studies. 
A secular student of Divinity during his first three years attended 
' cursory ' lectures on the Bible and was admitted to oppose after the 
end of the fourth year^. In the friaries the course of study would in 
the main correspond with that adopted by the University. After six 
years* (instead of four) spent chiefly in the study of the Bible, a friar 
was presented by his teacher, a Regent Master of the same Order ^, to 

^ As the estimates of the numbers of 
friars and monks vary considerably, it 
may be worth while to give the 
evidence (which is entirely indirect) on 
which this calculation is based. In 
1255, there were, according to Eccleston, 
49 Franciscan houses in England and 
1242 friars, giving an average of rather 
more than 25 to each convent (Mon. 
Franc. I, 10). At London, according 
to the Regist. Fratrum Min. London., 
there were about 100 friars, on the 
average, in the fourteenth century (Ibid, 
p. 512). The public records give more 
trustworthy statistics. It was often 
customary for the kings on their pro- 
gresses to give pittances of /{d. each 
to the friars of the places through 
which they passed. I have found no 
such grant to the Oxford Minorites : 
but the statement in the text may be 
compared with the following instances. 

At London in 1243, there were 80 
Minorites (Liberate, 28 Hen. Ill, m. 
18 : cf. also Q. R. Wardrobe, | and f) ; 
August, 1314, 64 (Q. R. Wardrobe, II) ; 
October, 1314, 72 (Q. R. Wardrobe, 1%) ; 
1315, 7^ (Q- R- Wardrobe, 
y2 (Q. R. Wardrobe, ^-^). At Norwich 
in 1326, ^7 (Q. R. Wardrobe, Y). At 
Lymi in 1326,^5 (Q. R. Wardrobe, 2^^). 
At Gloucester in 1326, 40 (Q. R. Ward- 
robe, Y)- At Cambridge in 1326, 70 
(Q. R. Wardrobe, ^J). 

It is not often possible to compare 
the numbers in the same houses at 
different dates. In the northern con- 
vents, before the Black Death, there 
was a large decrease : thus at New- 

castle in 1 299, provision was made for 
68 Minorites (Q. R. Wardrobe, f. 4) ; 
about 45 years later, for ^2 only (Chap- 
ter-house Books, A 149) ; but this 
may be explained by reference to the 
special circumstances of the North. 
Elsewhere we find an increase. 

At Winchester, there were 2^ Minor- 
ites in 1243 (Liberate, 27 Hen. Ill, m. 
2); 4j\n 1315 (Q. R. Wardrobe, |^). 
At Reading, there were in 1239 
(Liberate, 23 Hen. Ill, m. 3) ; 26 in 
1326 (Q. R. Wardrobe, V). 

From these figures, and from the 
Bull of Clement V in 1309 (granting 
property of the Friars of the Sack to the 
Grey Friars), we may infer that the 
numbers in the Oxford convent increased 
rather than diminished up to a.d. 1349. 

^ Mun. Acad. 388 : * quidam in 
eorum. primo adventu in villam Oxo- 
niae ... ad opponendum in sacra 
theologia se offerunt inopinate.' Ibid. 
390 : ' nisi prius dictas liberales artes 
per octo annos integros in Universitate 
vel alibi rite audierit,' &c. Friars some- 
times however spent the whole time at 
the University ; see Regist. G. 6, fol. 
55a (R. Burton); H. 7, fol. 124 Q. 

2 Mun. Acad. 389; Lyte, 223. 

* Mun. Acad. 389. One of these 
years at least must be spent at Oxford ; 
ib. 388 : sometimes six or even twelve 
years' residence in a University was 
insisted on ; Regist. G. 6, f. 61 b 
(Banester) ; H. 7, f. 73 (Thornall). 

^ Ibid. 204, 388 : ' a doctore proprio 
ejusdem ordinis et Regente.' 



the Chancellor and Proctors ; special enquiry was then made as to his 
knowledge of the liberal arts, his age, morals, and stature ; and if 
he satisfied the University officers on these points, he was admitted to 
'oppose in theology Two more years elapsed before he could 
become a ' respondent Opposition or opponency and responsion 
were the two sides of a disputation : some question in theology was 
proposed, probably by the Master of the Schools ; the opponent took 
one side (affirmative or negative) and put his case; the respondent 
then had to take the other side. The difficulty of the respondent's 
task was probably augmented by his having to answer the arguments 
of more than one opponent^. These regulations however were 
apparently superseded in 1358, when it was enacted that no religious 
who had not ruled in Arts should presume to read the Sentences until 
he had opposed duly and publicly a whole year in the ordinary dispu- 
tations of the Masters, no other person of the same Order opposing 
at the same time*. This appears to have been the theory, and to 
some extent the practice, during the times about which we have any 
detailed information — i. e. the period covered by the early Registers. 
In none of the supplications and graces of the Minorites is there 
mention of the lapse of two years or anything approaching it between 
opponency and responsion ; the latter exercise indeed is usually coupled 
with opponency, and treated as a very secondary affair^. A few 
instances will be sufficient as illustrations. In 1515a grace was granted 
to Friar W. German, scholar of theology, with the stipulation that half a 
year should elapse between his opposition and responsion; the condition 
was subsequently withdrawn at German's request^. In 1457, Friar 
Gonsalvo of Portugal supplicated that he might count two terms of 
opponency as a year"^; Richard Ednam in 1455 was allowed to count 
eight oppositions pro completa forma oppositionis ^. Friar John Smith 
was admitted B.D. six months after he was admitted to oppose ®. The 
opponent had to dispute in each of the Schools of the Masters in 

^ Mnn. Acad. 204, 388. 

2 Ibid. 389. 

3 Cf. Univ. Reg. Vol. II, Part I, p. 
22, disputations 'in Parvisis' (forB.A.). 

* Mun. Acad. 206. 

^ The usual form of application for 
B.D. is : 'Supplicat frater Joannes Brown 
ordinis minorum et scolaris in sacra 
theologia quatenus studium 1 2 annorum 
in logicis philosophicis et theologicis 
sufficiat ut admittatur ad opponen- 
dum in^ novis scolis qua habita una 

cum responsione possit admitti ad lec- 
turam libri sententiarum.' Reg. G. 6, 
f. 107. 

6 Regist, G. 6, f. 254 b: cf. ibid. f. 187, 
similar condition in the grace to Friar 
W. Walle, 1 513. 

^ Reg. A a, f. loi b. 

« Ibid. 87 b. 

^ Reg. G. 6, f. 127b; ibid. 160 a. 
John de Castro of Bologna became B.D. 
four days after his admission to opposi- 
tion (Boase, Register, p. 93). 



theology ^ ; towards the end of our period, oppositions were held in 
the new Schools of theology ^. 

After nine years spent in theological study, the friar might be 
admitted to read the Sentences of Peter Lombard publicly in the 
Schools ^, that is, to take the degree of B.D. On the presentation of the 
candidate to the Chancellor and Proctors, one at least of the Regents 
in theology must swear that he knew him to be a fit person in morals 
and learning, the other Regents, that they believed him to be such ^. 
Within a year from this time ^, the new Bachelor had to begin his lec- 
tures on the Sentences, which he continued for a year (three terms), 
reading the text on most of the 'legible' days of each term, with 
questions or arguments pertinent to the matter, giving the accepted 
interpretation. He was not to raise doubtful points or attack the con- 
clusions of another, more than once a term, except at the first and last 
lectures on each book of the Sentences ^. In the first year also, he had 
to preach an examinatory sermon, which before 1303 was usually 
held at the Black or Grey Friars, after that date at St. Mary's'^; 
another Latin sermon, ' qui non sit examinatoriusl at St. Mary's^; and 
a third, before his inception, in the Dominican church, according to 
the statute of 1314^. In the next two years he had to continue his 
studies, and perhaps lecture on a book of the canon of the Bible ^"^i the 
lecturing in this case was apparently to be done biblice ; i. e. without 
commenting or discussing questions, except only on the text {quaestioneS 
. . literates) Further, after the lapse of a year from the conclusion 

^ Reg. A a, f. 74 b : ' oppositio in 
singulis scolis' (J. Sunday, 1453). 

^ Reg. G. 6, and H. 7, passim. 

2 Mun. Acad. 389. 

* Ibid. : this ceremony was called 
* deponing.' 

5 Ibid. 395. 

® This seems to be the general sense 
of the words : * non replicet pluries quam 
semel in termino, ultra introitus libro- 
rum, et cessationes eorumdem ; introitus 
enim et cessationes librorum, ac recitatio 
locorum ad materiam propriam perti- 
nens, . . . pro replicationibus minime 
computantur ; ' Ibid. 395. For these tech- 
nical terms, cf. Twyne, MS. II, f. 147 b. 

' Collectanea, II, 225, 270; Mun. 
Acad. 392, 

" Mun. Acad. 395 : this is the ser- 
mon which is often alluded to in the 
Supplications, &c. of the fifteenth 

century as ' sermo ad quem tenetur ex 
novo statuto.' 

^ Collectanea, II, 270. The registers 
make no mention of this sermon ; it 
seems to have been superseded by ser- 
mons at St. Paul's, St. Frideswide's, St. 
Mary's, &c. See Reg. G. 6, f. 185 ; H. 7, 
f. 51b, no, &c. 

Mun. Acad. 391, 396. From the 
latter passage (and from statute of 1253, 
ibid. p. 25) it would appear that lectures 
on the Bible were a substitute for 
lectures on the Sentences : ' et aliquem 
librum de canone bibliae vel sententiarum 
Oxoniae in scholis theologiae publice 
legant.' This however does not seem 
to have been the case in reality : see 
siipplicat of Friar John Sunday, Feb. 5, 
145I, in Appendix: cf. Reg. Aa, f. 54 
(J. Florence), 122 (Ednam), f. 114, &c. 

^' Mun. Acad. 392, 394 : ' biblice sen 



of his lectures on the Sentences, he had to respond to eight Regents in 
theology separately (or to all if there were less than eight) ; all or most 
of these responsions were to be 'ordinary/ or at least 'concursive' 
{concur sivae), and responsions at vesperies and inceptions were 
included in the eight ^ Whether the rest of these responsions took 
place at the terminal disputations in the Theology School is not 
quite clear; but a later statute (1583) provides that none of these 
terminal disputations shall count to any one ^pro forma ^! The re- 
sponsions were latterly held in the new schools: before these were built, 
in the schools of the various Masters. The Bachelor had then com- 
pleted the studies necessary for the degree of S.T.P. or D.D. 

These exercises seem usually to have been insisted on, more or less 
fully, even in the century before the Reformation. Friar John Sunday in 
1454, having finished his lectures on the Sentences, supplicated for leave 
to incept after responding to each of the doctors and completing his 
course on the Bible : the grace was conceded on condition that he 
should respond and oppose eight times ^pro formal and respond twice 
^prefer formam^.' Friar Thomas Anyden, S.T.B., supplicated (1507) 
that three responsions in the new schools with an examinatory sermon 
and 'introitus' of the Bible should suffice that he should be admitted to 
incept *. It was rarely that three years intervened before the admission 
to read the Sentences and inception ^ Thus Friar Gilbert Saunders 
was admitted to oppose in Nov. 151 1, and incepted in July 1513^. 
Friar John Smyth was admitted B.D. in Dec. 15 12, and D.D. in July 
1513'^. Another of the same name however was allowed to incept in 
1507 if he had spent four years in the study of theology after taking 
the bachelor s degree^. 

We now come to the exercises and ceremonies connected with 
inception. First the grace had to be asked of Congregation ; there was 
no fixed time for doing this°. Secondly came the ' deponing/ which 
was done by all the regent masters in the faculty present ; all of them 

cursorie.' For the explanation of the minimum ; Mun. Acad. 391 : the ex- 
term 'cursory lectures,' see Clark's tension of the period to four years 
Univ. Reg., Vol. II, Part I, p. 76. must be of later date; Clark, Reg. 

^ Mun. Acad. 392, 394. I do not Vol. II, Pt. II, p. 139. An instance of 

understand * concursivae^ ; cf. note 6 on the later custom is found in 1507 ; Reg. 

p. 81. G. 6, fol. 22 b. 

2 Clark, Register of the Univ., Vol. ^ Reg. G. 6, fol. 168 b, 187 b. 
II, Pt. II, pp. 109-110. ' Ibid. fol. 160, 187 b. 

^ Reg. A a, f. 79 b (printed in Appen- ^ Ibid. fol. 22 b. 
dix). 9 Registers, passim : cf. Clark, Re- 

* Reg. G. 6, f. 47 b. gister. Vol. II, Pt. I, 142 seq., for the 

^ Thr^e years was theoretically the later customs. 



had to swear that they knew the candidate to be a fit person ; he must 
be of good life and honest conversation and not deformed in body 
{corpore vitiati) \ He then received in the ordinary form the Chancellor s 
licence to incept, after swearing to observe the statutes of the Univer- 
sity and to incept within a year of his admission ^ 

On the day preceding the day fixed for his 'vesperies/ the 
licentiate sent to each Master of Theology and requested him to 
attend the latter ceremony^. Theological vesperies were in the thir- 
teenth century held in the various schools ; a Franciscan celebrated his 
vesperies in the school or church of the convent under the presidency 
of his own master*. At the beginning of the fourteenth century, a 
statute was passed enacting that every inceptor in theology should 
celebrate his vesperies in St. Mary's Church^. It does not seem that 
the masters in the faculty were bound to attend ^ but the prospect of 
an important or exciting discussion often attracted a large audience"^. 
The exercises at vesperies consisted of disputations on theological 
questions proposed probably by the candidate^, and announced to Con- 
gregation. All the masters present both at vesperies and at the Act 
had the right to bring forward their arguments in turn^. Thus Friar 
Hugh of Hertepol (c. 1 280-1 290) disputed 'in the vesperies before 
the inception of Friar John de Persole at Oxford^".' About the 
same time ' Sneyt (debated) a question in the vesperies of Robert de 
Bromyard; Thomas of Malmesbury, preacher, responded"/ The 
proceedings were terminated by a speech delivered by the presiding 
master in praise of the inceptor Grostete is said to have presided 
and given the oration at the vesperies of Adam Marsh^^. 

Inception followed the next day. Even this ceremony in the thirteenth 

^ Mun. Acad. 379, 396. 

2 Ibid. 374, 377, 380, 450. 

^ Ibid. 432, 433. The phrase Uenere 
vesperias^ (cf. ibid. 429) perhaps refers 
to the Master who presided, ' celebrare 
vesperias^ to the incepting Bachelor. 
Vesperies might be held in any faculty 
on any day which was a dies legihilis 
among the artists; Mun. Acad. 433. 
Anstey (Ibid.) and Lyte (213) are 
mistaken in thinking that this only 
applied to the Faculty of Arts. 

* Collectanea, II, 217, 222-3. 

^ Mun. Acad, 393 ; Collectanea, ibid. 

^ Mun. Acad. 432. 

' Cf. Lyte, 106. 

" This at least was the later practice ; 

Clark, Register of the Univ.,Vol.II,Pt.I. 
p. 1 80: the statute in Mun. Acad.432 {^quo- 
modo Regens,' &c.) may mean that the pre- 
siding master proposed the questions ; per- 
haps this refers only to the Arts Faculty. 

^ See decree of 1586 in Clark, Reg. 
of Univ., Vol. II, Pt, I, p. 120— evidently 
an attempt to return to an older custom : 
cf. Mun. Acad. 433-4, though this 
probably refers only to the Act. 

1" Assisi MS., No. 158, guesHo 185 : 
Hugh of Hertepol however probably 
presided in this case ; see Part II. 
Ibid, questio 159. 

^2 Trivet, Annals, p. 306; Lyte, 214. 

" Bale, Script. Brit., Vol. I, p. 306 : 
' in vesperiis Adae.' 


century took place sometimes in the churches of the friars^; but at the 
beginning of the fourteenth century, it was certainly the custom to 
hold the Act in St. Mary's^. The inceptor was admitted into the 
gild of Masters by one of the Masters (not the Chancellor), who was 
called the Father^. In the case of a Franciscan, the Father would 
usually, though not always, be a doctor of the same Order^. Those 
about to incept first read their lectures, then opened a discussion on 
certain questions^. In later times the exercises consisted of the 
discussion by all the inceptors, as opponents, of three questions 
proposed by the respondent and sanctioned by Congregation ; the re- 
spondent, while statutably a D.D., was usually some M.A. or B.D. who 
was allowed to count this responsion pro forma^\ In the more vigorous 
days of scholasticism, it is probable that the disputation was more of a 
reality — that the inceptor (who took the part of opponent) chose his 
own subjects'^ and was answered by a rival among the doctors^. 

Many of the questions discussed at vesperies, inceptions, and other 
disputations at Oxford at the end of the thirteenth century — probably 
in the convent of the Minorites — are preserved in a manuscript at 
Assisi^ The question on which Friar Hugh of Hertepol disputed at 
the vesperies of Friar John de Persole was: An Christus in primo 
instanii potuit mereri perfecHone. Other questions of the same Friar 
Hugh were : An deus eadem ratione formali videatur iriniis et umis, 
An incarnacio sit possihilis. The following are also among the 
questions in the same volume : Utrum deus sit infinite potencie, Utrinn 
Virgo concepit sine semine, An intellectus sit forma corporis, An deus sit 
in omnibus rebus, An omnes beati equaliter participant beatitudine^ An 
ratio ymaginis est in actuati visione dei. 

We may next enquire how far the statutable requirements as to the 

^ Trivet, ui supra. luerint, proponentes Magistris oppo- 

^ Mun. Acad. 392 : ' sicut in ecclesia nant.' 

Virginis gloriosae honorem recipit ma- ^ Clark, Regist. of the Univ., Vol. II, 

gistralem.' Perhaps it was always unusual pt. I, pp. 144, 180, 121. 

to hold the Act anywhere except in St. '' Mun. Acad. 433 (passage quoted in 

Mary's. note 3 of this page). 

^ Rashdall, Early Hist, of Oxford; « Cf. Assisi MS. No. 158, ^z^^j/zi? 117 : 

Church, Quarterly Review, Vol. XXIII; 'questio domini Archidiaconi essexte in 

Lyte, p. 213 seq. ; Mon. Franc. I, 135. inceptione sua: respondit archidiaconus 

* Friar John Smyth, Minorite, was Oxon'.' 

created D.D. by the Abbat of Winch- ^ No. 158 in the Municipal (formerly 

combe; Reg. G. 6, fol. 31b. Cf. Mon. conventual) Library at Assisi. Some 

Franc. I, 348 . of the questions have the names of Cam- 

^ Mun. Acad. 433 : ' Incepturi qui- bridge friars attached to them (e. g. 

dem suas legant in principio lectiones, Letheringfont ; and questio 104, frater 

deinde guaestiones, quas disputare vo- Johannes CrussebutapudCantebrigiam); 


period of study were carried out : the only evidence obtainable is from 
the registers, which begin about 1450. The statutes, as we have seen, 
required that a religious should have studied Arts (i. e. philosophy) and 
Theology for fourteen years before opponency. The periods mentioned 
in the supplications vary from sixteen to eight years, the most usual 
number of years being twelve. Before inception, six more years of study 
were demanded, i. e. twenty in all. The period in the supplications 
varies from fourteen to twenty years ; the usual number is eighteen. 
There is however reason to believe that these figures are not very 
exact. We have no means of checking them with regard to oppon- 
ency, and the University was probably in the same position. But it 
frequently happened, that a friar, who had been admitted to oppose on 
the ground of having studied * logic, philosophy and theology ' for 
twelve years, supplicated two years later or less for grace to incept on 
the plea that he had studied the same subjects for eighteen years \ 

The expenses at inception were very heavy. The religiosi wore 
their usual habit and Mendicants were exempted from the payment of 

* commons ' to the University^. Further, when several inmates of the 
same convent incepted on the same day, the charges (fees to the bedells 
and others?) were the same as for one inceptor*. But these details 
did not touch the largest expenses. According to ancient custom, 
every inceptor on the day of his inception feasted the Regent Masters 
(apparently of all faculties) ^ and Wiclif inveighs against the Mendi- 
cant Doctors for their 

* great gifts and making of huge feasts of a hundred and many hundred 

Friar William Woodford, Wiclif s contemporary, started from London 
to take his D.D. with £40 in his purse 

Attempts were made to curtail the expenses of the friars. In his 
constitutions for the reformation of the Franciscan Order in 1336, 
Pope Benedict XII decreed*^, that 

two are disputations by Minorites at 
Paris and in curia. The names of 
seculars and Friars Preachers also 

^ See e. g. John Brown, Regist. G. 6, 
fol. 107, 185. Robert Sanderson, ibid, 
fol. 107 and 171 : contrast W. German, 
ibid., fol. 187, 301. The generalizations 
in this paragraph are derived from an ex- 
amination and analysis of all the entries, 
relating to the Franciscans, in the Uni- 

versity Registers to the end of the year 


2 Mun. Acad. 434. 

^ Ibid. 480 ; cif, Regist. A a, f. 2. 

* Ibid. 450-1. 5 Ibid. 353, &c. 
Two Short Treatises, &c.(ed. 1608), 
p. 30. 

^ See Part II. 

" Bodleian MS. Canonic. Misc. 75, 
fol. 79 b, cap. X. De expensis studen- 
cium cvitandis. 


* at inceptions ^ of Masters of the Order in theology, or of bachelors 
beginning the Sentences, they shall not spend in food and drink, except 
once only, more than would suffice for the moderate refection of the 
convent of the place where such inceptions take place. Other bachelors, 
lecturers or other students, both at Paris and at other studia generalia and 
studia particularia, shall not spend anything at their own inception or 
scholastic act or at the inception or act of others.' 

It became usual, both among religious and seculars, to commute the 
expenses of the feast for a fixed money payment to the University. 
According to the scale fixed by statute in 1478^, seculars who were 
able to spend at the University more than £40 and less than £100 (a 
year), paid twenty marks in lieu of the feast; those able to spend £100 
or more, paid £20. A monk's composition was assessed at twenty 
marks; a friar's at ten marks or £6 133-. 4^. (equivalent to about 
£80 of present money). The sums actually paid by the Franciscans 
varied considerably. Sometimes the statutable amount was paid^. 
Friar John Whytwell (i4ff) paid £10*. Friar Richard Ednam (1463) 
was required to give £15, as well as a liherata to the Regents ex 
sumptu proprio^. More often (especially in the sixteenth century) a 
reduction of the sum was granted by the University, the concession 
being usually accompanied by the condition that the friar should say 
masses pro bono statu Regentium^. Friar Thomas Anneday was 
allowed to pay seven marks, 'because he is poor and has few friends'^.' 
Others obtained a reduction of their composition by one half^; or the 
whole sum might be remitted under certain conditions, as in the case 
of Friar Nicholas de Burgo^. Sometimes Congregation refused to 
allow the full reduction asked for^''. 

It was further customary for inceptors to provide robes for masters 
and others attending their inception. Perhaps a trace of this custom 
may be seen in the grace to Friar Gonsalvo of Portugal, who at his 
inception was to 

^ p'nis, principiis (MS.). die admissionis sue possunt sibi sufficere 

^ Mun. Acad. 353-4. pro sua composicione. Hec est concessa 

^ Regist. G. 6, f. 1 87 b; J. Smyth ( i .5 1 3). condicionata quod quinquies dicat mis- 
* Regist. A a, fol. 7 (printed in sam de quinque vulneribus et ter dicat 

Boase's Reg. p. 287). missam de trinitate pro bono statu 

s Reg. A a, f. 128; cf. ibid. 122. regentium ante Pascha.' 

Ednam was probably in an exceptional ' Regist. G. 6, fol. 169 b: cf. Regist. 

position : shortly after this he became H. 7, f. 140, S. Thornall (printed in 

Bishop of Bangor ; Le Neve, Fasti. Appendix). 

6 e. g. on Nov. 27, 1506, 'supplicat ^ e. g. W. German, W. Walle : see 

frater Johannes Smyjth ordinis minorum Part II. 

s. t. b, quatenus secum graciose dispen- ^ Regist. H. 7, f. 117. 

setur sic,quod quinque libre solvende in Reg. G. 6, f. 177, G. Sander. 

E 2 


' give a livery, i. e. cultellos, according to the ancient practice, to all the 
Regents V 

During the period of necessary regency, which followed inception, a 
secular had the right to attend all meetings of Congregation, and was 
bound to deliver ' ordinary ' lectures publicly in the schools for the re- 
mainder of the year in which he incepted and the whole of the follow- 
ing year A statute of 1478 states the custom as enforced in the 
case of the Mendicants ^ : — 

* Every one of them so incepting shall be bound to necessary regency for 
twenty-four months to be reckoned continuously from the day of his 
inception, including vacations, or he shall be regent and pay to the 
University according to the ancient customs ; and although it happen that 
some other of the same Order incept within the term of the said months, 
he shall yet be bound to observe the foresaid form of regency, so that 
however only one of them come to the house of Congregation, according to 
the custom hitherto in use ; proviso, that none of them shall omit to 
lecture {expendet) more than thirty days in a year by virtue of any grace 
whether general or special.' 

Perhaps the exclusion of the friars, except one of each Order, from the 
house of Congregation and consequently from the government of the 
University, dates from the middle of the fourteenth century^. In 1454 
Friar John David, S.T.P., suppHcated for leave 

* to resume his ordinary lecturers and exercise the acts of regent excepting 
the entry to the house of Congregation ^' 

Dispensations from necessary regency were often obtained. In 
1452 Friar Anthony de Vallibus, D.D., asked leave to absent himself 
from all scholastic acts for a fortnight in order to visit his friends who 
were sick^. Friar William Walle was dispensed from fifteen days of his 
regency in iSiS"^; Friar John Brown from his regency during Lent in 
1514^ Gilbert Sander and Walter Goodfeld were released from the 
whole of their necessary regency^. John Smyth obtained a similar 
grace as being 'warden of a convent and consequently very busy^^.' 
Dispensations from the sermon which was to be preached in St. 
Mary's within a year of inception were also very frequent 

These and other graces were usually granted subject to certain con- 

^ Mun. Acad. 755 : cf. Ric. Ednam ^ Ibid. f. 62 b. 

above, A monk gave robes to all the Reg. H. 7, f, 6 b. 

Regent Masters of Arts at his inception ^ Reg. G. 6, f. 207. 

i.i 1360; Mun. Acad. 223. » Ibid. f. 104 b, and f. 199 b: cf. N. 

Mun. Acad. 419, 451, 452. de Burgo, H. 7, f. 117 b. 

3 Ibid. 453. 1" Reg. G. 6, f. 194 b : cf. T. Frances, 

* Or earlier : see Mon. Franc. I, H. 7, f. 68. 

347. Mun. Acad. 396; Reg. G. 6, f, 213b 

' Regist. A a, f. 83, (R. Saunderson), 214 (G. Sawnder), &c. 


ditions. The recipient was often to say masses 'for the pestilence' or 

* for the welfare of the Regents ' ^ : or he had to lecture gratuitously 
on some specified book ' ^ or preach a sermon ^ ; or again the payment 
of a sum of money was imposed as a condition*. Thus in 151 5 
Friar John Flavyngur was allowed to give extraordinary lectures on a 
book of the Decretals, 

* on condition that he would pay 6/. %d. to the University on the day of his 
admission and would read two books of the Decretals 

Friar Thomas Frances received permission in 152 1 to incept 

* on condition that he would pay \od, within a month for the repair of the 
staff of the junior bedell of arts and would preach a sermon at St. Paul's 
within, two years and an examinatory sermon before his degree 

Franciscan students were maintained at the Universities by a system 

of exhibitions. These were provided sometimes by private benefactors^, 

usually by the native convent of the student out of the 'common alms/ 

with the occasional assistance of other convents^. From the few 

traces which remain of the custom we may infer that the exhibition 

was generally reckoned at £5 a year, and that this sum covered the 

ordinary expenses of living ^ Masters, lecturers and bachelors, as 

already stated, were supported by the convent in which they lectured 

^ Registers, /iZi'^zV;?. 
^ Reg. A a, f. 51 b, J. David (see 
Appendix) ; G. 6, fol. 39, Gerard 

Smyth; H. 7, fol. 117, N. de Burgo. 

=*'Regist. G. 6, f. 39 b, W. Gudfeld 
(see Appendix), &c. 

* e. g. Regist. A a, f. 119, John 
Alien ; H. 7, fol. 119, N. de Burgo. 

5 Regist. G. 6, fol. 257 b. 

6 Regist. H. 7, fol. 51b: cf. D. 
Williams (ibid.) : . . . * predicet unum 
sermonem in ecclesia divi pauli London, 
et solvat angelum aureum ad repara- 
tionem baculi inferioris bedelli artium.' 
Cf. ibid. fol. 64, the same friar was to 
pay I2d. for the same purpose. 

^ See the will of William Maryner, 
* citezein and salter of London,' in 
Somerset House (P.C.C. Fetiplace, qu. 
8), A.D. 1512 : 'Item, I bequeth to the 
exhibucion of a vertuons scoler of the 
said freeres Minours (of London) to be 
provided and ordeyned of the goode 
discrecion of the said wardeyn of the 
place, vii .' Cal. of State Papers, Hen. 
Vin, Vol. in, p. 497 : May 24, 1521, 
Ho a Grey Friar for his exhibition at 

Oxford M: (weekly?). 

^ Bullarium Romanum, I, 251 (' Mar- 
tiniana,' A.D. 1430), cap. X : * . . . ita 
et taliter quod cuilibet studenti pro posse 
provideatur de suis necessariis, tam pro 
libris, quam pro reliquis opportunis, de 
communibus eleemosynis per procura- 
torem receptis pro quolibet conventu 
sive loco nativo fratris ad studium pro- 
movendi. Exhortantes strictissime in 
visceribus Jesu Christi ceteros fratres 
aliorum locorum, quod quum viderint 
idoneos ad studia promovendos, totis 
viribus eisdem impendant auxilium, 
consilium et favorem, . . . quaerendo 
pro eis eleemosynas, recommendando 
valentibus subvenire,' &c. 

^ See note 7: cf. Wiclif, Trialogus, IV, 
cap. 35 (p. 369) : ' . . . quilibet consumat 
annuatim in persona sua de bonis regni 
centum solidos et totidem in aedifica- 
tionibus,' &c. Lyte, p. 93, on cost of 
living at Oxford: cf. Palmer, in Reli- 
quary, Vol. XIX, p. 76 ; the king sup- 
ported Dominicans at Langley at the 
rate of ^^d. a day each, A.D. 1337. 
1*^ Bodl. MS. Canonic. Misc. 75, fol. 80. 



but their allo\vance was probably not much larger than that of the 
ordinary student friars. Nicholas Hereford, preaching at Oxford in 
1382 \ asserted that those of the Mendicants who had graduated as 
masters or bachelors, in addition to the ample allowance which they 
got from their community, begged for themselves, saying, 'I am a 
bachelor (or master) and require more than others, because I ought to 
be able to live up to my position/ {Quia oportet me habere ad 
expendendum secundum siatum mewJi) 

It is impossible to say what proportion of the Franciscans at Oxford 
proceeded to a degree. In 1300 we have the names of twenty-two 
members of the convent : of these, ten at least were then, or because 
afterwards. Doctors of Divinity 2. But the proportion of graduates to 
non-graduates and B.D.'s in the whole convent cannot have been nearly 
so large. The following statistics are derived from the University 
Registers^. From 1449 to 1463, five Franciscans obtained or suppli- 
cated for the doctor's degree ; five others for that of bachelor only. 
From 1505 to 1538 (i.e. about thirty-three years, as some pages of 
the Registers are missing), twenty-five Franciscans incepted or suppli- 
cated for the degree of D.D. ; twenty-six others obtained or suppli- 
cated for that of B.D. (one of them also for B.Can.L.) : three more 
were admitted to oppose : one more supplicated for B.Can.L. The 
proportion of D.D.'s to B.D.'s would generally be larger than this : 
from 1532 to the dissolution in 1538 fourteen obtained, or supplicated 
for, the degree of bachelor, two only became D.D.'s : we may reason- 
ably suppose that some of the fifteen bachelors would have proceeded 
to the doctor's degree had not the dissolution intervened. 

The following figures will show the relative numbers of the various 
religious houses in Oxford ^ The Registers from 1449 to 1463 con- 
tain the names of 10 Franciscans, 13 Dominicans, 12 CarmeHtes, 9 
Austin Friars, 44 Benedictines, and 8 Cistercians: from 1505 to 1538, 
of 57 Franciscans, 40^ Dominicans, 24 Carmelites, 23 Austins, 169 
Benedictines, and 44 Cistercians. 

^ Twyne, MS. IV, 173. in Reg. G. 6, f. i. Simon Clerksonwas 

2 See Wood-Clark, II, 386. a Carmelite. Reg. I, 8, f. 279. 
^ The Register as edited by Boase ^ Those described merely as friars or 

has been relied on in the main. J. monks and whose Order I have not dis- 

Whytwell, described by Boase as a friar, covered, I have omitted in this calcula- 

was a Minorite (Reg. A a, fol. 23 b): tion. 

similarly John Harvey (Acta Cur. Cane. M. Gryffith (Boase, 168) is described 

F, f. 212 b), and J. de Castro (ibid. F, in one place as Dominican, in another 

f. 263). ICdward Drewc (sup. for B.A. in as Franciscan : I have counted him 

June, 1505^ is called friar by Boase, not among the Dominicans. 



Absence of privacy. — Books of individual friars. — The two libraries, and their 
contents. — Grostete's bequest. — Extant manuscripts once in the Franciscan 
Convent. — Alleged illegal detention of books by the friars in 1330. — Richard 
Fitzralph's statements. — Richard of Bury on friars' libraries. — Dispersion of 
the books. — Leland's description of the library in his time. 

It is difficult to realise the external conditions under which the friars 
produced their works. At the end of the thirteenth and in the early 
part of the fourteenth century — the period of their greatest literary 
activity — privacy must have been almost unknown. Only ministers 
and lectors at the Universities were allowed to have a separate chamber 
or compartment shut off from the dormitory \ But there can be little 
doubt that, from Wiclifs time onwards ^5 each Doctor of Divinity had 
his chamber ; and every student had some place allotted to him, in 
which stood a siudium^ or combined desk and book-case ^ Every 
student friar had books set apart for his especial use * ; these books 

* MS. Canonic. Misc. 75, fol. 11 b 

(Bodleian) : ' Nullus frater cameram 
habeat clausam vel a dormitorio seques- 
tratam, ministris exceptis et lectoribus 
in generalibus studiis constitutis. Nec 
in studiis aliorum fratrum habeantur 
velamina vel clausura, quominus fratres 
inter ( ? intra) existentes patere possint 
aspectibus aliorum.' This MS. dates 
from the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries, and contains ' Constitutiones 
fratrum Minorujn^ made at various 
times. This extract is from the con- 
stitutions of Bonaventura as re-enacted 
in 1292. Cf. Mon. Franc. I, 195 ; 
Lanerc. Chron. p. 1 30. In the sixteenth 
century the Oxford Carmelites seem 
to have had a separate * cubiculum ' 

each; Acta Cur. Cane. EEE, f. 
249 b. 

2 Wiclif, Two Short Treatises, &c., 
cap. 13 (p. 30). The custom seems to 
have been new in his time. 

3 Cf. note I . Several grants of timber 
to the Dominicans ' ad studia facienda ' 
occur in the early records ; e. g. Close 
Roll, 42 Hen. Ill, m, 2 ; Liberate, 45 
Hen. Ill, m. 6 ; Close, 53 Hen. Ill, m. 6, 
seven oaks to the friars Preachers, Ox- 
ford, ' for the repair of their studies.* 
Representations of these studia are not 
uncommon in mediaeval pictures and 
illuminations. Savonarola's studium is 
still in the Dominican monastery of S. 
Marco, Florence. Cf. also M. Lyte, p. 204. 

* Bullarium Romanum, I, 251. 



were obtained by gift or bequest \ by purchase ^ or by assignation by 
the Provincial ^ or Warden or they had been copied out by the friar 
himself''. Alexander IV expressly declared that they were not the 
private property of the individual friars ^ ; on the death of the friar 
who had had the use of them, they reverted to the convent, or were 
distributed to others ' by the Warden with the consent of the convent 
and licence of the minister V 

There is no reason to suppose that the friars had a chamber 
specially set apart as a scriptorium ; they were comparatively free from 
the legal routine or ' office- work ' which the administration of their 
vast estates imposed on the monks and their clerks. But the tran- 
scription of manuscripts was part of the regular work of the Oxford 
Franciscans ; and it is indeed the only kind of manual labour ex- 
pressly mentioned in connexion with the convent. Roger Bacon's 
statement ^ that he could only get a fair copy of his works made for 
the Pope by writers unconnected with his Order, means merely that 
there were no professional scribes among the Minorites of Paris. 

^ MS. Canonic. Misc. 75, f. Sob: 
cap. X, Me libris donatis vel legatis 
cuivis communitati seu persone ordinis,' 

^ Cf. Burney MS. 325 hi principio'. 
* Istum librum emit Johannes Ledbury, 
de ordine fratrum minorum, a magistro 
Gilberto Hundertone, de elemosina 
amicorum suorum.' (a.d. 1349.) 
Liberate Roll, 30 Hen. Ill, m. 10, is a 
grant of ten marks to a friar, apparently 
a Minorite of Northampton, ' ad unam 
Bihliotecajn emendam^ 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 359-360, Adam 
Marsh writes to the Provincial, ' rogans 
obnixius quatenus . . . Bibliam carissi- 
mi P. de Wygornia piae recordationis 
eidem (sc. fratri Thomae de Dokkyng) 
ad usum salutarem assignare velitis. . . . 
Insuper non desunt qui de pretio libri 
memorati cumulatius, ut audio, satis- 

•* MS. Canonic, ut supra ; cf. Burney 
MS. 5, Bible belonging to Minorites 
of St. Edmundsbury, * cujus usus de- 
betur fratri Waltero de Bukenham ad 

Mon. Franc. I, 349 : * Plures, aut 
audio, rcpcrientur opportuni ad nunc 
dictum fratris obbcquium (i. c. to act as 

Secretary to Friar Ric. of Cornwall), 
si scripturae quos ex studiosa praefati 
fratris R. (Cornubiae) vigilantia manibus 
suis conscripserint, singulis suae con- 
cedantur in usus utilitatis privatae, tarn 
ad communitatis profectum ampliorem.' 

® Bullarium Romanum, I, no. Friars 
Minors promoted to bishoprics, &c. 
shall give up to the General or Pro- 
vincial Minister 'libros et alia quae 
tempore suae promotionis habent,' as 
these must really belong to the Order. 
(a.d. 1255.) The books were however 
practically treated as private property ; 
see e. g. a MS. in the Bodleian, Laud. 
Misc. 528, 'quondam Johannis Ston et 
Agnetis uxoris ex dono Johannis, fratris 
ordinis Minorum.' Cf. ibid. No. 176 ; 
Ball. Coll. MS. 133, f. I, &c. 

' MS. Canonic. where care- 

ful and elaborate instructions are given : 
e. g. * meliores seu utiliorcs libri sem- 
per remaneant in conventu'; 'Libri 
vcro ad communitatem custodie pcrtinen- 
tes distribuantur in provinciali capitulo 
fratri bus ejusdem custodie tantum per 
ministrum et dififinitores juxta dispo- 
sicioncm custodis et fratrum discre- 
torum,' Sec. 

^ Opera Lied. p. 13. 

Ch. IV.] 



The vellum which Adam Marsh asked the Custodian of Cambridge to 
send at his earliest convenience \ may have been intended for original 
compositions of the friars, but it was probably to be used for a careful 
fair copy of some work — perhaps a Missal or a book of the Bible. 
Several manuscripts, containing the works of Nicholas Gorham, are 
still extant, which Friar William of Nottingham copied at Oxford 
with ' tedious solicitude ' and ' laborious diligence/ at the expense of his 
brother, Sir Hugh of Nottingham^. 

It was naturally in the libraries that most of the literary treasures 
were stored. In the fifteenth century there were two libraries in the 
Franciscan convent at Oxford, the library of the convent and the 
library of the student friars ^. There is no evidence that either was 
founded by Grostete The convent probably received its first con- 
siderable collection of books from Adam Marsh, to whom his uncle, 
Richard Marsh, Bishop of Durham, bequeathed his library in 1226 ^ 
The next book we hear of at the Grey Friars is the volume of 
Decretals purchased by Agnellus ^ — doubtless the Decretum of Gratian 
with the additions codified by Raymund of Pennaforte and approved 
by Gregory IX in 1230. In 1253, Grostete, 

* because of his love for Friar Adam Marsh, left in his will all his books to 
the convent of Friars Minors at Oxford 

From a rather obscure passage in one of Adam's letters ^ this would 
appear to mean all Grostete's writings ' both original and translated/ 
not all the books which he possessed ; on the other hand, a copy of 
St. Augustine's De Civitate Dei is extant which the friars received from 
Grostete ^. These works of Lincolniensis were in the library in the 
middle of the fifteenth century, when Dr. Thomas Gascoigne was 
allowed to consult them He mentions particularly having seen a 

1 Mon. Franc. I, 391. The MS. of 

Adam Marsh's letters in the Cottonian 
Collection was probably written in the 
Franciscan Convent at Oxford. 

2 Merton Coll. MSS. 168, 169, 170, 

^ Gascoigne, Loci a libra veritatum 
(ed. Rogers), pp. 103, 140. Cf. Gottlieb, 
Mittelalterliche Bibliotheken. 

* Stevens, Wood, &c. : who however 
do not assert it positively. 

5 Close Roll, 10 Hen. Ill, m. 6 (3rd 
Sept.) . The usual meaning of Biblioteca 
in mediaeval Latin is Bible, and this 
may posisibly be the meaning here. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 634 (from Bar- 
tholomew of Pisa). 

' Nic. Trivet, Annales, 243. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 185, letter to the 
Dean of Lincoln : * scriptis . . . tarn 
editis quam translatis.' 

9 MS. Bodl. 198. 
Gascoigne, /flji-m ; cf noteinBalliol 
Coll. MS. 129, fol. 7 (the handwriting 
is, I think, Gascoigne's) : * et nota quod 
in illo armario sive libraria (sc. fratrum 
minorum Oxon.) sunt optimi libri et 
specialiter ex dono domini R. Grostete 
.... qui fecit plures libros ibi exis- 



[Ch. IV. 

complete copy of Grostete's letters ^ his autograph gloss or exposition 
on the Epistles of St. Paul ^, two copies (one of them autograph) of his 
commentary on the Psalter ^, a treatise against luxury *, and another 
super textum ^, both written by his own hand. Boston of Bury notices 
his translation of the Testamenta XII Patriarcharum in the same 
place. Friar Thomas Netter of Walden refers to a book De Studio by 
Grostete, with autograph notes by the author, which he had seen in the 
Minorite convent^; and Wadding mentions two more treatises, or 
rather sermons, which Grostete gave to the friars — one De Laude 
Pauper tati's, the other De Scala Paupertatis ^. Probably all these were 
in the library of the convent ^ Another relic of Grostete preserved 
there was his ' episcopal sandals made of rushes ^' 

The statement that all Roger Bacon's works were in these libraries 
rests on the authority of John Twyne but it is not probable that his 
writings were ever collected in one place. No doubt the works of the 
scholastic philosophers, and chiefly of the Franciscan schoolmen 
formed the bulk of the Hbrary ; which also contained a bibliographical 
compilation of considerable value, namely the Caialogus illustrium 
Franciscanorum, of which Leland often makes use^^. St. Jerome's 
' Catalogue of Illustrious Men,' was there bound up with ' many other 
good books his commentaries on Isaiah and EzechieP^ a book 

* Note in Bodleian MS. quoted in pre- 
face to Grostete's Epistolae, p. xcvi. 

^ Gascoigne, pp. 102 and 174. 
^ Ibid. pp. 126, 177. 

* Ibid. p. 138. 
^ Ibid. p. 126. 

6 Twyne, MS. XXI, 496 : ' ex tome 2° 
et lib. Doctrinalis Antiquitatis Ec- 
clesiae Th. Waldeni fratris Carmelitae 
de Sacramentis, cap. 77.' 

' Annales Minorum, I, 364. The 
first of these sermons, if not both of 
them, is contained in MSS. Royal 6 
E V, 7 E ii, f 251 b ; Laud. Misc. 402, 
f. 133; Phillipps, 3119, fol. 62. The 
sermon laude paupertatis^N2iS^ 
on the feast of St. Martin to Franciscans : 
* sumusque in loco paupertatis et inter 
professores paupertatis.' Cf. Mon. Franc. 
I, 69. 

^ See Gascoigne, pp. 102-3. 

' Ibid. 140. William of Wykeham 
left his sandals to his college at Oxford ; 
Register Arundel, fol. 215. 

' Conwient. de rebus Alhionicis^ 

quoted in Wood MS. F 29 a, fol. 166, 
and 177 b. John Twyne lived c. 1500- 

Wood Clarke, II, 405, books of 
Richard Middleton ; also some writings 
of Robert Kilwardby, mentioned by 
Boston of Bury (Tanner, Bibl. 
p. xxxviii. 

* Libellus praeterea est instar 
catalogi de eruditis Franciscanis, quern 
olim vidi, atque adeo legi in collegio 
ei sectae dicato propter Isidis Vadum.' 
Leland, Script. 268 ; other references to 
it, ibid. 269, 272, 289, 297, 302, 304, 
3i,S 325, 326, .^29, 406, 409, 433. It 
must have been compiled in the 15th 

13 MS. Balliol Coll. 129, fol. 7. 

" Lambeth MS. 202,fol. 99 b : ' et pre- 
ter istas omelias super Jerimiam et ezec- 
hielem, scripsit idem Jeronymus 18 libros 
super ysaiam prophetam et 14 libros 
super ezechielem, ut patet inter fratres 
Minores Oxonie, ubi isti libri sunt ' 
(note by Gascoigne). 

Ch. IV.] 



called Speculum Laicorum^, and a few Hebrew and even Greek 
manuscripts ^ 

Few only of the MSS. seem to have been preserved; very few at any 
rate can be identified ^ Caius College possesses two of them, a copy 
of the Gospels in Greek and a Psalter in Greek ^ The volume (already 
referred to) containing St. Augustine's De Civitate Dei, with Grostete's 
annotations, is now in the Bodleian ^. A thirteenth-century MS. of 
some of Grostete's lesser works, with St. Augustine's De Concordia 
quatuor Evangeliorum, given to Lincoln College by Gascoigne, was 
perhaps obtained by him from the Franciscan library ^ The copy of 
Jerome's * Catalogue of Illustrious Men,' which Gascoigne saw in this 
library, appears to be extant among the MSS. in Lambeth Palace ^ 
It may be reasonably conjectured that the single copy of Adam 
Marsh's letters ^ and some or all of the treatises bound up in Phillipps 
MS. 3119 ^ were also kept, or at any rate written, in the Oxford con- 

' Wood, Hist, et Antiq. (Latin ed.), 
p. 83 ; a note from Gascoigne : the book 
contained a full account of Grostete's 
quarrel with Innocent IV in the chap- 
ter on Excommunication. MSS. of the 
work are Royal 7 C. XV, and Caius 
Coll. 184. 

2 Wood-Clark, II, 380 ; cf. R. Bacon, 
Opera Ined. p. 88. Hebrew was taught 
at Oxford in the fourteenth century ; 
Twyne, MS. XXIV, 94, loi : cf. Wad- 
ding, VI, 199, on the efforts of Friar 
Raymund Lully to secure the teaching 
of oriental languages at Oxford and 

^ MSS. usually contained anathemas 
against any one who should deface or 
remove them. Persons into whose posses- 
sion they came would naturally seek to 
obliterate all traces of their former 
ownership ; e. g. in Royal MS. 3 D. I 
(fol. 234 b) the words ' conventui 
fratrum minorum Lichefeldie ' (the for- 
mer owners of the book) are almost 
obliterated; *a fure viz. qui codicem 
abstulerat,' remarks Casley ; cf. Bodl. 
MS. Canonic. Misc. 80 (a thirteenth- 
century Bible), ' olim Fratrum ordinis 
Minorum de . . .' 

* Nos. 348 and 403. It is not ex- 
pressly stated whether the latter 
belonged to the Oxford Franciscans ; 
see Smi^'s Catalogue, p. 166. I do not 

know the age of either of these MSS. ; 
probably c. 1500. 
5 MS. Bodl. 198. 

* Now Lincoln Coll. MS. 54 : see p. 
61, n. 7. 

Lambeth MS. 202 (sec. xiii). It can- 
not be certainly identified : the volume 
has been rebound and several leaves cut 
out at the end. There is nothing to indi- 
cate to what house or Order the book 
belonged. On fol. 81 occurs a note on 
the title of the * Catalogus ' of St. 
Jerome, with the addition : ' Hoc Mag. 
Thomas Gascoigne Oxonia in Collegio 
de Oriell Ebor' diosic' natus; 1432.' 
In Ball. Coll. MS. 129, f. 7, is the note, 
apparently in Gascoigne's writing, 'qui 
liber (sc. virorum illustrium) est in 
armario fratrum minorum Oxonie; et 
continet idem liber plures alios bonos 
libros.' Lambeth MS. 202 contains 
also several treatises by St. Augustine, 
Isidore, &c. : see Todd's Catalogue. 

« MS. Cott. Vitell. C. viii: cf. Hon. 
Franc. I, p. Ixix. 

^ Among the contents are, treatises 
against the Mendicant Orders, Gros- 
tete's sermon in praise of poverty, 
Eccleston's Chronicle, Impugnacio Fra- 
trum Minorum per Fratres Praedica- 
tores apud Oxon\ and other tracts 
relating for the most part to the 



vent. The following interesting notes occur in a Digby manuscript 
in the Bodleian ^ : — 

*For the information of those wishing to know the principles of the 
musical art, this book, which is called Quatuor principalia Musice, was 
given by Friar John of Tewkesbury to the Community of the Friars 
Minors at Oxford, with the authority and assent of Friar Thomas of 
Kyngusbury, Master, Minister of England, namely A. D. 1388. So that it 
may not be alienated by the aforesaid community of friars, under pain of 
sacrilege.' . . . (At the end), ' This work was first finished on the 4th of 
August, 1 35 1. In that year the Regent among the Minors at Oxford was 
Friar Symon of Tunstede, D.S.T., who excelled in music and in the seven 
liberal arts. Here ends the treatise called Quatuor principalia^ which was 
put forth by a Friar Minor of the custody of Bristol, v/ho did not insert his 
name here because some thought scorn of him * {propter ahquorum dedigna- 

Sometimes, if we may believe their accusers, the Friars obtained 
books by less creditable means than gift, bequest, or purchase. In 
1330"^ the Sheriff of Oxfordshire received a writ from the King 
instructing him 

*to command the Warden of the Friars Minors at Oxford and friar 
Walter de Chatton to give back to John de Penreth, clerk, justly and 
without delay, two books of the value of forty shillings, which they are 
unjustly keeping, as he says' ; 

faihng this the said friars shall be summoned to appear before the 
King's justices at Westminster. The Sheriff forwarded this writ to 
the Mayor, but the latter declared that the friars were not subject 
to his jurisdiction, 'and therefore nothing was done in the 

The friars had on all sides the reputation of being great collectors 
of books. Richard Fitzralph, the famous Archbishop of Armagh, was 
fond of exaggeration*, and no one will accept without considerable 

^ Digby MS. 90 ; this extract is 
copied from the catalogue. The treatise 
has been printed under the name of 
Simon de Tunstede by E. de Cousse- 
maker, * Ajictores de Musical &c., Vol. 
IV, pp. 220-299 (Paris, 1876). 

2 Twyne, MS. XXIII, 488, 'ex charto- 
phylacio civitatis Oxon. In fasciculo 
Brevium ' ; (this is not now among 
the City Records). The date is, ' T. 
meipso apud Wodestok, 28 die Martii 
a" rcgni nostri 40,' i. e. Edward III (not 
II, as Twyne), who was then at Wood- 

stock ; and the mention of P. de la Beche, 
sheriff, leaves no doubt on the matter 
(see Wood, Annals, A" 1327). 

^ Twyne, ut supra : * In dorso brevis, 
ita : " Gardianus ordinis fratrum mino- 
rum et frater W^alterus de Chatton 
confrater ejusdem Gardiani nihil habent 
in balliva nostra extra sanctuarium ubi 
possunt summoneri seu attachiari ; ideo 
de eis nihil actum est." ' 

* e. g. his statement that in his 
time there were 30,000 students at 

Ch. IV.] 



modifications his statement, made before the Pope in 1257 ^, that the 
friars have grown so numerous and wealthy, 

* that in the faculties of Arts, Theology, Canon Law, and as many assert, 
Medicine and Civil Law, scarcely a useful book is to be found in the 
market, but all are bought up by the friars, so that in every convent is a 
great and noble library, and every one of them who has a recognised 
position in the Universities (and such are now innumerable) has also a 
noble library.' 

Some rectors of churches, whom the Archbishop had sent to the 
Universities, had even been obHged to return home owing to the im- 
possibility of getting Bibles and other theological books. Perhaps these 
rectors were not filled with a passionate desire to learn. In 1373 the 
University passed a statute against the excessive number of un- 
authorized booksellers in Oxford ^. 

Richard of Bury mentions the great help he received from 
Dominicans and Franciscans in collecting his books ^, and bears testi- 
mony to the magnificence of the libraries of the Mendicants which he 
visited : 

* there we found heaped up amid the utmost poverty the utmost riches of 

But Richard of Bury notices a tendency among the ' religious ' to 
subordinate the love of books to 

* the threefold superfluous care of the belly, clothes, and houses 

and the tendency became much stronger after his time. The almost^ 
total absence of books in the bequests to the Oxford Franciscans in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries is the more striking because of the 
frequency of such bequests to colleges. It is said that the Minorites 
sold many of their books to Dr. Thomas Gascoigne \ Certain it is 
that in the latter days they parted with them, just as ' forcyd by 

^ Sermon in Twyne, MS. XXII, 103 

^ Mun. Acad. 233. 

« Philobiblon (ed. E. C. Thomas), 
pp. 65-8. 

* Ibid. (§ 135). 5 Ibid. p. 47. 

^ The will of Henry Standish con- 
tains a bequest of five marks for books 
(1535) ; this is the only instance which 
I have found. See list of bequests in 
Chapter VII. On the other hand it 
must be remembered that a friary pro- 
duced it# own books. 

See note by Gascoigne in MS. 
Bodl. 198, fol, 107 (a. D. 1433): 'et 
nota quod omnes note et figure in mar- 
gine istius libri fuerunt scripte propria 
manu sancte memorie Magistri Roberti 
Grosseteste Episcopi Lincolniensis, et 
librum dedit mihi sponte sub sigillo suo 
conventus fratrum minorum Oxonie.' 
Gascoigne is said to have given the 
books which he had from the Minorites 
to the libraries of Balliol, Oriel, Lincoln 
and Durham Colleges ; this MS. was 
given to Durham College. 


necessitie,' they parted with their jewels and plate \ The exclusion 
of the Mendicant Friars from the use of the University Library by 
the statutes of 1412^, cannot have been any real hardship to the 
Franciscans so long as their own library was intact. In the sixteenth 
century however this was no longer the case, and we accordingly 
find some instances of Franciscans supplicating for admission to the 
library of the University ^ The earliest instance is in 1507; but, as 
the registers from 1463 to 1505 are lost, it would of course be ridicu- 
lous to attempt to draw from this fact any inference as to the date of 
the dispersion of the books of the Minorites. Leland visited the 
Friary shortly before the Dissolution, and we have from his pen the 
last description of the once famous library * : — 

* At the Franciscans' house there are cobwebs in the library, and moths 
and bookworms ; more than this — whatever others may boast — nothing, if 
you have regard to learned books. For I, in spite of the opposition of all the 
friars, carefully examined all the bookcases of the library.' 

^ Cromwell Corresp. (Rec. Office), 
Second Series, Vol. XXIII, fol. 709 b. 
Leland, who was evidently received 
with scant courtesy by the Franciscans, 
and who is consequently very bitter 
against them (he calls them * braying 
donkeys'), remarks on the dispersion of 
the books : ' Nam Roberti episcopi 
volumina et exemplaria omnia, ingenti 
pretio comparata, furto ab ipsis Fran- 
ciscanis, hue illuc ex praescripto commi- 

grantibus (aut ut verius loquar) vaganti- 
bus sublata sunt'; quoted in Wood- 
Clark, II, 381-2. 

^ Mun. Acad. p. 264. 

3 Register G, fol. 35 a (A. Kell) ; 
Acta Cur. Cancell. F, fol. 156 b (W. 
German and J. Porret). 

* Leland, Collect. Vol. Ill, p. 60. 
Cf. Wood^Clark, II, 381-2. Leland 
mentions only one library ; but he pro- 
bably saw all that was to be seen. 



Learned friars as practical workers among the people. — Their sermons, — Educa- 
tional organization throughout the country. — Relations of the Oxford School 
to the Franciscan Schools of Europe. — English Franciscans teach at foreign 
Universities. — Oxford as the head of a custodia. — Provincial chapters held at 

If the Franciscans became leaders of scholastic thought, they were 
first and foremost practical workers. ' Unfitted as the works of Roger 
Bacon or of Raymond Lully might seem to the practical divine, it was 
for him, not for the philosophic disputant, whether as a missionary 
among the Saracens or a combatant of error and heresy at home, 
that these works were written \' In the case of Roger Bacon this is 
abundantly evident. 

* Before all,' he writes ^, ' the utility of everything must be considered ; 
for this utility is the end for which the thing exists. . . . The utility of 
philosophy is in its bearing on theology and the church and state and the 
conversion of infidels and the reprobation of those who cannot be 
converted ^. . . . The end of all sciences, and their mistress and queen,' is 
moral philosophy, * for this alone teaches the good of the soul 

It is difficult to resist the temptation of quoting more passages of this 
kind'^ (illustrating as they do the Franciscan view of life), especially as, 
in the dearth of records, actual instances are hard to find ; one proof 
however may be brought that it was not all theory. Among the 
twenty-two Oxford Minorites, for whom in the year 1300 the Pro- 
vincial, Hugh of Hertepol, claimed the episcopal licence to hear the 

* Brewer, Mon. Francisc. I, p. li. 
See the rest of his luminous remarks 
there, and in his preface to R. Bacon, 
Opera Inedita. 

^ Opera Ined. pp. 19-20, Opus Ter- 

^ Cf. Ibid. p. 116, on the potential 
value of burning-glasses in the Crusades. 

* Ibid. 53. Cf. p. 50, ethical part 
of moral philosophy : ' et haec est 
pulchrior sapientia quam possit dici.' 

^ e. g. Opus Majus, 46 ; Opus Tert. 
pp. 3-4, lo-ii, 40, 48, 84; Opus 
Minus, 323 ; Compend. Studii, 395, 397, 
400 sqq., &c. 



confessions of the crowds who thronged to the church of St. Francis, 
eight were then or afterwards doctors of divinity and theological 
lecturers to the Friars at Oxford, and among the others were two 
names of yet greater fame, Robert Cowton and John Duns Scotus\ 
It must however be added that, of the eight friars who were actually 
licensed by the bishop to hear confessions, none appears as having 
subsequently lectured or taken a degree ^ 

Here however we may see how the Franciscans brought their 
philosophy to the test of experience in the details of everyday life ; 
and they possessed to a remarkable degree, in spite of — perhaps 
because of — their learning, the power of appealing to the hearts of the 

* It is the first step in wisdom,' said Roger Bacon, ' to have regard to the 
persons to whom one speaks 

and his brethren followed this principle in their preaching. ' Their 
sermons,' says Brewer, ' are full of pithy stories and racy anecdotes ; 
now introducing some popular tradition or legend, now enforcing a 
moral by some fable or allegory V It has often occasioned surprise 
that the generation which saw the rise of poetry in England, saw also 
the rise of English prose — that, in a word, Wiclif was the contem- 
porary of Chaucer. When we remember that, for a century and a 
half, men versed in all the learning of their time had been constantly 
preaching to the people in the vulgar tongue in every part of the 
country, we shall see less cause to wonder at the vigorous language, 
the clear and direct expression, of ' the father of English prose.' 

For the learning of the friars was not confined to the Universities ^ 
To the Franciscans Oxford was more than a place for study ; it was the 

1 Twyne, MS. II, fol. 23, from 
Register of D'Alderby, bishop of Lin- 
coln ; printed in Wood, Hist, et Antiq. 
(Lat. ed.), p. 134, and in Wood-Clark, 
II, p. 386. It may seem bold to 
identify ' Johannes Douns ' with the 
great schoolman, but there is no doubt 
he was a young friar at Oxford at the 
time (he lectured at Oxford c. 1304); 
and he is in company with many 
other prominent schoolmen of the 

^ Two of them were already D.D.'s. 
^ Opera Inedita, p. Ivi. Cf. Sir 
Francis Bacon : * non accipit indoctus 

verba scientiae, nisi prius ea dixeris 
quae versantur in corde ejus.' 

* Mon. Francisc. I, li. See 'Les 
contes moralises ' of Friar Nicholas 
Bozon. Wiclif is less complimentary 
to Friars' sermons: they are 'japes' 
pleasing to the people, and ' rimes ' ; 
Select Works, III, 1 80. The old school 
of theologians, secular and monastic, 
and the clergy disliked them in- 

^ The Franciscans at Northampton 
receive ten oaks to build a house for 
their schools ; Close Roll, 42 Hen. Ill, 
m. 6 (dated Oxford, June 26). 

Ch. v.] 



centre of a great educational organization which extended throughout 
the land. 

* The gift of wisdom,' to quote Eccleston's words, ' so overflowed in the 
English province, that before the deposition of Friar William of Notting- 
ham, there were thirty lecturers in England who solemnly disputed, and 
three or four who lectured without disputation. For he had assigned in 
the Universities students for each convent, to succeed to the lecturers on 
their death or removal \' 

However, in practice this rule was not very strictly adhered to. 
Sometimes a friar would pursue his studies with a view to becoming 
reader to a particular convent^; but usually, when an 'extra- 
university ' lectureship was founded or fell vacant, the convent applied 
to the Provincial Minister for any lecturer they chose ^ Thus about 
the year 1250, the brethren at Norwich requested that Friar Eustace 
of Normanville should be appointed as their lecturer ^. Eustace, after 
consulting Adam Marsh, declined the office with the Minister's per- 
mission, alleging in excuse his weak health and his want of the 
necessary training and experience; and Adam informed Robert de 
Thornham, custodian of the Cambridge ' Custody,' in which Norwich 
was situated, of the decision The appointments, hke those of the 
Oxford lecturers, were in the hands of the Provincial Chapter, and the 
various convents obtained letters of recommendation from powerful 
patrons in support of their candidate ^ The lecturer was appointed 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 38. Brewer (p. deputandos duxeritis in lectores, sine 

xlix) gives a misleading version of the cujusquam alterius licentia libere in 

passage. The original of the last part domibus praedicti ordinis legere ac 

runs thus : ' Assignaverat enim in Uni- docere valeant in theologica facultate 

versitatibus, pro singulis locis, studentes, (illis locis exceptis in quibus viget stu- 

qui decedentibus vel amotis lectoribus dium generale), ac etiam quilibet in 

succederent.' facultate ipsa docturus solemniter inci- 

^ e. g. Thomas of York for Oxford, pere consuevit.' 

Mon. Franc. I, 357. * Mon. Franc. I, letter 178. It is no 

^ It was not necessary that he should doubt addressed to W. of Nottingham 

have been at any studium generale. (who died 1251), as in a letter written 

Thus the Dominicans complain that a later than this and referring to R. de 

friar who has often lectured on the sen- Thornham, Adam mentions * Peter 

tences and Bible extra universitatem minister of Cologne,' i. e. P. of Tewkes- 

cannot lecture on the Bible at Oxford bury, Nottingham's successor in the 

unless he is a B.D. Acta Fratru77i English Provincialate ; ibid, letter 183. 

Praedicatorum, Collectanea, II, 226. ^ Ibid, letter 179. 

Cf. Clement IV's constitutions for the ^ Harl. MS. 431, fol. 100 b (printed 

Friars Minors in 1265, Bullarium Ro- in Appx. B). Wadding, Vol. X,p, 156 

manum, p. 130, § 5 : ' Fratres autem de (cap. viii of the ^ Martiniana^ a.d. 

ordine vestro, quos secundum institu- 1430) ; Vol. XIII, 73, 
tiones ipjsius ordinis conventibus vestris 



[Ch. V. 

for one )'ear, and could be re-elected by the Provincial Chapter at the 
request of the convent^. Nor was it only to brethren of their own 
Order that the friars were sent. For many years a Franciscan was 
theological lecturer to the monks of Christchurch, Canterbury, till at 
length in 13 14 one of his pupils was able to take his place. His 
teaching, wrote the monks, in grateful recollection of their ' lector,' 

* in urbe redolet Cantuarie, ac plures nostra congregacionis fratres ipsius 
sedulos auditores ita sacre scripture aspersione intima fecundavit, quod 
ipsos ad lectoris officium in scolis nostris subeundum ydoneos reputamus ; 
nos unum de fratribus et commonachis nostris predictis loco dicti fratris 
Robert! ad hujusmodi ministerium exequendum duximus subrogare V 

Thus the friars disseminated over the country, from the universities 
outwards, the ' New Learning ' of the thirteenth century. 

But the fame of the Franciscan school at Oxford was not only English, 
but European^. Friars were sent thither to study not only from 
Scotland^ and Ireland^, but from France and Aquitaine^, Italy "^j Spaing 
Portugal^, and Germany while many of the Franciscan schools on 

^ Harl. MS. ut stipra. Cambridge 
Public Library, MS. Ee. V. 31, contains 
letters addressed by the convent of 
Christchurch, Canterbury, to the Pro- 
vincial Minister and Chapter of the 
Friars Minors in England, requesting 
permission for Friar R. de Wydeheye 
to continue to act as master of their 
schools; the letter was written every 
year; e.g. in 1285, 1286, 1287, &c. : 
see ff. 21 b, 24 b, 28, 29, 34, &c. : cf. 
Wilkins, Concilia, II, 122. 

2 Cambridge MS. Ee. V. 31, fol. 
156 b, 'Littera fratris Roberti de Ful- 
ham quondam lectoris nostri de con- 
versacione sua.' It is doubtful whether 
he is the same as Robert de Wydeheye 
mentioned in the preceding note, 
and whether he had been at the Uni- 

3 See Archiv f. L. u. K. Gesch. d. 
Mittelalters, VI, 63 (A.D. 1292) and 
Wadding, Sup. ad Script. 717 (a.d. 
1467) ; printed in Appx. B. 

* Scotland for many years formed 
part of the English province. Mon. 
Franc- I, 32; Wadding, IV, 136. 

^ Stephen of Ireland, Malachias of 
Ireland, Maurice de Portu, &c. 

William de Prato; perhaps N. de 

Anilyeres, or Ajmelers, or Anivers 
(Mon. Franc. I, 316, 379, 380). 
Several English students returned to 
Oxford from Paris before taking their 
degree (e. g. Ric. of Cornwall ; Mon. 
Franc. I, 39) ; and probably many 
came over during the dissensions at 
Paris in the middle of the thirteenth 
century. See also decree of Gen. Chap- 
ter of Milan, 1285 ; * Provintia Aquitanie 
potest mittere unum studentem Oxonie ' ; 
Archiv f. L. u. K. Gesch. d. Mittelalters, 
VI, 56. 

^ See Part 11, Peter Philargus of 
Candia (Alex. V), John de Castro of 
Bologna, Nic. de Burgo, Francis de S. 
Simone de Pisa, &c. 

^ Rymer's Foed. IV, 30. It was 
probably in Paris that Roger Bacon was 
laughed at by the Spanish scholars at 
his lectures ; Opera Ined. 91, 467. 

^ Part II, Gundesalvus de Portugalia, 
Peter Lusitanus, etc. 

10 Mon. Franc. I, 313, Part II, Her- 
mann of Cologne, Mat. Doring; Anal. 
Francisc. II, 242 : ' Provinciae seu 
studia, ad quas et quae Provincia 
Argentinensis studentes de debito trans- 
mittere potest ; videl. Oxoniae, Canta- 
brigiae,' &c. 


the Continent, both in universities and elsewhere \ drew their teachers 
from England, and, in England, mainly from Oxford. Eccleston 
mentions a friar who studied with him at Oxford, where his lectures, 
after some failures, won the admiration of Grostete; afterwards, as 
his fame increased, he was called by the Minister-General to Lom- 
bardy, and enjoyed a great reputation even at the Papal court^. 
Grostete, on his return from the Council of Lyons, was anxious to get 
Adam Marsh out of the neighbourhood of Paris as soon as possible. 

' It is not safe,' he writes to the Provincial Minister, 'to let Adam stay 
there ; for many greatly desire to keep him at Paris, especially now that 
Alexander of Hales and John de Rupellis are dead ; and so both you and 
I shall be deprived of our greatest comfort 

At another time^ the General writes to the Provincial Minister of 
England, requesting him to send English friars to Paris to teach ; it 
was probably on this occasion that Richard of Cornwall^ left Oxford 
to win the applause of his hearers at Paris. Peckham received his early 
education in the schools of his Order at Oxford, and lectured at Paris 
and at the Court of Rome*^. Among those whom the Oxford Convent 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 38 : * Usque adeo 
fama fratrum Angliae, et profectus in 
studio aliis etiam provinciis innotuit, ut 
minister generalis, Frater Helias, mit- 
teret pro Fratre Philippo Walensi et 
Fratre Ada de Eboraco qui Lugduni 
legerunt.' Lyons v^as not a generale 
studium ; Denifle, I, 223. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 39. As the pas- 
sage is of great interest, it may be 
quoted at some length : ' An excellent 
lecturer, who studied v^ith me at Oxford, 
used always in the schools, when the 
master was lecturing or disputing, to 
employ himself in the compilation of 
original things instead of attending to 
the lecture. Now when he had become 
lecturer himself, his hearers became so 
inattentive, that he said he would as 
lief shut up his book every day and 
go home, as lecture ; and conscience- 
stricken he said, " By a just judgment 
of God, no one will listen to me, be- 
cause I would never listen to any 
teacher." He was besides, since he 
consorted too much with seculars and 
thus paid less attention to the brethren 
than was usual, a living example to the 
others, that the words- of wisdom are 

only learnt in silence and quiet. . . But 
after he had returned to himself and 
applied himself to quiet contemplation, 
he made such excellent progress that 
the Bishop of Lincoln said that "he 
himself could not have delivered such 
a lecture as he had delivered." So, as 
his good fame grew, he was called to 
the parts of Lombardy by the General 
Minister, and in the very court of the 
pope was in high repute. But at last, as 
he was in the extreme agony, the Mother 
of God, to whom he had always been 
devoted, appeared to him, and drove 
away the evil spirits, and he was held 
worthy, as he afterwards revealed to a 
friend, to enter happily to the pains of 
purgatory. For he told him that he 
was in purgatory and had great pains 
in his feet, because he was wont to go 
too often to a holy woman {religiosam 
matronani) to console her, when he 
ought to have been intent on his lectures 
and other more necessary occupations ; 
he begged him also to have masses 
celebrated for his soul.' 

^ Grostete, Epistolae, p. 334. 

* Mon. Franc. I, 354. ^ See Part II. 

® Peckham's Reg. p. 977, and Part II. 

F 2 


sent to teach in the universities of the Continent, were John Wallensis, 
William of Gainsborough, Roger Bacon, Duns Scotus, and William of 
Ockham\ All these names belong to the thirteenth or early four- 
teenth century ; from that time onwards international jealousies and 
wars rendered the connexion of the English universities with Paris far 
less close, and contemporaneous with this breach was the beginning 
of the intellectual decline of the Order of St, Francis. 

Oxford was the head of a ' custody,' which contained, according to 
the list given by Bartholomew of Pisa^, seven other convents, namely, 
Reading, Bedford, Stamford (Line), Nottingham, Northampton, 
Leicester, and Grantham. What exactly the organization of a Uusto- 
dia ' was, it is impossible to determine ; it was probably always rather 
indefinite, and Bartholomew of Pisa points out that in early records 
the word is used very loosely^. Perhaps it was originally intended to 
hold chapters of custodies*, as well as of provinces and convents. 
The Custodian had in early years the right of making and enforcing 
byelaws in his custody ; thus 

* in the custody of Oxford at the head of which Friar Peter was for twelve 
years, the brethren did not use pillows up to the time of Friar Albert the 

Each custody had its special characteristic, Oxford being chiefly 
remarkable for study ^. Two Custodians of Oxford, Peter of Tewkes- 
bury and John of Stamford, became Provincial Ministers^. At first the 
Wardens of the convents were appointed by the Custodian ^ but in 1240 
the right of election was transferred to the convents themselves, and many 
friars at the same time demanded the total abolition of the Custodian's 
office, on the ground that it was superfluous^. It continued however, to 
exist down to the Dissolution and seems to have implied a general right 
of supervision ; the Custodian was a kind of permanent visitaior^^. 

^ For dates and authorities, see of Cambridge the brethren did not use 

notices of these friars in Part II. ' mantles.' 

^ Liber Conformitatum, fol. 1 26. This * Ibid. ' See notices in Part II. 

list does not always agree with Eccle- ^ Evers, Analecta, p. 60. 

ston ; the latter mentions e. g. a ' cus- ^ Ibid., and Mon. Franc. I, 48. The 

tody of Salisbury,' p. 27. custodianadmitted novices to profession; 

^ Liber Conform, f. 99. For a curious Archiv f. L. u. K. Gesch. VI, 89. 

use of the word, see Liberate Roll, Wright, Suppression of the Monas- 

17 Hen. Ill, m. 10; the custodes of teries (Camden Soc), p. 217. The 

the houses of Friars Minors in Dublin word is sometimes used as equivalent 

were seculars and trustees of their pro- to gardianus ; e. g. Acta Cur. Cancell. 

party. '5. fol. 53 b. Cf. W. of Esseby, Warden 

* Liber Conform, ibid. and Custodian of Oxford, Mon. Franc. 

* Mon. Franc. I, 27. In the custody I, 10, 27. 

Ch. v.] 



Several Provincial Chapters were held at Oxford. It was probably 
a Conventual, not a Provincial Chapter, before which Grostete, then 
' reading the act at the Friars Minors,' preached his sermon in praise 
of poverty and mendicancy^. Here Albert of Pisa held his first 
chapter as Provincial Minister of England, and announced the stern 
principles which were to guide his government^. Soon after this 
Elias instituted a severe visitation throughout the Order, and sent Friar 
Wygmund or Wygred, a German, as visitor to England in 1237 or 
1238^. He held chapters at London, Southampton, Gloucester, and 
Oxford*. At the latter place the Warden, Friar Eustace de Merc, 
was bitterly attacked and excluded a day and a half from the chapter, 
though his innocence seems to have been eventually established^. The 
inquisitorial methods adopted by the visitor raised a storm of opposi- 
tion throughout the province, which found expression, on the com- 
pletion of the visitation, in a Provincial Chapter held at Oxford in the 
summer or autumn of 1238^ Here a solemn appeal to Rome was 
formulated, and exemption claimed from all visitations, except those 
authorized by the General Chapter"^. The result of this and similar 
appeals from the Order was the final deposition of Elias by the Pope 
on the 15th of May, 1239^ 

In the spring or early summer of 1248 the Minister-General, John 
of Parma, held a Provincial Chapter at Oxford, 

' in which he confirmed the provincial constitutions concerning poverty in 
living and buildings {de parsimonia et paupertate aedificiorum). And when he 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 69. If we may 
believe Eccleston, the sermon seems 
hardly to have expressed Grostete's 
real convictions ; he told W. of 
Nottingham in private, ' quod adhuc 
fuit gradus quidam superior, scilicet 
vivere ex proprio labore.' On this 
sermon, see Chapter IV, p. 58. 

^ Ibid. 55 ; 'in festo Purificationis,' 
i.e. Feb. 2nd, prob. anno 1237. 

3 Ibid. 29, 31 : in the Phillipps MS. 
of Eccleston (fol. 75) he is called 
Wygerius. Jordan's Chronicle gives 
1237 as the date of the visitation, 1238 
as the date of the appeal ; Analecta 
Franciscana I, pp. 18-19. 

* Mon. Franc. I, 30. A chapter was 
held in London about May i8th, 1238 
(Liberate Roll, 22 Hen. Ill, m. 11), 
and at Oxford soon after June 30th, 

1238 (ibid. m. 15); the latter entry, 
dated June 30th, runs thus : ' Rex balli- 
vis suis Oxon' salutem, Precipimus 
vobis quod de firma ville nostre Oxonie 
faciatis habere fratribus minoribus Oxon' 
X marcas ad sustentacionem suam et 
fratrum suorum qui nuper convenient ad 
capitulum suum apud Oxon'.' These are 
probably the chapters held by the visitor. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 31. 

^ Ibid. 30. 

' Ibid. : * Igitur cum venissent fratres 
ad Romam, mox petiverunt ut fratres 
de cetero in suis locis visitarentur per 
capitulum generale,' &c. It is no doubt 
to these events that Grostete refers in 
his letters to Gregory IX and Cardinal 
Rinaldo Conti, Protector of the Order 
at Rome ; Epistolae, LVIII, LIX. 

^ Wadding, Vol. Ill, sub anno. 



gave the friars the option of confirming or deposing the Provincial Minister 
(W. of Nottingham), they unanimously asked that he might be con- 

Eccleston states that in the same chapter the Minister-General 

'recalled the brethren to unity v^^ho had begun to surpass the rest in 
singular opinions 

For this chapter the King provided one cask of wine and the neces- 
saries of life^ In 1289 three of the four Orders celebrated their 
Provincial Chapters at Oxford, that of the Minorites taking place on 
the feast of the Nativity of the Virgin (Sept. 8)^ No account of the 
proceedings remains. 

The next Provincial Chapter at Oxford about which we have any 
information was held in 1405, at a critical period in the history of the 
Order in England. In 1404 'a great and very scandalous schism' 
arose among the Franciscans owing to the arbitrary and unconstitu- 
tional conduct of the Provincial, John Zouch^. The friars appealed 
to the Protector of the Order, the Cardinal-bishop of Sabina, who 
appointed Friars Nicholas Fakenham and John Mallaert commissioners, 
with power to depose the Provincial, if necessary. The commissioners 
deposed him in his absence, called a chapter at Oxford on May srd*^, 
and proceeded to elect a successor. The Vicar of the Provincial for- 
bade the friars to attend the chapter. 

* And the commissioners prayed the King to order the friars to assemble 
at the chapter at Oxford for the reformation of their religion ; and they 
obtained royal briefs about this matter .' 

John Zouche was afterwards reinstated by the Protector of the Order, 
but does not seem to have ever made good his authority over the 
Enghsh Province^. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 68. The date is 
fixed by the entry in Liberate Roll, 32 
Hen. Ill, m. 7 (May i6th, 1248). 

Mon. Franc. I, 50 ; probably an 
offshoot of the errors of Mendicants at 
Paris, 1243; see Mat. Paris, Chronica 
Majora, Vol. IV, pp. 280-3 5 Martene 
and Durand, Thesaurus, &c.. Vol. IV, 
p. 1686, § 8. 

" Liberate Roll, ut supra : * Man- 
datum est Vicecomiti Oxon' et Berkshire 
quod . . . cariari faciat unum dolium 
vini usque Domum fratrum Minorum 
Oxon', quibus Rex illud dcdit de celario 

quod fuit Roberti Blundi Vinetarii, et 
eisdem fratribus in die Capituli sui 
inveniat victui necessaria de elemosina 
Regis' (Woodstock, May 16). 

* Osney Chron. in Ann. Monast. IV, 
318 ; Peckham, Register, p. 958. 

^ Eulogium Historiarum (continu- 
atio), III, 403; Wadding, IX, 499. 

« Eulog. Hist. Ill, 405. The di- 
ploma of Innoc. VII (in Wadding, 
IX, 499) gives the names of the com- 

Eulog. Hist. ibid. 

^ Wadding, ttt supra. 



Rivalry between Friars Preachers and Minors : proselytism. — Politics and Philo- 
sophy. — Peckham and the Oxford friars. — Evangelical Poverty. — Contrast 
between theory and practice. — Attack on the friars by Richard Fitzralph. — 
Charge of stealing children. — Wiclif's early relations to the friars. — His 
attack on them in his later years. — Charges of gross immorality made not by 
Wiclif, but by his followers. — The University and the friars : summary of 
events in 1382. — Unpopularity of the friars in the fifteenth century. — Foreign 
Minorites expelled from Oxford. — Conspiracies against Henry IV; part 
taken by Oxford Franciscans. — Conventual and Observant friars. 

It was inevitable that a spirit of rivalry should exist between the two 
great Mendicant Orders; and the rivalry soon developed into antagon- 
ism. In the thirteenth century one lecturer to the Friars Minors at 
Oxford was removed from the convent, another was suspended from 
lecturing, for causing offence to the Friars Preachers and at their 
request ^ An 'enormous scandal of discord/ in Matthew Paris' words ^, 
arose in the year 1243, each of the two Orders claiming precedence 
of the other. Though there is little direct evidence on the point, 
there is no doubt that Oxford was one of the chief scenes of conflict. 
The controversy was carried on by 'men of education and scholars ^' 
and some details of it are preserved in the pages of Eccleston. It 
arose from the proselytising tendencies of the two Orders*. The 
Dominicans, according to Eccleston ^, 

1 Phillipps, MS. 31 19, fol. 87 dorse 
(printed in Appx. C). This happened 
before 1 269 ; the names are not given. 
Perhaps the explanation of the following 
note to the list of lectors at Oxford in 
Eccleston's Chronicle is to be found 
here : ' Notandum quod secundum alia 
chronica quartus magister . . . hie non 
nominatur,' &c. Mon. Franc. I, 552. 
Chron. Majora IV, 279. 

^ ' Viri literati et scolares,' ibid. 

* The proselytising fervour of the 
Dominicans is well illustrated in the 
letters of Jordan, Master of the Order, 
1 2 23-1 236, Letters du B. Jourdain de 
Saxe (Paris, 1865), pp. 28, 66, &c. ; p. 
126 : 'Apud studium Oxoniense, ubi 
ad praesens eram, spem bonae captionis 
Dominus nobis dedit' (A. D. 1230). But 
Jordan cherished no ill-feeling against 
the Franciscans: Mon. Franc. I, 22. 

5 Men. Franc. I, 56. 



* were wont to profess on the day of their entry, if they liked, as did Friar 
R. Bacun ^ of good memory.' 

Friar Albert of Pisa, when Provincial Minister of England, obtained a 
bull from Gregory IX prohibiting this practice : 

' the Friars Preachers were not to bind anyone so as to prevent him 
entering any Order he chose, nor were the friars to admit their novices 
to profession till the year of probation had been completed 

The Dominicans on their side claimed similar privileges, and obtained 
a bull from Innocent IV to the effect that 

' no Friar Minor should receive those bound to them {suos obligatos) ; if he 
did so, he should be excommunicated de facto ; and they consented to the 
same privilege about those bound to us.' 

Eccleston complains that the Dominicans made such good use of the 
bull that * they let scarcely any one go ; ' and regards this equitable 
arrangement as a great hardship to his Order. ' But not long,' he 
adds, ' did this tribulation last ; ' Friars William of Nottingham and Peter 
of Tewkesbury obtained from Innocent IV a revocation of his con- 
stitution ^. 

The antagonism between the two Orders did not stop here, and in 
many of the great questions of the day they are found on opposite 
sides. The Oxford Franciscans, as we have already seen, were among 
the staunchest supporters of Simon de Montfort; the Oxford Domini- 
cans seem to have sided with the King. The famous Mad Parhament, 
which Henry III summoned to Oxford in 1258, met in the convent of 
the Black Friars, and Prince Edward and his retainers stayed there 
before the battle of Lewes *. 

The same rivalry made itself felt in the sphere of philosophy, and 

^ i. e. Robert, not Roger, as Leland 
and others have supposed ; even Dean 
Plumptre makes this mistake ; Con temp. 
Review, Vol. II. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 56. A Papal letter 
containing the last clause and addressed 
to the Friars Minors is printed in 
Wadding, III, 400 ; the date is ' x 
Kal. April. Pontificatus anno xii,' i. e. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 56. See letters of 
Innocent IV (1244) to the Friars 
Preachers and Friars Minors in Wadding, 
III, 433-5. In these the Pope refers to 
other letters of his forbidding either 

Order to receive the obligatos of the 
other ; the term is now declared not 
to include novices during their year 
of probation. 

* Fletcher, Black Friars in Oxford, 
pp. 6-7. John Darlington, one of the 
King's nominees in the committee of 
twenty-four appointed in 1258 to carry 
out reforms, was a Dominican ; Pat. 50 
Hen, III, m, 42 ; Stubbs, Const. Hist. 
II, 77. The confessors of the English 
kings were almost invariably Domini- 
cans. Compare also the part which 
the Oxford Dominicans took in the 
Piers Gaveston struggle. 


the Franciscans dealt a heavy blow at their more orthodox adversaries 
by impugning successfully an important doctrine of Thomas Aquinas^. 
The Angelic Doctor had held with Aristotle and against Averroes that 
the individualising principle was not form but matter. How then, 
asked his opponents, could the individual exist in the non-material 
world ^ Such a doctrine was in contradiction to the mediaeval theory 
of heaven and the life after death ; and the Church rallied to the 
side of the Franciscans. At Oxford, Archbishop Kilwardby, Dominican 
though he was, condemned this among many other errors in 1276, but 
the sentence seems to have had httle effect at the time^. It was chiefly 
against this opinion that Peckham's measures in 1284 were directed \ 
If the Dominicans had allowed the aspersion cast on their greatest 
teacher to pass without serious protest when the condemnation came 
from one of themselves, they were anything but content to submit to 
the adverse judgment of one of their rivals. Peckham was attacked 

^ Dean Plumptre (Contemp. Rev. II, 
p. 376 note) identifies the 'unnamed 
professor at Paris,' referred to by Roger 
Bacon, with Thomas Aquinas, and I am 
inclined to agree with this suggestion. 
A passage in Royal MS. 7 F. vii. f. 159 
(quoted ?n Part II, sub Richard of Corn- 
wall) would at first sight seem to identify 
the unnamed professor with Friar Ric. of 
Cornwall. But there is no evidence that 
the latterwas quoted as an authority in the 
schools (like Aristotle, Avicenna, and 
Averroes) during his lifetime (Bacon, 
Op. Ined. p. 30), nor could the state- 
ment that ' he never heard lectures on 
philosophy and was not educated at 
Paris or any other school where phi- 
losophy flourishes' (ibid. 31 and 327) 
apply to Richard (Morr. Franc. I, 39). 
On the other hand, all the facts men- 
tioned about the unnamed professor 
coincide with what is known of Thomas 
Aquinas (Quetif-Echard, I, 271). It 
may then be assumed with some 
probability that we have here Bacon's 
judgment on his great contemporary. 
* Truly,' he writes, ' I praise him more 
than all the crowd of students, because 
he is a very studious man, and has seen 
infinite things, and had expense ; and 
so he has been able to collect much 
that is useful from the sea of authors,' 
but he was fatally handicapped by not 

going through the regular training 
(Opera Ined. p. 327), His followers 
maintain that philosophy as published 
in his works is complete — that nothing 
further can be added. * These writings,' 
Bacon continues, ' have four sins : the 
first is infinite puerile vanity ; the second 
is ineffable falsity ; the third superfluity 
of volume . . . ; the fourth is that parts 
of philosophy of magnificent utility and 
immense beauty and without which 
facts of common knowledge {quae vul- 
gata sunt) cannot be understood — con- 
cerning which I write to your glory — 
have been omitted by the author of 
these works. And therefore there is no 
utility in those writings, but the greatest 
injury to wisdom.' 

2 Mullinger, Cambridge, I, 120-1. 

^ Wood, Annals, sub anno 1276, p. 
306. Peckham, Reg. Ill, 852, &c. 
Kilwardby seems to have generally 
supported his Order against the Fran- 
ciscans : see Peckham's letter to the 
Prior of the Friars Preachers at Oxford ; 
he is amazed at the ' cruelty and incon- 
sideration' of a letter of his predecessor's, 
in which the latter apparently made an 
attack on the Minorites ; Register, III, 

* Ibid. Ill, 866, 898. Wood, Annals, 
318 seq. ; Annales Monast. IV, 297 



both by the Provincial of the Black Friars in a congregation at Oxford^ 
and in an anonymous pamphlet apparently by a Cambridge Domini- 
can ^ — ' a cursed page and infamous leaf/ as he describes it, ' whose 
beginning is headless, whose middle malignant, and whose end foolish 
and formless/ His action further involved the whole of the Francis- 
can Order in England in the storm. He was accused of ' having 
sown discord between the Orders^ ; ' and to defend himself against 
the charge of unduly favouring the Franciscans, he denied that he had 
consulted the latter on the subject and insisted on the previous con- 
demnation of the same error by his predecessor He claimed to be 
actuated by no personal animus against the dead, whom he held in 
high honour and whom he had himself defended ; his attack was 
directed against ignorant and arrogant men who presumed to teach 
what they did not know and to entice youths to the same errors. 
' We cannot and dare not,' he urged, ' fail to rescue our children, as 
far as we can, from the traps of error ; ' and he forbade ' curious 
theologians ' to defend the condemned doctrines in ' the disputes of 
boys ' {in ceriaminihus puerilihus) at Oxford. 

* We by no means,' he adds, ' reprobate the studies of philosophers, so far 
as they serve the mysteries of theology, but the profane novelties which, 
contrary to philosophic truth, have been introduced into the heights of 
theology in the last twenty years, to the injuries of the saints.' 

The question became a matter rather of feeling than of argument ; the 
esprit de corps of the rival factions was involved, and the two Orders 
further estranged ^. 

Peckham lost few opportunities of advancing the interests of the 
Mendicants at the expense of the monks and secular clergy, and of 
his brother Franciscans against the other Orders. The discipline 
and morals of the nuns of Godstow had suffered owing to the 
proximity of their house to the university-town, and the Archbishop, 
in his injunctions for the better government of the same, appointed 
two Friars Preachers and two Friars Minors (or four of each if 
necessary) as permanent confessors to the Convent^. In 1291 he 
wrote to the Prior of St. Frideswide's urging him to confer the church 
of St. Peter le Bailey on some one devoted to the Friars Minors and 

' Peckham, Reg. Ill, 864. opinion among philosophers does not 

Ibid. 896-901, 943. dissolve friendship, but among modem 

Ibid. 867. 
* Ibid. 852, 866, 901. 
Peckham writes : ' Diversity of 

vain-talkers it has passed to the affec- 
tion of the heart.' Reg. Ill, 900. 
« Ibid. S45-852 (A.D. 1284). 


nominated by them \ While strenuously asserting the right of the 
Minorites to hear confessions in spite of the opposition of the parish 
priests^, he forbade the Carmelites and Austin Friars at Oxford to 
hear any confessions of any persons whatsoever, regular or secular, 
clerk or lay, male or female, and ordered the Archdeacon, if they 
disobeyed, to pronounce public sentence of excommunication on 
them^ Arguing that 'it was lawful to change a vow for a better 
one*,' he maintained that the Franciscans might, as they had hitherto 
done, admit members of other religious bodies to their Order ; he 
would, he wrote to the Chancellor of the University of Oxford, 
himself admit them, if he were still Provincial Minister. 

* We 'have heard with great surprise,' he proceeds, 'that the Prior and 
friars of the Order of St. Augustine in Oxford are imposing the mark of 
excommunication on the Friars Minors of Oxford, and defaming them in 
many ways, for receiving one of their friars in the aforesaid canonical form. 
We therefore order you to go in person to the Austin friary and warn 
them, in our name and by our authority, to cease from these detractions. 
But if they assert that they have raised this tumult against the Minorites 
on the ground of some privilege of theirs, you shall ask them to let me have 
a copy of their privilege to compare with those of the Minorites which we 
have to maintain ; and we will certainly not allow them to be molested 
in cont'-avention of their privilege; nor will we endure that the Friars 
Minors be injuriously oppressed, for by so doing we should break the 
commands of the Pope 

Peckham further, while condemning the erroneous opinions of the 

Dominicans at Oxford, denied the claim to superiority which they put 

forward ^. The Franciscans claimed precedence on the ground of 

their humility (which of course dwindled in inverse ratio as their 

assertion of it grew), and of their absolute poverty. The Archbishop 

enunciated the formula which was condemned by the inquisitors and 

the Pope in the next century, and which formed, so to speak, the 

^ Peckham, Reg. Ill, 977. imprisonment on a false charge ; the 

^ Ibid. 956: cf. 952, the Friars second time, the unfortunate man died in 

Minors and Preachers have more power gaol. Ibid. 855. Perhaps there was also 

than the secular priests, being liter a- a black sheep among the Oxford Fran- 

tiores et sanctiores than the latter. The ciscans about this time ; an unbeliever 

Franciscans no doubt contrasted favour- might suspect human agency in the ' me- 

ably with their neighbour, the Rector of morabile factum' related in the Laner- 

St. Ebbe's, at this time. In 1284 the cost Chronicle, p. 136 ; q. v. (a.d. 1290). 

Rector of St. Ebbe's was summoned by ^ Reg. I, 99-100: A.D. 1280. 

the Archdeacon to answer to a charge * Ibid. Ill, 838-840: a.d. 1284. But 

of repeated adultery with the wife of a see Archiv f. L. u. K. Gesch. VI. 41, 88. 

parishioner, William le Boltere ; it was ^ The passage has been somewhat 

further alleged that to get the husband condensed in translating, 

out of the way he had twice secured his Reg. Ill, 867. 



[Ch. VI. 

text of the controversy, ^ De pauper tate ChrisH! He defined the 
poverty of the apostles to be 

* having no title to the possession of any property real or personal, private 
or common ^ ; ' 

the Minorites in following this example were in a state of ' perfection/ 
and lived a holier life than any other Order in the Church. 

The claim was generally admitted, and led to the exaltation of the 
Minorites in the eyes of the world at the expense of the other Orders ^. 
As early as 1269 a controversy on this point arose between the con- 
vents of the two Orders at Oxford. A Dominican named Solomon 
of Ingeham accused the Minorites of receiving money either with 
their own hands or through a third party ^. The Franciscans denied 
the charge and demanded the punishment of Friar Solomon. The 
Dominicans asked them to prove the falsehood of Solomon's assertion 
and promised then to punish him. ' The burden of proof,' replied the 
Franciscans, ' lies with you who affirm, not with us who deny.' The 
Dominicans brought forward many instances in which they maintained 
that the Minorites had actually received money. These, answered the 
latter, were merely personal transgressions, and affected the com- 
munity no more than any case of carnal sin or disobedience. The 
Dominicans, however, based their contention mainly on the argument 
that money bequeathed to the Franciscans must be received either by 
them in person or by intermediaries on their behalf. The Minorites 

* that, according to the definition of lawyers, money left by will is counted 
among the goods of the deceased until it passes into the dominium and 
property of the legatee. But it cannot become ours by legal right or 
pass into our dominium without our consent. Thus money, howsoever it 
may be deposited by the executors or committed to anyone for the 
brethren, is always counted among the goods of the deceased as long as it 
remains unspent, and the executors can, by their own authority or by that 
of the deceased, reclaim it at pleasure. How then can it be called ours ? ' 

^ Reg. Ill, xcix — summary of Peck- 
ham's Liber Pauperis: 'nihil pos- 
sessorie sibi intitulatum ; mobile vel im- 
mobile, proprium vel commune, nil dico 
quod divicias saperet, vel delicias redo- 
leret, aut secularem gloriam ministraret.' 
Among the questions discussed by Peck- 
ham and others at this time vs^as, ' Utrum 
habere aliquid in communi minuat de 
perfcctione.' Archiv fur Litt. u. Kirch. 
Gesch. IV, 46, &c. 

2 Phillipps, MS. 3 1 19, fol. 86, dorse : 
* Veniunt ad nos diversi seculares et 
religiosi comparacionem inter statum 
et statum facientes, statum vestrum (i.e. 
Minorum) extollentes, et nostrum (Prae- 
dicatorum) in hoc deprimentes, quod 
nos peccuniam recipimus, vos autem non 
recipitis, judicantes nos in hoc minus 
perfectos mundi contemptores.' 

3 Phillipps, MS. 31 19 fol. 86-88: 
printed in Appx. C. 



Peace was eventually restored by the interposition of the Chancellor 
and leading secular masters, at whose recommendation Friar Solomon 
withdrew his words. It is curious that neither the document contain- 
ing the account of this quarrel, nor Peckham, mention the explanation 
which afterwards became the accepted theory, that the ownership of 
the goods of the Franciscans was vested in the Pope. Yet this ex- 
planation was originally given by Innocent IV in 1245 \ 

As far as the bulk of the Franciscan Order was concerned, the 
controversy on ' EvangeHcal Poverty ' was purely a theoretical one ^, 
its ultimate importance rather accidental than real. The claim to 
* this perfitnesse,' as Daw Topias contemptuously calls it, rested not on 
fact biit on a legal construction. The friars had only the use, not the 
proprietorship, of their lands and houses and goods. John XXII by 
his bull, ^ Ad condiiorem canonum,' issued on the 8th of December, 
1322, and declaring that use was inseparable from proprietorship, 
withdrew from the Order the right of holding property in the name 
of the Roman See, and thus went far to destroy its theoretical claim 
to precedence. The whole Order, instead of the party of the 
Spirituales merely, was for a time banded against the Pope ; and 
the dispute about a legal quibble became transformed under the 
hands of Ockham into an examination of the position and claims of 
the Papacy, and of the whole relation of Church and State. 

Ockham probably studied at Oxford in his younger days, but it was 
no doubt later in life, and under the influence of Marsilius of Padua, 
that he developed the doctrines which made him ' at once the glory 
and the reproach of his Order In philosophy he had many followers 
at Oxford in the fourteenth century, and the Franciscan Convent was, 
like the rest of the University, divided on the questions of Nominalism 
and Realism *. The dispute concerning the poverty of Christ was not 
allowed to rest. It was this discussion which first brought the Arch- 
bishop of Armagh into open hostility to the friars ^ ; and Wiclif men- 

^ Wadding, III, p. 130. Cf. Nicholas 
Ill's bull, '■Exiit qui seminat* (1279), 
and Clement V's '■Exivi de Paradiso ' 
(131 2). Peckham held that the owner- 
ship remained with the donors ; Regist., 
Vol. Ill, Preface, p. c (from Peckham's 
declaration of the Rule in the * Firma- 
mentum trium ordinum''). 

^ On the whole subject see Ehrle's 
articles jn the Archiv fiir Litt. u. Kirch. 
Gesch. on *Die Spiritualen ; ' Vol. IV, 

p. 46 seq. contains a clear exposition of 
the basis of the ' theoretischer Armuths- 

^ Lyte, Oxford, p. 118; Shirley, 
Introd. to Fasc. Zizan. p. xlix ; R. L. 
Poole, Wyclifife, p. 41. 

* e. g. among the followers of Ockham 
was Friar Adam Godham ; among the 
realists, Friar John Canon, &c. Cf. 
Wood, Annals, I, 439. 

^ Lechler, Johann v. Wiclif, 1, 2 18 seq. 



tions the controversy as being still carried on between the two Orders 
in his time. 

* Prechours seyn J)at Crist hadde hi^e shone as \€\ have ; fFor ellis wolde not 
Baptist mene |)at Crist hadde jjuongis of siche schone. Menours seyn Jjat 
Crist went barfote, or ellis was shood as )>ei ben, for ellis Magdalene 
shulde not have founde to J)us have washid Cristis feet ^' 

A great historian has said of the Middle Ages, that ' at no time 
in the world's history has theory, pretending all the while to control 
practice, been so utterly divorced from it^' An extract from the 
Patent Rolls ^ will afford a striking illustration of the truth of these 
words as far as the learned Franciscans, the professors of evangelical 
poverty, are concerned. The date is February 2 2nd5 1378; the writ 
is issued in the King's name. 

' Know that whereas certain horses, cups, books, money, silver vessels, and 
diverse other goods and chattels, which belonged to our beloved brother 
in Christ, John Welle of the Order of Friars Minors, doctor in theology, 
have been abstracted and carried away out of his dwelling in London by 
one Thomas Bele his servant and other evil doers, .... we have of our 
special favour granted to the said John all the horses, cups, books, money, 
vessels and other goods and chattels aforesaid, wheresoever they may be,' 

It was probably the glaring contrast between the lofty claims of the 
friars and their actual life, rather than any inferiority in their morality 
as compared with the secular priests, which exposed them to the 
bitterest denunciations and taunts of the reformers. The Mendicants 
were far more in sympathy with the poor than were the endowed 
monks, and possessed far more than the parish priests the confidence 
of the people ^ Wiclif recognised this fact, while he lamented it. 

Fitzralph had been deputed by Clement 
VI in 1 349-1 350 to inquire into this 
dispute ; see his Liber de pauperie 
Salvatoris, edited by R. L. Poole for 
the Wyclif Society, 1890 (p. 273). 

1 Select English Works of J. Wyclif, 
I, 76. Cf ibid. p. 20 ; among the ' fals 
lores' sown by the friars, Wiclif men- 
tions ' of J)e begginge of Crist.' 

^ Bryce, Holy Roman Empire, p. 
121 (7th edition). 

Pat. I Ric. II, pt. 4, m. 37 (printed 
in Appx. B). John Welle may have 
been Warden, though the fact would 
probably have been stated in the re- 

cord; I have not been able to find 
any names of London Wardens between 
1368 and 1398; Mon. Franc. I, 521, 

* This is clearly brought out in the 
history of the peasant revolt of 1381, 
if we may trust Walsingham's account 
of Jack Straw's confession (Hist. Angl. 
II, 10) : ' Postremo regem occidissemus, 
et cunctos possessionatos, episcopos, 
monachos, canonicos, rectores insuper 
ecclesiarum de terra delevissemus. Soli 
mendicantes vixissent super terram, qui 
suffecissent pro sacris celebrandis aut 
conferendis universae terrae.' 


* Though it raine on the Awter of the Parish Church, the blind people is 
so deceived, that they will rather give to waste houses of Friars, then to 
Parish Churches, or to common waies, though men cattle and beasts ben 
perished therein ^' 

The first important attack on the friars in the fourteenth century 
was that led by Richard Fitzralph, Archbishop of Armagh. He had 
been Fellow of Balliol College before 1325 and Chancellor of the 
University in 1333^. While assailing the whole principle of men- 
dicancy, his main charge against the friars, especially the friars at 
Oxford, was that of ' stealing ' children, i. e. of secretly inducing them 
to enter the Mendicant Orders. In 1357 the Archbishop was cited 
to appear and defend himself before the Papal Court at Avignon ; 
and on the 8th of November, in a solemn assembly of Pope 
and Cardinals, he made a great speech in defence of the parish priests 
against the Mendicants ^. The Archbishop stated that, owing to the 
privileges of hearing confessions which the friars enjoyed, almost all 
youths in the Universities, and in the houses of their parents (in nearly 
all of which friars were to be found as ^ familiar es '), had Mendicants 
as their confessors. 

* Enticed by the wiles of the friars and by little presents these boys (for 
the friars cannot circumvent men of mature age) enter the Orders, nor 
are they afterwards allowed, according to report, to get their liberty by 
leaving the Order, but they are kept with them against their will until 
they make profession ; further, they are not permitted, as it is said, to speak 
with their father or mother, except under the supervision and fear of a 
friar; an instance came to my knowledge this very day; as I came out of 
my inn an honest man from England, who has come to this court to obtain 
a remedy, told me that immediately after last Easter, the friars at the 
University of Oxford abducted in this manner his son who was not yet 
thirteen years old, and when he went there, he could not speak with him 
except under the supervision of a friar.' 

Parents were in consequence afraid to send their sons to the Univer- 
sities, and preferred to keep them at home as tillers of the soil. While 
the number^ both of the friaries and of their inmates had enormously 

^ 'Two short treatises,' &c. p. 35 
(cap. 17). 

2 Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. 442 ; 
Lechler, I, 217. His principal oppo- 
nent was also an Oxford man, Friar 
Roger Conway; see notice of him in 
Part II. 

^ Ibid. 220 seq. (full analysis of the 
speech). The original is printed in 
Edw. Bi-own's Fascic. Rer. Expetend. 

(1695), Vol. II, under the title, De- 
fensoriujn Curatorum. A short sum- 
mary in old English will be found in 
Mon, Franc. 11. 

* Cf. statute of the University against 
'wax-doctors' (a.d. 1358) ; Mun. Acad. 
207-8 ; ' Nam pomis et potu, ut popu- 
lus fabulatur, puerulos ad religionem 
attrahunt et instigant ; ' (from Richard 
de Bury's Philobiblon), quoted on p. 42* 



[Ch. VI. 

increased, the number of secular students in every faculty decreased ; 
the students at Oxford, who in his time were reckoned at 30,000, had 
now sunk to 6000. 

Though these figures are of course preposterously exaggerated, and 
though the main cause of the diminution of the number of students 
was the Black Death, there can be no doubt of the essential truth of 
the accusation. In 1358 the University of Oxford passed a statute 
forbidding the admission of boys under eighteen to the Orders. The 
statute deserves to be quoted at length ^ 

* It is generally reported and proved by experience, that the nobles of this 
realm, those of good birth, and very many of the common people, are 
afraid, and therefore cease, to send their sons or relatives or others dear to 
them in tender youth, when they would make most advance in primitive 
sciences, to the University to be instructed, lest any friars of the Order of 
Mendicants should entice or induce such children, before they have 
reached years of discretion, to enter the Order of the same Mendicants; 
and because owing to the admission of such boys to the Mendicant Orders, 
the tranquillity of the students of the University has been often disturbed ; 
therefore the said University, zealous in the bowels of piety both for the 
number of her sons and the quiet of her students, has ordained and decreed, 
that if any of the Order of Mendicants shall receive to their habit in this 
University, or induce, or cause to be received or induced, any such youth 
before the completion of his eighteenth year at least, or shall send such an 
one away from the University or cause him to be sent away, in order that 
he may be received into the same Order elsewhere : then eo ipso no one of the 
cloister or community of such a friar, .... being a graduate, shall during 
the year immediately following, read or attend lectures in this University 
or elsewhere where such exercises would count as discharge of the statut- 
able requirements in this University {yel alibi quod in hac Vniversitate 
pro forma aliqua sihi cedat) ; and this penalty shall be inflicted on all those 
of the Order of Mendicants, and the associates of all those, who shall be 
convicted by credible persons of having withdrawn youths in any way 
from the University, or from hearing philosophy.' 

The friars did not deny the charge, but defended their conduct^, 
and exerted themselves to the utmost to obtain a repeal of the statute. 
Their efforts were successful. While a suit which they had begun 
in the Roman Court was yet undecided, the Provincials of the four 
Orders laid their grievances before the King in Parhament^. In 1366 
the obnoxious statute was formally annulled, on condition that the 

^ Mun. Acad. 204. 

" Wood, Annals, I, 475 (W. Folvyle, 
Cambridge Minorite); Twyne, MS.XXII, 
f. 103 c (W. Woodford). The Oxford 
Dominican (_?) who writes under the 

pseudonym of Daw Topias says in 
answer to this accusation, ' To tille folk 
to Godward, I holde it no theft.' Polit. 
Poems, II, 83 (R.S.). 

Rolls of Parliament, Vol. II, p. 290. 

Ch. VI.] 



friars' suits at Rome and elsewhere against the University should 
cease \ The latter, however, did not abandon the struggle; its in- 
fluence is probably to be seen in the petition of the Commons in 
1402 ^, that no one be allowed to enter any of the four Orders under 
the age of twenty-one years. The King's answer was not favourable: 
he ordained merely that no friar should admit to his Order an infant 
under fourteen years without the assent of his father, mother, or 
guardians. The ordinance applied to the whole of England, and the 
petition of the Commons is a sign that the popularity of the friars 
had suffered under the attacks of Wiclif. 

It has been clearly shown by recent criticism ^ that Wiclif's enmity 
to th6 friars was confined to the last few years of his life. His earlier 
opponents were the monks — the religiosi possessionati. At one time 
he compares the poverty and mendicancy of St. Francis with the 
manual labour of St. Peter and St. Paul, in contrast with the pos- 
sessions and worldly honours of the ecclesiastics of his time ^. He 
Seems to have been on terms of some intimacy with William Wood- 
ford, who may be regarded as the leader of the Oxford Minorites in 
their subsequent controversy with the reformer and his followers. 
Woodford relates ^ that 

*when I was lecturing concurrently with him on the Sentences Wiclif 
used to write his answers to the arguments, which I advanced to him, in a 
notebook which I sent him with my arguments, and to send me back the 

Wiclif had indeed many points of sympathy, especially on questions 
of ecclesiastical polity, with the Friars Minors. He was in agreement 
with them and in antagonism to the monks and many of the bishops, 
in the opinion that the tribute to the Pope should be refused, and that 
the secular power was, under some circumstances, justified in depriv- 
ing the Church of its possessions ^. Eight or nine years before Wiclif 

^ Rolls of Parliament, Vol. II, p. 290. duo Magistri in theologia, si velint, 

^ Ibid. Vol. Ill, p. 502, § 62. possunt concurrere disputando.' 
^ Lechler, J. v. Wiclif, I, 319, 374, See the curious account in the 

585 seq. Continuatio Eulogii Historiarum of 

* Ibid. 588. the council of bishops and lords held at 

^ Twyne, MS. XXI, 502 ; from Wood- Westminster under the presidency of 

ford's Quaestiones de sacramento altaris the Black Prince in 1374, the subject of 

contra Wyclefum, qu. 63. discussion being the papal tribute. 

^ ' Quando concurrebam cum eo in Four doctors of theology were present, 

lectura sententiarum.' I do not know namely, the Provincial of the Friars 

the precise meaning of the phrase : cf. Preachers, J. Owtred, monk of Durham, 

Mun. iVcad. 393, ' Statutum est quod an opponent of the friars (see MS. Ball. 



[Ch. VI. 

wrote his famous tract in. defence of the Parliament of 1366, an Ox- 
ford friar and doctor declared in his school that the King had the 
right of depriving ecclesiastics of their temporalities ; he was ordered 
by Congregation to recant this and other opinions solemnly after a 
University sermon, and to pay 100s. to the University \ 

When, however, Wiclif began to call in question the Church's 
doctrine on the Eucharist, he found himself in direct antagonism to 
the friars ; and the quarrel, which began in a dogmatic difference in 
the schools^, soon acquired a wider character. Wiclifs accusations 
resolve themselves really into three ^ ; firstly, that the friars upheld 
the ' idolatrous ' doctrine of the Eucharist ; secondly, that they main- 
tained the theory of the mendicancy of Christ; thirdly, that they 
taught the people to rely for their salvation on letters of fraternity 
and prayers and masses, instead of on a good life ; whence a general 
demoralization ensued. 

Coll. 149, ff. 63-5), J. Mardisle, Friar 
Minor, and an Austin Friar. The 
Archbishop said, ' The pope is lord of 
all ; we cannot refuse him this,' * quod 
omnes praelati seriatim dixerunt.' The 
Dominican refused to give an opinion, 
and suggested a hymn or mass. The 
monk used the old argument about the 
two swords. Mardisle promptly re- 
torted with the text, ' Put up again thy 
sword into his place,' showing that the 
two swords did not mean spiritual and 
temporal power ; ' et quod Christus 
temporale dominium non habebat, nec 
Apostolis tradidit sed relinquere docuit ;' 
which he proved by a learned appeal to 
scripture, authorities, and history. The 
subsequent proceedings are very humor- 
ously told ; Eulog. Hist. Ill, 337-8. 
Four Mendicant B.D.'s were, at John 
of Gaunt's wish, present at Wiclifs 
trial in 1377, to support him by argu- 
ment in case of need. Lechler, I, 369, 
and note. 

^ Mun. Acad. p. 208. He is called 
merely ' Frater Johannes . . . Doctor,' 
the surname and Order being omitted ; 
but his * heresies ' are those of the 

2 Lechler, I, 586. Of the twelve 
doctors who condemned Wiclifs doc- 
trines at Oxford in 1381 (or beginning 
of 1382), six were Mendicants; Tyssyng- 

ton was the only Minorite. Wood, 
Annals, I, 499. 

^ These are clearly stated in his 
treatise ' De Blasphemia,contra Fratres, 
Select English Works, III, 402 seq. ; 
Trialogus, Lib. IV, cap. 27-32. Ibid, 
cap. 37, another charge is added, namely, 
the opposition offered by the friars to 
the * Poor Priests,' of which Wiclif 
says : ' Revera inter omnia peccata, quae 
unquam consideravi de fratribus, hoc 
mihi videtur esse sceleratissimum prop- 
ter multa ; emanavit enim integre ex 
unicordi consilio et consensu omnium 
horum fratrum.' The ' Poor Priests ' 
resembled the early Friars Minors in 
many points, e. g. as itinerant preachers : 
perhaps Wiclif, when organizing the 
former, was led to look more closely 
into the ideal which the latter professed 
to follow ; and if so, he may well have 
been shocked at the contrast between that 
ideal and the reality. One change in the 
life of the friars — their gradual approxi- 
mation to the seclusion of the older 
Orders, may be illustrated by two pas- 
sages from Matthew Paris and Wiclif 
(allowance being made for the prejudices 
of the writers). The friars, says the 
Benedictine historian,' wandered through 
cities and villages,' and * had the ocean 
for their cloister' (Chron. Majora, V, 
529). Wiclif attacks them for living 

Ch. VI.] 



*Popis graunten no pardoun to men bot if \€\ be byfore verrely contritte, 
bot ))ese freris in hor lettres speken of no contricioun ^' 

It is improbable, however, that the indulgences granted by the friars 
differed from the other indulgences of the Middle Ages, which in 
theory absolved from the temporal punishment, not from the sin and 
eternal punishment. Wiclif may have classed with the friars the 

* pardoners ' who did not belong to any of the four Orders ^. The 
records relating to the Franciscan house at Oxford throw no light on 
the matter, which indeed belongs to the general history of the Mendi- 
cants, not to the history of a particular convent. Wiclif's charges 
amount practically to this : the friars were the foremost champions of 
the external, unspiritual form of religion, which he laboured to destroy : 
they were no longer leaders of thought, but obstacles to progress. 

Though Wiclif's writings, especially his English writings, are full of 
violent invective against the friars ^, it is difficult to find in them any 
definite accusations of the grosser forms of immorality. One instance 
will sufficiently illustrate the diff"erence between Wiclif and his followers. 

' Friars also,' says the former, ' be foully envenomed with ghostly sin of 
Sodom, and so be more cursed than the bodily Sodomites that were 
suddenly dead by hard vengeance of God ; for they do ghostly lechery by 
God's word, when they preach more their own findings for worldly muck, 
than Christ's Gospel for saving of men's souls 

* Jack Upland ' improves on this, and does not scruple to impute to 
the friars generally the vilest sins. 

*Your freres ben taken alle day 
with wymmen and wifes, 
bot of your privey sodomye 
spake I not yetted' 

At Oxford the seculars, always numerically strong and jealous of 
the regulars, raUied to Wiclif's standard; while the Mendicants roused 

* closed in a cloister,' instead of going covetise/ of * simonie and foule mar- 
about among the people, ' to whom thy chandise ; ' they are ' worse enemies and 
male most profite ghostlie . . . Charitie sleers of man's soule than is the cruel 
showld drive Friars to come out amongst fende of hell by himself ; ' some of them 
the people and leaue Caymes Castels are ' damned divels ; ' Two Short Trea- 
that bin so needeless and chargeous to tises, Select English Works, passim. 
the people.' (Two Short Treatises, Latin works, Sermones, II. Cf. Polit. 
&c., p. 21.) Poems (Rolls Series), I, 266 : 

\ Sfect English Works III, 424. . Ther shal no saule have rowme in helle 

=^ Wychf, Latin V^oxV^ Sermones, II, ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ . 
xlvn. Jusserand, La Vie Nomade, p. 

186 seq. ; Rogers' Introd. to Gas- * Two Short Treatises, cap. 48 (prin- 

coigne's/^?3^r Veritaium, p. 123. ted by Vaughan, p. 254). 

^ He accuses them, e.g. of ' stinking ^ Polit. Poems, II, 49. 

G 2 



[Ch. VI. 

the anger of the University by appealing to external authority. The 
friars were accused of having made use of their position as confessors 
to stir up the peasant revolt. On the i8th of February, 1382, the 
heads of the four Mendicant Convents at Oxford sent a letter to John 
of Gaunt, denying the charge and begging his protection ^ ; all evils 
were attributed to them, and their lives were in danger. Their chief 
enemy was Nicholas Hereford. In Lent of the same year Hereford 
preached a University sermon at St. Mary's, in which he argued that 
no ' religious ' should be admitted to any degree at Oxford ^. He 
was appointed by the Chancellor to deliver the principal English 
sermon of the year at St. Frideswide's Cross on Ascension Day 
(May 15th), and used the opportunity to attack monks and friars 
and mendicancy in general^ On the 19th of the same month, the 
' Council of the Earthquake ' met at the Blackfriars in London, and 
condemned ten of Wiclif's conclusions as heretical and fourteen as 
erroneous; among the seventeen doctors of divinity who took part 
in the council were four Minorites, the Oxford Franciscans being 
represented by Hugo Karlelle and Thomas Bernewell The Arch- 
bishop sent Peter Stokes, a Carmelite, to publish the condemnation at 
Oxford. The Chancellor and Proctors resented this interference with 
their rights, and the general feeling was strong in Wiclif's favour. 
Stokes and his brethren went in fear of their lives ; when the Car- 
melite 'determined' against Philip Repyngdon on the loth of June, 
men were seen in the schools with arms concealed under their clothes. 
At length, on June 15th, the Chancellor was compelled, by the King's 
command, to pubHsh the condemnation of the twenty-four con- 
clusions ; 

' and he thus so roused the seculars against the religious that many of the 
latter feared death, the seculars crying out that they wanted to destroy 

^ Fascic. Zizan. 292-5 : the letter is 
dated Oxford, ' sub sigillo priorum et 
gardiani conventuum et ordinum prae- 
fatorum.' The part which the Francis- 
cans took in the peasant revolt still 
remains obscure. An undated letter of 
Richard II ' to the Minister of the Friars 
Minors of Dorchester ' refers to an in- 
dividual friar agitating among the 
labourers about this time ; but whether 
before or after the rising I cannot say. 
The letter occurs in MS. Dd. Ill, 53, p. 
97, in the Cambridge Public Library. 
*Nous auons entenduz coment votre 

Confrere et obedientier du dit ordre 
ffrere Johan Gorry (or Grey ?) fait 
excitacion et maintenance a les cotagiers 
et autres tenauntz notre cher en dieu 
labbe de Midelton, laborers demorantz 
dedeinz la Seigneurie mesme labbe, de 
rebeller contre le dite Abbe leur seignur 
es choses queles ils sont tenuz et 
deuient fair a lui de reson selonc la 
forme de lestatut fait des laborers,' &c. 

^ F'ascic. Zizan. p. 305. 

^ Lyte, 264. A Latin version of the 
sermon is in Twyne, MS. IV, 172-4. 

* Fascic. Zizan. 287. 

Ch. VI.] 



the University, though really they (the religious) only defended the cause 
of the Church ^' 

In November the University tried to turn the tables on its adver- 
saries; in an assembly of the clerks at St. Frideswide's, the Chancellor 
accused some of the orthodox party (among them a Minorite friar) of 
heresy ^. But from this time the sacramental controversy tended to 
retire into the background, and the alliance of monks and friars, 
which Wichfs attack on the faith had called into being ^, came to 
an end. In 1392, Henry Crompe, a Cistercian monk, who had been 
a prominent opponent of WicHf, was charged with having determined 
on several occasions against the right of the friars to hear confessions*. 
Friar John Tyssyngton and other Minorites took part in his con- 
demnation in a Convocation held in the house of the Carmelites at 
Stamford. In their anxiety to silence their adversaries, the Mendicant 
Orders proved false to the tradition common to all the great mediae- 
val Universities — the tradition of intellectual freedom ; they upheld 
the claim of Archbishop Arundel to visit the University, and lent their 
support to the rigid censorship which he established^. But it is only 
fair to remember that, years before this, the authority of the Church had 
been invoked against the teaching of the friars themselves. In 1368 
Simon Langham sent thirty errors of the friars to the University, and 
it was enacted that no one should presume to defend or approve these 
tenets in the schools or elsewhere 'on pain of the greater excommuni- 
cation ^' 

The history of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries affords many 
other illustrations of the hostility with which the friars, and 
especially the Minorites, were regarded by the University. The 
subject of academical degrees, and of the action taken by the Uni- 
versity against the 'wax-doctors,' has been treated elsewhere. A 
statute, which probably dates from the first half of the fifteenth 
century, provides that both the collaiores of University sermons shall, 
if possible, be seculars'^. Wood says that in the years 1423 and 1424 

*were nothing but heartburnings in the University occasioned by the Friers 
their preaching up and down against tithes.' 

The chief offender. Friar William Russell, warden of the Greyfriars of 

^ Fascic. Zizan. 298, 301, 311, &c. Archbishop Arundel to John XXIII, 

2 Lyte, 273 ; Wilkins, Cone. Ill, 172. dated Aug. 20 (1410?), 

2 Polit. Poems, I, 259. ® Wood, Annals, I, 481. 

* Fascic. Zizan. 343-357. Mun. Acad. 289 ; the statute before 

' Twyne, MS. Vol. II, f. 229, letter of it is dated 1431, that after it, 1432. 



London, taught that tithes might be given arbitrarily, i. e. not to the 
parson legally entitled to them, but * for the pious use of the poor,' 
according to the will of the giver. The University of Oxford con- 
demned this doctrine and ordained that everyone taking a degree 
should formally abjure it : the oath, which remained in force till 1564, 
runs thus : — 

Insuper, tu jurabisquod nullas conclusiones perfratremWilhelmum Russell, 
ordinis Minorum, nuper positas et praedicatas, contra decimas personales, 
et in nostra Universitate Oxoniae, necnon in venerabili concilio episco- 
porum, anno Domini millesimo quadringentesimo vicesimo quinto celebrate 
Londoniis, solemniter damnatas, nec alicujus earum sententiam tenebis, 
docebis, vel defendes efficaciter publice aut occulte, nec aliquem doctorem, 
tentorem vel defensorem hujusmodi, ope, consilio vel favore juvabis \ 

For a similar offence another Franciscan, William Melton, D.D., 
was arrested at the instance of the University, and compelled to 
recant ^. The Alma Mater kept a vigilant eye on her sons wherever 
they might be. In 1482 Friar Isaac Cusack, D.D., began to create 
disturbances in Ireland by preaching the old Franciscan doctrine of 
evangelical poverty; he was captured, sent to Oxford, and degraded 
and expelled the University as a vagabond and a heretic ^ 

The feeling of nationality fostered by the long French wars was not 
without its influence on the friars in England and especially at the 
Universities. In 1369 the Chancellor caused a royal proclamation to 
be published at Carfax ordering all French students at Oxford, boih 
religious and secular, to leave the kingdom*. In 1388 a royal writ 
was issued to the Warden of the Friars Minors in Oxford at the advice 
of the same convent, warning him to admit no foreign friars who 
might reveal to the enemy * the secrets and counsel of our kingdom,' 
and to expel any such friars for whose good behaviour he would not 
be responsible, or who would not pray or celebrate masses for the 
King and the good estate of the realm ^. 

Among the many problems presented by the reign of Richard II, 
not the least obscure is the passionate loyalty with which the Francis- 
cans regarded his memory*'. Yet Richard II and his councillors 

^ Mun. Acad. 376 ; for other refer- 
ences see notice of William Russell in 
Part II. 

2 Wood, Annals, I, 572. 

^ Ibid. 638. 

' Twyne. MS. XXIII, 188. 

* ClobC Roll, 12 Ric. II, m. 42 (Appx. 

® The Continuatio Eulogii Histo- 
riarum gives the reasons alleged by two 
individual friars for their support of 
Richard: — (i) personal: * teneor sibi 
et tota parentela mea quia ipse promo- 
vit illam,' p. 390 ; (2) legitimist stand- 
point : ' electio nulla est, vivente pos- 
sessore legitimo,' p. 392. 



were suspected of Lollardy, while his successor posed as the champion 
of orthodoxy. Henry IV, however, derived his support chiefly from the 
wealthy ecclesiastics, and the Lollardy of the Court of Richard II was 
rather political than dogmatic ; the opinions prevalent at the Court 
were more in consonance with Wiclif s earlier teaching and with the 
teaching of the Franciscan Order on the need of poverty in the 
Church and the evils of its endowments, than with the Lollard 
doctrine of the Eucharist. In the early years of Henry IV the 
Franciscans were active in organizing conspiracies^; the pulpit and 
the confessional were used to spread disaffection against the new 
monarch ^ ; and the failure of his campaigns was attributed to the 
magical arts of the Friars Minors^. In 1402, eight Minorites of the 
convent of Leicester were seized, and convicted on their own admis- 
sion of having organized an armed revolt to find King Richard and 
restore him to the throne They were condemned to be hanged and 
decapitated at Tyburn, and the sentence was carried out in the sight 
of many thousands without any ecclesiastical protest. One of these 
friars was Roger Frisby, an old man and Master in Theology ^. On 
the Vigil of the feast of St. John the Baptist^ — the very day on which 
the rebels were to meet ' in the plain of Oxford,' his head was taken 
from London Bridge and brought to Oxford ; 

* and in the presence of the procession of the University, the herald pro- 
claimed: "This Master Friar Minor of the convent of Leicester in 
hypocrisy, adulation, and false life, preached often, saying that King 
Richard is alive, and roused the people to seek him in Scotland ; " and his 
head was set on a stake there 

While subject to attacks from without, the Franciscan Order 
suffered from rival factions within. The long-standing division between 

1 Eulog. Hist. Ill, 388 seq. ; Stubbs, 
Const. Hist. Ill, 36. 

2 Eulog. Hist. Ill, 392. 
^ Stubbs, ut supra. 

* Eulog. Hist. Ill, 391 : it is men- 
tioned with less detail in most of the 
chronicles of the time, e. g. Walsingham, 
Otterbourne. Adam of Usk's account 
differs in some points; 'undecim de 
ordine fratrum minorum in theologia 
doctores,' &c., p. 82. 

^ Eulog. Hist. Ill, 391, where his 
defence before the King, or rather state- 
ment of his position, is given. Before 
his execution he preached on the text, 
* Into thy hands, Lord, I commend my 

spirit.' * Et devote recommendavit 
omnes qui causa mortis suae erant ; ' ibid. 
393. His name is given by Wylie, 
Henry IV, Vol. I, p. 277. He was 
D.D. of Cambridge (Fascic. Zizan. 287) 
and perhaps had no further connexion 
with Oxford than that mentioned in the 

^ Nativitas (June 24) or Decollatio 
(Aug. 29) ? 

' Eulog. Hist. Ill, 394. The whole 
description of these events by the anony- 
mous continuator of the Eulogium is 
extremely graphic and powerful ; his 
sympathies are strongly on the side of 
the rebels. 



[Ch. VI. 

the lax or Conventual, and the strict or Observant parties, at length 
received formal recognition in the Council of Constance (14 15) when 
the Observants were constituted a semi-independent branch under a 
Vicar-GeneraP. How did this arrangement affect Oxford as a 
studium generate ? The Observants as a body produced few students ; 
the reformed houses on the Continent objected to send their brethren 
to Paris ^. A few foreign Observants found their way to Oxford in the 
fifteenth century^; and when later in the century Observant friaries 
were founded in England*, some of their members studied in the 
Conventual house at the University ^. Whether any part of the 
Convent was set apart for them is unknown : according to all appear- 
ance, the brethren of both branches lived together in peace and good- 

^ Anal. Franc. II, 260. 

2 Ibid. 297 ; A. D. 1435 : the Obser- 
vants in answer to the reproach of the 
Conventuals ' quod non haberent magis- 
tros in theologia nec vellent studere etc., 
dicebant, quod studere vellent et desi- 
derarent, sed conqueri de hoc merito 
deberent, quod ipsi de communitate 
omnes conventus, in quibus habet Ordo 
studium generale, vellent ipsi habere et 
nullum Observantibus dare, nec ipsi 
vellent permittere, quod ibi promove- 
rentur ad studia, sed promotiones darent 
illis de sua vita. Sed et propter in- 

numerabiles dissolutiones, quae multo 
adhuc amplius vigent in conventibus 
studiorum generalium, sicut Parisius 
testatur locus, qui dicitur infernus, prop- 
ter inhonestates tacendas, ne aures 
audientium tinnire contingeret, et prop- 
ter exactiones pecuniarias ampliores 
quam apud saeculares, multaque alia 
tacenda ; dicebant, se cum puritate 
regulae non posse ibi studere.' 

^ E. g. Gonsalvo of Portugal. 

* The first according to Wadding 
(XIV, 252) was Greenwich, A. D. 1480. 

5 E. g. John Billing, Ralph Creswell. 



Lost records. — Mendicancy. — Procurators and limitors. — Career of Friar Brian 
Sandon. — Charges of immorality against the friars. — Their worldly manner 
of life before the Dissolution. — Poverty of the Convent. — Sources of income. — 
Annual grants from the King and others. — Frequency of bequests to the 
friars. — List of benefactors. — Classes from which the friars were drawn. — 
Motives which led men to become friars. 

Of the internal economy of the Franciscan house at Oxford, or 
indeed of any friary in England, little is known or ever can be known. 
The Registrum Fratrum Minorum Londoniae is, in Brewer's words, 
*the only work of the kind extant. A painful proof, if such were 
needed, of the utter devastation committed when the Franciscan con- 
vents were dissolved, and their libraries dispersed^/ We may here 
give some account of the records which must once have existed in 
every Franciscan house or province. From the earliest times an 
annual compoius'^ or balance-sheet of income and expenditure was 
drawn up, and if in later days this was sometimes omitted, an ex- 
warden was always liable to be called to render an account to his 
successor^. In each convent would also be kept a list of the brethren 
who died there ^ ; and lists both of living benefactors and of dead, for 
whose souls prayers or masses were to be said^, while many in their 

^ Mon. Franc. I, Ixxi. 

^ Ibid. 8 : * Unde accidit ut Frater 
Angnellus, cum Fratre Salomone, gar- 
diano Londoniae, vellet audire compo- 
tum fratrum Londoniae, quantum sc. 
expendissent infra unum terminum anni, 
cumque audisset quod tam sumptuose 
processisset vel satis parca fratrum ex- 
hibitio, projecit omnes talias et rotulos, 
et percutiens seipsum in faciem, excla- 
mavit, Ay me captum ! " et nunquam 
postea voluit audire compotum.' 

3 Acta Cur. Cancell. FEE, f. 124 b 
(2nd Sept. 1529), printed in Appx. 

* Wadding (VI, 108) refers to the 

' tabula or index of the brethren who 
died there (Cologne) such as is kept 
commonly in the monasteries of the 
Order,' See the curious necrology of 
the Observant Friars of Aberdeen, Mon. 
Franciscana, II, 123-140. Lansdowne 
MS. 963 is said to contain notes by 
Bishop Kennett, ' ex obituario conventus 
Fratrum Minorum Guldefordiae, MS. 
Norwic. 671 :' it is really notes from the 
obituary of the Friars Preachers of 
Guildford, now in the University 
Library, Cambridge ; MS. LI. II, 9. 

^ Polit. Poems and Songs, &c.. Vol. 
II, p. 24 (R.S.). Chaucer's 'Sompnoure ' 


lifetime received 'letters of confraternity^/ In the decrees of the 
General Chapter of Paris in 1292 it is commanded^ that each 
minister should have the lives and acts of holy friars carefully collected 
in his province and entered in special registers, and bring them to the 
General Chapter ; also that all notable excesses of friars, grave crimes, 
and credible accusations, the sentences passed and punishments 
inflicted on the offenders, should be noted in books kept for the pur- 
pose, preserved in the archives of the province, and faithfully handed 
on to each succeeding minister. The acts of Provincial Chapters 
were also kept^ Of these and similar records we have, besides the 
London register already alluded to, only a few letters of fraternity*. Of 
English Franciscan records originated by or relating to the convent at 
Oxford, not one (unless the list of lectors and the account of the 
controversy with the Dominicans in 1269^ can be called records) is 
known to exist ^. Any account, therefore, of the internal life of the 
convent must be meagre and unsatisfactory in the highest degree. 

The hours and numbers of daily services seem to have differed little, 
if at all, from those observed in other monastic institutions'''. We 
may therefore omit this subject and treat of the points which receive 
additional elucidation from documents relating to Oxford. 

offers an explanation of the disappear- 
ance of these 'tables' (Poet. Works, 
Vol. I, pp. 367-8 : Bohn's edition) : — 

' Hisfelawhad a staf typped with horn, 
A payr of tablis al of yvory, 
And a poyntel y-polischt fetisly, 
And wroot the names alway as he 

Of alle folk that gaf him eny good, 
Ascaunce thathewolde forhempreye. 

And whan that he was out atte dore, 

He planed out the names everychoon 
That he biforn had writen in his 

Mon. Franc. II, preface, p. xxxi. 
Cf. Wills in Somerset House, Holder, 
fol. 4 (will of J. Tate) ; Logge, f. 121 
(J. Benet) ; Polit. Poems and Songs, 
II, 29, 33 ; Wiclif, Two Short Trea- 
tises, &c, (Oxford, 1608), cap. 15. 

^ Wadding, V, 299-300. 

^ Some of those relating to the Ger- 
man provinces are given in Nicholas 
Glasberger's Chronicle, Anal. Franc, II. 

* Specimens will be found in Mon. 
Franc. II ; Surtees, Hist, of Durham, 
Vol. I, p. 27 ; Archaeologia, XI, 85 ; 
Mullinger, Cambridge, Vol. I, p. 317, 
mentions a letter of fraternity of a some- 
what different kind. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 552 ; Appendix C. 

6 The deed of W. Wileford (Appx. A. 
i) is not a Franciscan record, any more 
than the Public Records are. I have 
not been able to find the seal of the 
Oxford Minorites. It was attached to 
the original letter addressed by the four 
Mendicant Convents to John of Gaunt, 
a copy of which is printed in Fascic. 
Zizan. pp. 292-5. This is the only 
mention of the seal which I can recall. 
There are a few special references to 
Oxford in the decrees of the General 
Chapters ; see Index, under Franciscan 

See Testament of St. Francis : * Oure 
dyvyne servyce the clerkis saide as 
other clerkis.' Mon. Franc. I, 564. An 
article in the Dominican statutes of 1228 
(Dist. I, n. 4) provides that 'hours' 
shall be said rapidly, * ne fratres de- 



The first means of livelihood of the Mendicant Friars was naturally 
begging. Certain of the brethren were appointed by the Warden to 

* procure ' food for the convent during some fixed period^ There 
were no definite rules as to how many friars should be sent as ' pro- 
curatores' or 'limitors'^; the details depended on the necessities 
of the convent and the will of the Superior ^ Each house had 
definite 'limits' assigned to it, within which its members might 
beg*. The friars went two and two, accompanied by a servant or 
boy^ who carried the ofi"erings, which were usually in kind. The 
friar in Chaucer's 'Sompnoure's Tale,' himself a 'maister^' in the 
schools, after preaching in the church went round the village — 

* In every hous he gan to pore and prye 
And beggyd mele or chese, or ellis corn 

A good deal of private begging was done by the student friars to 
obtain the means of study ^ Roger Bacon appealed to his brother in 
England, to his powerful and wealthy acquaintances, for money to 
carry out the commands of the Pope^ 

* But how often (he writes to the latter) I was looked upon as a dishonest 
beggar, how often I was repulsed, how often put off with empty hopes, 
what confusion I suffered within myself, I cannot express to you. Even my 
friends did not believe me, as I could not explain the matter to them ; so 
I could not proceed in this way. Reduced {angustiatus) to the last ex- 
tremities, I compelled my poor friends ^° to contribute all that they had, 

votionem amittant et eonim studium 
minime impediatur.' Archiv. fiir Litt. 
u. Kirch. Gesch., Vol. I, p. 189. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, lo-i i ; Bullarium 
Romanum, I, 250. 

2 Wiclif, Two Short Treatises, &c., 
p, 31 : * and who can best rob the poore 
people by false begging and other de- 
ceipts shal have this Judas ofBce.' 

^ Bullarium, ut supra. Constitutions 
of Martin V, cap. vi : * Item quod omnes 
fratres vadant pro eleemosyna confidenter 
juxta discretionem Praelati praecipientis, 
cujus arbitrio committimus discernen- 
dum, qui congrue mittendi sunt pro 
eleemosyna, vel qui non.' 

* Wadding, IX, 438 ; complaint of 
the Minorites of Cambridge in 1395 
that a house of the same Order at Ware 
was trespassing on their limites, and bull 
forbidding the same. Cf. Polit. Songs 
and Poems, &c., Vol. II, pp. 21, 78. 

^ In early days they carried the offer- 
ings themselves in their ' caparones ' or 
under their arms. Mon. Franc. I, lo-ii. 

^ Poet. Works, I, 382. This poem, 
though banished, owing to its coarseness 
in some parts, from polite society, con- 
tains a more lifelike and graphic 
description of the English mediaeval 
friar than is to be found elsewhere in 

' Ibid. 367. 

^ Burney, MS. 325, quoted above, 
p. 56, n. 2. Cf. Twyne, MS. IV, 173, 
sermon of N. Hereford in 1382 : ' Cum 
eorum limitatores satis mendicaverint 
pro sua communitate, statim mendicant 
iterum pro seipsis, et sic falsi pravi 
monstrant (se) esse apostatas et frangunt 
regulam,' &c. 

^ Opera Ined. p. 16. 

Familiares homines et pauperes, 
prob. students or the common people (se& 



[Ch. VII. 

and to sell many things and to pawn the rest, often at usury, and I 
promised them that I would send to you all the details of the expenses 
and would faithfully procure full payment at your hands. And yet owing 
to their poverty I frequently abandoned the work, frequently I gave it up 
in despair and forbore to proceed.' 

Begging of this kind would either be unauthorized or legalized by 
special license. The statutes of the Order ^ enact that every convent 
shall have its 'procurator' or 'syndicus,' who shall transact all the 
legal business of the house and receive in the name of the Roman 
Church for the use of the friars all pecuniary alms and bequests, or 
all such alms and bequests as can be changed into money. The 
express object of these constitutions was to 

* preserve the Order in its purity and prevent the brethren being immersed 
in secular affairs V 

It would appear that at Oxford in the fourteenth century the office of 
alms-collector was held by one of the brethren. This conclusion, 
however contrary to the spirit and letter of the statutes, seems war- 
ranted by a remarkable legal document of the year 1341^. It is the 
record of a suit in the Hustings Court, in which Friar John of 
Ochampton, Warden of the Friars Minors at Oxford, ' through Friar 
John de Hentham his attorney,' charged ' Richard de Whitchford 
minor V with refusing to render an account of the sums received by 
him when he was ' receiver of pence of the said warden/ and with 
embezzling sixty shillings or more, which he obtained from various 
people on the Monday after the feast of St. Michael, 1340. Two of 
the sums are specified, namely, one mark by the hands of Richard, 
servant of John de Couton, and 12s. by the hands of Thomas of 
London. The Warden claimed to have suffered loss to the extent of 
one hundred shillings; Richard de Whitchford could not deny the 
receipt of the money, but on his request the court appointed two 
auditors, Richard Cary and John le Peyntour ; to these he rendered an 

ibid. Pref. xx) : the word translated 
' friends ' above is amici. Cf. the frequent 
charges against the friars that they 
* devour poore men's almes in wast, and 
feasting of Lordes and great men.' 
Wiclif, Two Short Treatises, &c., p. 31 ; 
Polit. Poems and Songs, &c., II, p. 28 ; 
Peacock, Repressor, 550 (R.S.). 

^ Bull of Martin IV, Kal. Feb. A« 2, 
recited and confirmed by Martin V, 
Kal. Nov. AO 10. John XXII by his 

Bull * Ad Conditorem ' forbade the 
Franciscans to use the Bull of Martin 
IV without special license of the Pope ; 
Martin V allowed them to use it * freely 
and lawfully.' 

^ W^adding, X, 130. 

3 Twyne, MS. XXIII, f. 266 (Oxf. 
City Archives) : printed in Appendix B. 

* He is not called ^frater^ but the 
omission of this word before * minor ' is 
not infrequent. 



account, and was found to be sixty shillings in arrears ; ' and/ the 
record continues, ' as he cannot make satisfaction he is committed to 

In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the Oxford friars sometimes 
employed laymen to represent them in the courts^; sometimes the 
Warden appeared in person^, but most of the legal business in the 
Chancellor s court at Oxford was undertaken by one of the brethren. 
From 1507 or before, to the Dissolution, this duty was entrusted to 
Friar Brian Sandon. His name does not occur in the University 
Register, and he was, though a priest^, probably not a student ; 
indeed, his administrative business would hardly have left him time for 
other occupations. Between 1507 and 15 16 and between 1527 and 
1534, he appears as plaintiff or defendant in some fifteen suits in the 
Chancellor's court\ Some of these afford glimpses into the life of 
the friars. On the 26th of March, 1512^, Father Brian instituted an 
action against John Morys, his proctor, alleging that the latter 

* did not according to the convention before entered into between the said 
friar and John Morys, bring corn to the house of the friars minors ; ' 

and on April 5th John Morys was committed to prison 'at the 
instance of the provost {preposeti) of the friars minors for a debt^' 

But if the friars did not grow corn, they seem to have made use of 
their meadows as pasture land. On the 20th of May, 1529"^, Friar 
Brian sued Margery, widow of John Lock, for "js. 8d., 

* for certain cheeses which the husband of the said Margery bought from 
the aforesaid Brian Sanden.' 

Eventually the case was submitted to the arbitration of William Clare 
the elder, and Edmund Irishe, baihflfs of Oxford, with the addition of 
a third if necessary, each party binding itself to abide by the decision 
of the majority under penalty of 40s., in case of disagreement, to be 
paid to the party wilHng to accept the judgment. 

While these and similar actions were instituted by Brian in fufil- 
ment of the duties of his position, he was undoubtedly engaged in 
others of a private nature. At one time he acts as attorney for a 

^ e.g. Placita de Scaccario, 3 Hen. 
VII, m. 35 ; Acta Cur. Cane. '5, fol; 
262 b. 

^ Placita de Scacc. 4 Hen. VII, m. 
34 d : of. Acta Cur. Cane. EEE, foL 
124 b ; &c. 

3 Chapter House Books, Aj^, fol. 31 b. 

* Acta Cur. Cane. TT, £f. 5b, 158b, 
159 b, 167, 200b, 258 b; EEE, 72, 107, 
183, 202, 238 b, 251 b, 257, 272 b, 


= U,f. 159 b. 

« Ibid. 160. 

7 EEE, fol. 107 a-b. 



priest^. At another he is charged with wrongfully keeping a knife, 
the property of dominus Galfred Coper^ In 1531^ he had a dispute 
with his tailor and appealed to the law, alleging 

' that, whereas he had given to William Gos *, tailor, three yards and three 
quarters of woollen cloth to make him a habit, the said Gos had purloined 
one quarter of a yard, and that in consequence his clothes were too short 
{nimis bre'vem et succinctam).^ 

Brian having declared on oath that he had supplied the above-men- 
tioned amount of cloth, Gos promised to give him 14^/. as satisfaction, 
for the missing quarter of a yard. But later in the day he again 
appeared and charged the friar with perjury. After some more 
recriminations an agreement was come to out of court, and we hear 
no more of the habit. 

That his litigious spirit should sometimes have brought Friar Brian 
into trouble we cannot wonder. Several times in the latter part of 
his career he was in danger of ' bodily injury ; ' in 1532^ he made 
application to have Robert Holder bound over to keep the peace, and 
in 1534 the judge ordered that James Penerton should not be released 
from Bocardo till he found sufficient sureties that he would not inflict 
bodily harm on Friar Brian or his friends (famtlianbusy. The same 
year he complained of having been Hbelled by one Giles Mawket, a 
carpenter [/abro lignario), in the parish of St. Ebbe's'^. This was 
probably a slander on his character, which was not above suspicion. 
In 1535^ 'a woman of Radley named Anna' asserted in the Com- 
missary's court that she was with child by Thomas Denson, Bachelor 
of Laws : 

* qui Denson (as the record puts it, reciting the evidence of Joanna Cowper, 
another woman of ill-fame) egre tulit ut extraneus quisque famiiiaritate 
dicte Anne uteretur; because (it is added in the margin) he tok fryer 
Bryan wrastelyng w*^ her in a morning 

The records of the Chancellor's court contain charges of immorality 
against two other Friars Minors The first was ' dompnus^ Robert 

^ EEE, fol. 257, action to recover 

2 fol. 167. 
^ EEE, fol. 183. 

* On the same page occurs a * W. 
Gos conductor (ut asserit) stabuli cujus- 
dam juxta collegium animarum.' 

' EEE, fol. 239. 

« Ibid. fol. 273. 

7 Ibid. fol. 272 b. 

* Ibid. fol. 324 b-325. 

^ Denson refused to clear himself by 
compurgation and was sentenced to 
three days imprisonment (commuted to 
a payment of los. to the University) for 
his fornication, ' to the terror of others.' 

And a more serious one against the 
Carmelites ; EEE, fol. 249 b. 



Beste^ who was summoned before the court together with a scholar 
of Broadgates Hall, 

* on grave suspicion of incontinence and disturbance of the peace.' * Then 
the judge commanded ' dompnus ' Beste to go to the prison house, namely 
le Bocardo, and remain there for half-an-hour ' — 

apparently while his case was considered. It does not appear what 
the charge against him was, or what (if any) further steps were taken ^. 
His companion was warned to moderate his attentions to the same 
Joanna, wife of William Cooper or Cowper, of St. Ebbe's, who 
appeared in the trial above referred to. 

Joanna seems to have taken a special interest in the Minorites. At 
the end of 1533^ Friar Arthur, B.D., appealed to the court to stop 
her spreading evil reports against him, which she had failed to prove ; 
she was ordered to abstain in future 

* from defaming the said friar or any of his house on pain of a fine of 40J. 
to be paid to the Convent of friars minors, and banishment from the town ; 
also that she shall not in any way lay traps {paret . . insidias) for the said 
Arthur or any of his Order or cause such traps to be laid, under the afore- 
said penalties.' 

But if Friar Arthur was innocent, he was peculiarly unfortunate. A 
few months later* he again appealed for protection against the libels 
of Nicholas Andrews and John Poker, scholars of Peckwater's Inn. 
At this time Dr. Baskerfeld, Warden of the Grey Friars, was acting as 
substitute for the Commissary, and he heard the case in the house of 
the Minorites. The accusation has been carefully obHterated in the 
Chancellor's book, evidently by the friars themselves, but the gist of it 
can be deciphered. 

' Judex interrogavit eosdem an voluissent prefatum Arcturum accusare et 
denunciare : qui responderunt se nolle ^ hoc facere . . . ; a quibus judex 
petiit ... an aliquid scandalosum et d . . . scirent contra dictum fratrem, 
et interrogavit eos quid hoc erat : et dicebant ambo hiis verbis sequentibus 
(tactis evangehis) ; . . . they saw the seyde frere Arctur in a chambre at 
the sygne of the Bere in all hollows parische in Oxoford with a woman in 
a red capp .... both locked together in a chambre, and seid to the mayd 
of the hous, " then ba . . . why . . . suche ale here to be kept ? It is not thy 
masters will and thy mistres that ony suche ale shold be kept here." ' 

Friar Arthur strenuously denied the accusation, and the court adjourned 

1 EEE, foL 230 (A.D. 1530). 3 Ibid. fol. 257. 

^ Ibid. fol. 238 b; in the margin * Ibid. fol. 271 b (nth May, 1534). 
occurs the entry, * ffryer Robert hora ^ From this point the entry is crossed 

I* xYi*' ' (sc. die Septembris). out. 



[Ch. VIT. 

for two hours. When it reassembled, the defendants refused to sub- 
mit to Dr. Baskerfeld's jurisdiction, arguing that he was incompetent 
to decide a case in which one of the members of his convent was so 
deeply implicated. Two days later, however, they confessed before 
the judge that they would not swear to their original statement, and 
both sides promised to forgive and forget the whole matter. 

Though none of these charges was actually proved, we must admit 
that they show that the convent was not in a healthy state on the eve 
of the Dissolution. There is certainly no trace of the religious fervour 
by which even in the latter days some of the Observant convents were 
honourably distinguished. We find the brethren at Oxford engaged 
in money transactions, lending^ and borrowing^, 'buying and 
selling^.' Friar John Arter* kept a horse in the town and raised 
difficulties about the bill; Randulph Craycoke or Cradoc, who had 
charge of the horse, would not part with it till he had received ' about 
ten shillings for food and grass,' which sum the friar refused to pay, 
asserting that Randulph had worked the horse himself {labor avit dictum 
equum diver sis (?) oneribus). The court, to which the disputants 
appealed, reduced the amount by 2s. ; but Arter was probably unable 
to pay : no one appeared at the time appointed to claim the animal, 
' so we sent Cradoc away with the horse until his bill should be paid.' 

The Warden, Friar Edward Baskerfeld, D.D., was plaintiff in a 
somewhat similar case^, in which both sides were represented by 
counsel. In his evidence the friar deposed that he had lent Master 
Richard Weston, LL.B., 

* a Roane hors of the value of 20s. in the hostel de flore de leust ^, and that 
he had handed over the horse to the servant of the Suhdean of Excestre in 
the name of Richard Weston, and that he said these words, stroking {pal- 
pando) the belly of the horse : " how I delyver the hors sane and sound 
without spurre gallyng I prey you delyver hym so ageyn," and that he 
never saw hym to this day.' 

^ Acta Cur. Cane. , f. 158 b, ' Friar 
Brian and J. Loo, tactis evangeliis, 
swore that Brian had lent Garret 
Matthew i mark.' EEE, f. 95 b. 

^ Cf. T, f. 210, 'Notandum quod 
magister Doctor Alyngdon, ord. frm. 
minorum promisit se soluturum W. 
Hows lis ^d' (Cf. ibid. fol. 

194 b : ' gardianus . . . obligavit se pro 
vicecustode domus sue quod dictus 
vicecustos restitueret Ric. Wynslo duas 
duodenas vasium electriorum 5 ly (?) 

platers and dyschys and i pece 

2 EEE, f. 161 : ' R. Roberts petiit 
. . . xxv^ sibi debitos ab eodem Roberto 
Puller fratre ex causa emptionis et 
vendicionis,' &c. 

* Ibid. f. 74 b (1528). Prob. the 
same as Friar Arthur above. 

^ Ibid. fol. 2 7ob-2 7i a (1534). 

^ Fleur de Lys, near Carfax: see 
Wood's City of Oxford. Part of this 
entry is in Latin, part English, as often. 



The parties agreed to submit the dispute to the judgment of three 
arbitrators, and the result does not appear in the records of the 

No doubt some of the friars had private incomes and emoluments 
of their own ^ (apart from the allowance or ' exhibition ' which as 
students they still received from their native convents or from 
benefactors) ; and some may have lived outside the walls of their 
monastery^. Bat the convent itself was very poor; the love of many 
had waxed cold, and it was inevitable that in order to get a livelihood 
they should resort to means forbidden by their Rule. 

At the beginning of the sixteenth century^, the Warden, Dr. Goodefyld, 
leased one of the gardens lying within the boundaries of the convent 
to Richard Leke, brewer of Oxford. The terms of the agreement 
are unknown, but the friars thought them — or Leke's interpretation of 
them, very injurious to their interests, and in 151 3 and 151 4 de- 
manded the repudiation of the contract. Feeling ran very high, and 
Leke was in personal danger ; the Warden was bound over to keep 
the peace, and promised 

*that if his friars molested Richard Leke, he would keep them in safe cus- 
tody until the matter had been more fully examined.' 

Again the case was referred to arbitration and the decision is un- 
known. It is interesting to find that Leke was fully reconciled to the 
friars before his death*. 

The poverty of the brethren was aggravated by the irregularity with 
which payments, on which they might justly reckon, were made. 
One of their chief sources of income was a royal grant of 50 marcs 
per annum during the King's pleasure, to be paid in equal portions at 
Easter and Michaelmas. It was first instituted by Edward I^ in 1289, 

^ e. g. Friar Nic. de Burgo. See Chap. This is conclusively proved by Pat. i 
iii, on the maintenance of the students. Hen. VII, pt. i, m. 4. One entry on 
Wadding, IV, 255 ; VI, 8, on 'per- this membrane mentions the grant of 
sonal annual incomes ' of friars. Be- 2 5 marcs to the Friars Minors, Cam- 
quests to individual friars sometimes bridge, originally made by Henry III, 
occur. then follows an entry of the 27th Nov. : 

^ See Part II, N. de Burgo and J. 'Sciatis quod nos intelligentes qualiter 

Kynton. dominus Edwardus primus post con- 

^ Acta Cur. Cane. 1, fol. 212 b; questum et alii progenitores nostri . . . 

197 b., 210. concesserint videlicet quilibet eorum 

* See his w^ill in Appx. B. To re- tempore suo Gardiano et Conuentui 

ceive annual rents from lands was de- fratrum minorum Oxonie quinquaginta 

clared illegal in 1302. Wadding, VI, 8. marcas percipiendas annuatim ad Scac- 

(Cf. Earth, of Pisa, Liber Conform, fol. carium suum, nos,' &c. Cf. Pat. i Edw. 

98.) II, pt. I, m. 17, I Edw. IV, pt. 3, m. 

^ Not Henry III, as often stated. 25, &c. 



and was continued by all the kings (with the exception of Edward V) 
to the Dissolution^. Sometimes the sum was paid direct from the 
treasury ; but often (and this seems to have been the general custom 
as regards royal benefactions to religious houses) a sheriff or other 
officer was held responsible for the payment ; either he was instructed 
to send the requisite amount to the Exchequer, or he paid the money 
directly ; and the sums which he paid were accredited to him when he 
produced his accounts at the sessions of the Exchequer. As may be 
proved by many instances, the system did not conduce to regularity of 
payment. Edward II, in December 13 13, ordered Richard Kellawe, 
Bishop of Durham ^, to send to our exchequer at Westminster within 
fifteen days of the day of St. Hilary,' ten marks in partial satisfaction 
of the grant'. But though this sum was to be the first charge on the 
arrears in the Durham diocese of the tax of one-half of their income* 
imposed on the clergy by Edward I (a.d. 1294), and though writs 
were repeatedly ° issued to enforce payment, we find that on the 4th 
of June, 1 3 15, nothing had been done, ' unde vehementer admiramur ^! 

The fifty marks were never made a definite fixed charge on the 
revenues of any one county nor were they levied year by year as a 
single sum ; each year some sheriff or bishop was made responsible 
for a fraction of the whole amount. The annuity was on several 
occasions in arrear. Thus Henry IV in the first year of his reign 
granted the friars ' of his abundant favour ' {de uheriori gratia nostra^ 
all the arrears that had accumulated during the reign of his predeces- 
sor^. Affairs of State made themselves felt in the Franciscan convent. 
In 1450 Parliament passed a general act of resumption, annulHng all 

^ The grant is mentioned in the fol- 
lowing records : — Exchequer Q. R. 
Wardrobe,! (17-18 Edward I) ; Patent 
Roll, 32 Edw.I, m. 13; Liberate Roll, 
34 Edw. I, m. I ; Pat. i Edw. II, part 
I, m. 17; Liberate Rolls, 8 Edw. II, 
m. 3 and 5 ; 9 Edw. II, m. 2 ; Treasury 
of the Receipt, ^ (16 Edward II) ; 
Liberate Rolls, 10, 11, and 12 Edw. 
Ill; Issue Roll of the Exchequer, 44 
Edw. Ill, p. 78 (printed in 1835) ; Pat. 
1 Ric. II, pt. 6, m. 21 (referring to 
Pat. I Edw. II, and i Edw. Ill) ; Pat. 
I Hen. IV, pt. 2, m. 21 ; Rolls of Par- 
liament, Vol. IV, 195-6 (a.d. 1422, 
referring to the grant by Henry V) ; Pat. 
31 Hen. VI, pt. 2, m. 32 (referring to 
Pat. I Hen. VI) ; Pat. i Edw. IV, pt. 

3, m. 25 ; Pat. 17 Edw. IV, pt. 2, m. 
28; Rolls of Parliament, Vol. V, 520, 
597 ; Vol. VI, 90 ; Harl. MS. 433 (i 
Ric. Ill) ; Pat. i Hen. VII, pt. i, m. 4; 
Pat. I Hen. VIII, pt. i, m. 7 ; Crom- 
well Corresp. 2nd series, Vol. XXIII, 
fol. 710 b. 

^ Regist. Palat. Dunelm, (ed. Hardy), 
Vol. II, p. 980 (nth Dec. anno 7). 

^ Ibid. p. 1065, 'ij^ partem cujusdem 
annuae eleemosynae, quam de nobis 
percipiant annuatim.' 

* Ibid. pp. 1027-8. Cf. Stubbs, Constit. 
Hist. II, 130 (3rd edition). 

5 The Durham Register contains six 
writs on the subject. 

^ Ibid. p. 1085. 

' Pat. I Hen. IV, pt. 2, m. 21. 



grants made since the King's accession, and the annuity to the friars 
ceased to be paid^ The brethren represented to Henry VI the 
hardships which this loss of revenue inflicted on them, and in 1453 
the King ordered the arrears to be paid, 

' in order that the same warden and friars may be in a happier frame of 
mind {hillariorem animum habeant) to offer up special prayers for us to the 
Highest V 

Under the circumstances we cannot be surprised if the friars some- 
times took legal measures to recover the debts due to them. It was 
no doubt in connexion with this grant, that in 1466 Richard Clyff, 
' custos ' of the Oxford Grey Friars (first in person and afterwards 
through his attorney) sued John Broghton, late Sheriff of Kent, in the 
Court of Exchequer, for looj. due to him from the preceding year, 
and claimed damages to the amount of ten marks^ In 1488, in like 
manner, Richard Salford, Warden of the Friars Minors at Oxford, 
applied to the Barons of the Exchequer to compel John Paston, Knt., 
late Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, to pay a debt of £10 i8j., and 
put in a claim to £10 damages; he recovered the debt, but the 
damages were reduced to 26^-. 8</.* On the same day he sued 
Edmund Bedyngfeld, Knt., late Sheriff of the same counties of Nor- 
folk and Suffolk, for a debt of 'seven pounds of silver' and ioo>r. 
damages ; the amount of the debt and 20s. damages were awarded 
him^. The next year he again brought an action against the same 
Bedyngfeld and recovered the debt (£4 26^.), while the barons assessed 
his damages at \os. instead of the £4 which he claimed^. We gather 
from these instances that though the annuity was usually paid and 
was not often much in arrear, it was not collected without considerable 
trouble and expense on the part of the friars. These actions involved 
a journey to London and the employment of an attorney'^: they were 
never setded in one day, and weeks or months elapsed between the 
first hearing and the second. 

The Grey Friars were also in receipt of annual or weekly alms 

^ Pat. 31 Hen. VI, pt. 2, m. 32 : ^ Placita de Scaccario, 6 Edw. IV, 

* Que quidem littere nostra (Pat. of m. 20. 

loth Dec. A" i) . . . ratione cuiusdam * Ibid. 3 Hen. VII, m. 35. 

actus in parliamento nostro sexto die ^ Ibid. m. 35 hi dorso. 

Novembris anno regni nostri vicesimo ^ Ibid. 4 Hen. VII, m. 34 in dorso. 

octavo editi vacue existunt et adnullate.' In the first three of these pleas, 

Stubbs, Const. Hist. Ill, 143, 150 (2nd Jacobus Bartelet was attorney for the 

edition)., friars ; in the fourth Ric. Salford ap- 

^ Pat. lit supra. peared all through ' in propria persona.' 

H 2 



[Ch. VTI. 

from others besides the King. Durham College paid them 50J. 

'In ye accompts of S. Ebbs made before 1542, it appears in all, y* ye 
churchwardens of S. Ebbs parish paid to ye warden of ye Grey Freyers 
Oxon 6d. per annum 

The nunnery of Godstow^ gave every week alternately to the Friars' 
Preachers and Minors 

' fourteen loaves of the best wheat ' (^pasto), worth in money value ?>d. a 
week, * for the soul of Roger Writtell ; and the aforesaid friars shall have 
the seal of the monastery to the amount of 34J. a year.' 

The nuns also gave annually to each of the four Orders of friars at 
Oxford 3>f. 4(^. in money, and ' one peck [modium) of oytemell and 
one of peas (pisarum) in Lent.' Among the ' perpetual alms ' of 
Osney Abbey is mentioned a grant of 20s. to the four Orders, as the 
price of one ox, at Christmas, and of ^d. a week to each Orde 
' according to ancient custom*.' 

A large part of their revenue was derived from bequests. To 
minister to the sick and the dying was one of the first duties which 
St. Francis practised himself and enjoined on his followers : that in 
this respect the English Franciscans followed his precepts may be 
seen in the tradition of them which remained in the memory of this 
country and which Shakespeare has expressed in ' Romeo and Juliet ' : 

* Going to find a barefoot brother out, 
One of our order, to associate me. 
Here in this city visiting the sick, 
And finding him, the searchers of the town. 
Suspecting that we both were in a house 
Where the infectious pestilence did reign, 
Seal'd up the doors and would not let us forth.' 

(Act V, Scene II.) 

But work like this receives little notice in history, and where it is 
mentioned it is usually upon the sordid aspect of the case — the greed 
for legacies — that the chroniclers insist. 

In connexion with Oxford there are perhaps in the extant records 
only two instances of a Franciscan being found in the chamber of 
sickness or death. On Nov. 24, 1357, the will of Robert de Trenge^ 

^ Twyne, MS. XXI, 812. 
^ Wood, MS. D 2, p. 344. 
^ Valor Ecclesiasticus, Vol. II, p. 

* Ibid. p. 223. 

5 Oxf. City Rec. Old White Book, 
fol. 55 b. The Warden of Merton says, 
' He died in 1351, it is said of the 
plague.' Memorials of Merton Coll. 
(O. H. Soc), p. 157- 

Ch. VII.] 



Warden of Merton, was proved by the sworn testimony of Friar John 
of Nottingham of the Order of Friars Minors, and Master Walter 
Moryn, clerk. The will itself is dated June 14, 1351, but in the 
Middle Ages it was rarely that a man made his will until he felt that 
his hours were numbered, and although Robert de Trenge seems to 
have lived some time longer, he was probably now lying in expectation 
of death, struck down perhaps by the dreaded plague. 

The other instance is of later date, namely loth Dec, 1514^ A 
scholar, John Eustas, had died intestate at Oxford ; 

' at the instance of his administrators, Friar Richard of Ireland, of the 
Order of Minors, appeared before us (the commissary), and confessed that 
he had abstracted from the goods of the aforesaid dead man, without com- 
petent legal authority, two mantles and thirty-one yards of linen cloth, 
and in gold i^s. \d.^ which goods he has still in his possession.' 

A few days later Friar Richard Lorcan was ordered by the court to 
restore these goods under penalty of the law^. 

It is, however, in the wills of men and women of every rank and 
every status that we get most insight into the work of the friars as 
visitors of the sick. Unfortunately we possess but few wills as early 
as the thirteenth or first half of the fourteenth century, while for 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, when the popularity of the 
friars had greatly declined, they are fairly numerous. Taking those 
proved in the Chancellors court between 1436 and 1538, we find 
that one will in every eight, roughly speaking^, contains a bequest to 
the Minorites. In the 'Old White Book' (Oxford City Records) ^ 
the proportion is about one to every four or five, and in the last half 
of the fourteenth century, one-third of the wills of Oxford citizens 
contain bequests to the Franciscans ; and these figures are borne out 
by the Oxford wills scattered through the early Registers at Somerset 
House^. The legacies come from all ranks; tradesmen and 

^ Acta Cur. Cane. -1 , fol. 250 a. 
^ Ibid. 254 b. 

^ Some of the wills are not complete, 
e.g. those of Phil. Kemerdyn (1446), 
T. Cartwright (1532), and E. Standish 

* As the Hustings Court was only 
concerned with freehold property in 
Oxford, it is rarely that the whole will 
is found in the Old White Book. 
About thirty date from 1348-9, but I 
do not think that any one of them is 
entire. ^ Two Oxford wills of this date 

are among the ' Early Lincoln Wills * 
(p. 39), those of Ric. Cary and Alice 
his wife, but contain no bequests to the 
friars. This is perhaps the Ric. Cary 
who granted land to the Franciscans 
in 1 319; his son,, who died 1352, was 
old enough to make a will (Old White 
Book, f. 54). 

^ Cf. Mon. Franc. II, pp. xxvi-xxvii. 
' An analysis of a considerable number 
of wills . . . from the Registers of the 
Norwich Consistory Court . . , shows 
that at a time when the Grey Friars 



merchants being especially well represented. Nor were the benefac- 
tors confined to Oxford and its neighbourhood : the Convent, like the 
University, occupied a national position. But it will be best to give as 
complete a list as possible of the bequests to the Grey Friars, and 
leave readers to draw their own conclusions. 

John of St. John^, clerk, by an undated will, probably about 1230, 
left half a mark to the Friars Minors of Oxford. 

Martin de Sancta Cruce, Master of the Hospital of Sherburn, near 
Durham, left los. to them in 1259, with bequests to Friar Richard of 
Cornwall and others'"^. 

Boniface of Savoy, Archbishop of Canterbury, left them fifteeh 
marks at his death in 1270^. 

Nicholas de Weston, citizen of Oxford, left them 10s. in 1271*. 

Walter de Merton, Bishop of Rochester, Chancellor of England, and 
founder of Merton College, bequeathed twenty-five marks to them at 
his death in 1277 ^. 

Thomas Waldere, of Wycombe, left them 2s. in 1291^. 

Amaury de Montfort'^, papal chaplain, Treasurer of York, &c. in 
an elaborate will dated Feb. 2nd, 130X, ordered that 'the goods 
and revenues of the aforesaid Treasury owed to him ' should be 
divided into three parts; one-third was to be subdivided into six parts; 
the sixth part was to be again subdivided into three parts, one of 
which was to go to the Friars Preachers of Oxford, Leicester, and 
elsewhere ; the second 

were falling out of favour, every third 
will conveyed a gift to them.' The 
wills proved in the court of the Arch- 
deacon of Oxford (now under the care 
of Mr. Rodman at Somerset House) 
begin in 1529. Between 1529 and 1538 
I found twenty-nine wills, in which the 
town of Oxford, or some person or 
persons resident in Oxford, are referred 
to ; of these, thirteen contain bequests 
to friars, nine of them containing be- 
quests to the Grey Friars, either alone 
or (more usually) in conjunction with 
other Orders. In the same register, out 
of forty-three wills, taken at random 
from the years 1529-30, 1534-5, five 
only contained bequests to friars, three 
of them mentioning the Minorites. 

^ Twyne, MS. XXIII, 89. His exe- 
cutors according to Twyne were the 
Chancellor and Dean (?) of Oxford ; 

• sed probatum est illius testamentum 
. . . per A. Archidiaconun Oxon ;' prob. 
Adam of St. Edmundsbury, who held the 
office of Archdeacon in 1223 and 1234. 

^ Durham Wills (Surtees Soc), Vol. 
I, p. 9. 

^ Wadding, IV, 240, quotes his will 
(dated 1264) from ' Historia . Guice- 
nonii,' Tom. 2, fol. 59 and 60-7, i. e. 
Samuel Guichenon. 

* Twyne, MS. XXIII, 105. 

^ See abstract in Bp. Hobhouse's Life 
of W. of Merton, p. 45. 

^ Hist. MSS. Commission, Report V, 
p. 560. ' This Thomas Waldere,' says 
Mr. Riley, ' was probably the wealthiest 
man of his time in Wycombe.' 

' Roman Transcripts at the Record 
Office, * Archivio Vaticano Armar. I, 
Capsula 9, Num. 9.' Le Neve, Fasti, 
III, 159. 

Ch. VII.] 


* fratribus Minoribus, Garmelitis, Oxonii, Leycestrie, parisius, et fratribus 
ordinis S. Trinitatis ; ' 

the third, to pay any debts he might leave. As Amaury was dispos- 
sessed of the Treasurership in Aug. 1265 (after holding it only for a 
few months), and never recovered it, these bequests were merely a 
pious wish. 

John de Dodington bequeathed 20^-. to each of the four Orders in 
Oxford in 1335 ^ 

Nicholas Acton"^, parson of the church of Wystantowe (Salop), and 
owner of property in London, left the Oxford Franciscans 40J. in 

Wiiliam de Burchestre left them one marc in 1340^. 

John son of Walter Wrenche^ of Milton, spicer, by a will dated 
May 4th, and proved on May 5th, 1349, gave to the Friars Preachers 
and Friars Minors of Oxford each ten quarters of corn''. 

Edmund Bereford^, lord of several manors near Oxford, in his will 
dated Jan. 8th, i35x and proved in 1354, gave, among many other 
pious bequests, 20^. at his death and los. on his anniversary to the 

' Item volo quod xij trisennalia celebrentur pro anima mea, videlicet . . . 
in quolibet ordine fratrum j trisennale.' 

Henry Malmesbury, citizen of Oxford, left them 20s. in 1361^. 
John de Bereford^ ^ citizen and sometime Mayor of Oxford, be- 
queathed 1 3 J. ^d. to each of the Orders in 1361, 

* ut habeant animam meam inter eorum missas recommendatam . . . Item, 
cuilibet ordini fratrum predicatorum Minorum Garmelitarum et Augusti- 
nensium Oxon', die sepulture mee 2j. 6<af., et in die commemorationis 
anime mee in mensem 2s. 6d., et die anniversarii mei 2s. 6d.'' 

Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex (who died 1361), 

' to the students of each house of the four orders of Mendicants in Oxford 
and Cambridge ;^io to pray for us 

1 Wood, MS. D. 2, p. 61 (Lincoln 
Coll. Archives). 

^ Sharpe's Cal. of Wills proved in 
the Court of Hustings, London, Vol. I. 

^ Wood, MS. D. 2, p. 59 (Lincoln 
Coll. Archives). 

* Wood-Clark, II, 388 note. Wood, 
MS. D. 2, p. 540, 

Lambeth Registers; Islip, fol. 105- 
106; proved in the court of the Arch- 
bishop in Oct., in that of the Bishop of 

Lincoln in Nov. 1354. 

« Twyne, MS. XXIII, 68 ; he belonged 
to the parish of St. Mary Magdalen. 

Ibid. 758, ' ex munimentis Coll. 
Merton, B 7. 13.' Twyne says he was 
Mayor in 29 Ldw. Ill; but J. de St. 
Frideswide was then Mayor, and J. de 
Bereford a leading burgess. Twyne, 
MSS. Vol. II, fol. 8. 

« Nichols, ' Royal and Noble Wills,' 
pp. 46-7. 



Richard Bramptone, butcher of Oxford, in 1362, left loj. to be 
divided equally among the four Orders of friars^. 

Walter de Berney^, a wealthy citizen of London, with apparently no 
near relations, was a benefactor: his will, made in 1377, contains, 
among many similar bequests, the following : 

' Item fratribus minoribus Oxon' et Cantebrig' equaliter x li.' 

Richard Carsewell, butcher of Oxford, in 1389 left the house in 
which he lived, 'without the South Gate of Oxford toward Grantpounde,' 
to his executors, with instructions to sell it 

* and to distribute to the poor friars minors of the money received for the 
said tenement, ten marks 

John Ode or OMe^ of Oxford, 'skinner,' left in 1390, 20s. a year for 
three years to Friar John Schankton, of the Order of Minors, to 
celebrate masses for the soul of the testator and his friends, in the 
Franciscan church at Oxford. To the convent of Friars Minors he 
bequeathed ^s., to celebrate divine service for him on the day or the 
morrow of his deaths 

Sir John Gola/re, of Langley and Fyfield, knight, by will dated 
Jan. 19th, 139^, left the Minorites £10, if he were buried in their 
church : 

' et si ita contingat quod corpus meum sepultum fuerit alibi, tunc volo 
quod predict! fratres minores non habeant nisi tantum x li 

Richard de Garajord, of Oxford, who was buried in the Dominican 
cemetery, left the Friars Minors 6^-. %d. in 1395^. 

John de Waliham, Bishop of Salisbury, left them 6s. 8d. in the same 
year ' to pray specially for his soul 

John Maldon, Provost of Oriel, left 3J. \d. to each of the Mendicant 
Orders at Oxford in 1401^. 

John Bannebury, of Oxford, left ^od. to the Grey Friars in 

Matthew Coke, of Oxford, in the same year, bequeathed 30^-. to be 

1 Balliol Coll. Archives, B 17. 2. 

2 Norfolk Antiq. Miscell. Vol. I, p. 
400 (Early Wills from the Norfolk 
Registry). Sharpe's Cal. of Wills, &c.. 
Vol. II, p. 205. 

=^ Oxf. City Records, Old White Book, 
fol. 69 b. 

' Ibid. fol. 71. 

^ Lambeth Registers; Arundel, Part 

I, fol. 155, where a memorandum is 
added to the effect that he was not 
buried at Oxford. 

Twyne, MSS. Vol. XXIII, 427. 
' P. C. C. Rous, fol. 32 (at Somerset 

^ Register Arundel, Pt. I, fol. 198. 
» A. Gibbons, 'Early Lincoln Wills,' 
p. 94 (from Burghersh's Register). 

Ch. VII.l 


divided among the Orders of friars, ' to celebrate for my soul/ and 
added the hope : 

' et ultra hoc spero in voluntate uxoris race \' 

John Thomas, priest, left by will made at Oxford 14 13, ioj. to the 
Friars Minors there, 

' to say one dirige for me with their other usual suffrages '^^ 

Lady Alienor a de Sancio Amando in 1426 left £8 to be divided 

amongst the four Orders at Oxford ' to celebrate for her soul ^' 

Robert James, Esq., lord of Borstall, left 6s. Sd. to each Order at 

Oxford in 1431*. 

Agnes, wife of Michael Norton^, in 1438 willed to be buried in the 
Minorite church at Oxford, and gave instructions that her tenement in 
St. Ebbe's should be sold and that 

* from the money so acquired an anniversary should be held in the said 
church of the friars Minors of Oxford for my soul and the soul of Thomas 
Clamiter (?) my late husband, for the space of twenty years, the friars 
receiving for each such anniversary 6j. 8^/. 

James Hedyan, LL.B., and Principal of Eagle Hall, in 1445 be- 
queathed Sj-. to the Franciscans, in whose church he was buried, and 
2od. to Friar Giles (his Franciscan confessor.?)^. 

Reginald Mertherderwa, doctor of laws and rector of the parish of 
St. Crida the Virgin in the diocese of Exeter, in 1447 left 6s. 8d. to 
each of the four Mendicant Orders at Oxford ; and to the convent of 
Friars Minors 

' to provide one breakfast or dinner among them, that they may the more 
devoutly pray for my soul, three shillings and four-pence 

William Skelton, clerk, rector of the parish of St. Vedast, London, 
left the Minorites 3J. ^d. in the same year^ 

Waller Morleyse, ' de alta Sebyndon,' Co. Wilts, left them ^s. 


Richard Browne, alias Cordon""^, LL.D. and Archdeacon of 
Rochester, Canon of York, Wells, etc., provides in his will dated 1452, 
that if he dies in or near Oxford, every Order of friars there shall have 
one noble {6s. Sd.) 

^ Ibid. p. 96. ^ Mtin. Acad. p. 543 (Acta Curiae 

2 Regist. Arundel, Pt. II, fol. 164 b : Cancell.). 

he was buried in the church of the Ibid. 557 pro refectione uniusjen- 

Friars Preachers, at Oxford. taculi sive coenae inter eoshabenda,'&c, 

Regist. Chichele, Pt. I, fol. 392 b. ^ Lambeth Registers; Stafford, fol. 162. 

* Ibid. fol. 425 b. ^ P. C. C. Rous, fol. 129. 

5 Old White Book (Oxford), fol. Regist. Kempe, fol. 263 a-265 b ; 

90. / and Mun. Acad. 639-657. 


*■ for the labour of masses and other suffrages to be said for the salvation of 
his soul and the souls of all the faithful dead.' Further, ' I give and 
bequeath to Friar David Garrewe, Minorite, Master in Theology, 6s. 8d.* 

William Lord LovelP- made arrangements before his death ' to be 
buried at the Grayfreris of Oxenford; ' (will dated i8 March, i45|, 
proved Sept. i, 1455). In the arrangements a bequest would no 
doubt be included. 

Master Philip Polton, Archdeacon of Gloucester (buried in All 
Souls Chapel), left ^od. to each Order of friars of Oxford by will 
dated 1461^ 

John Dongan in 1464 desired to be buried ' in the cemetery of the 
Friars Minors of the University of Oxford,' to whom he gives ^od ^. 
John Russel, of Holawnton, Wilts, made his will in 1469*. 

' Also I give and bequeath to the iiij ordyrs off ffrerys w* in J)e Vniuersite, 
of Oxford iiij nowbles to haue myne obyte holden ther and to pray for my 
sowle and the sowlys of sir Robert Russell, Knyght ' (and other members 
of the family). 

William Dagvyle, gentleman, left 30J. to the five Orders of friars 
at Oxford in 1474°. 

William Chestur^ ' marchaunte of the staple of Caleys and Citezein 
and Skynnere of London,' bequeathed in 1476^ 
' to euery of pe iiij ordres of ffreres in Oxenforde xxxiijj. ui}d.^ 

Robert Addjy, Master of Balliol College, left £4 to the four Orders 
of friars at Oxford in 1483'^. 

Alice Doddis, ' wif of John Dobbis of y® town of Oxenford Alder- 
man,' gave and bequeathed 6s. 8d. to the ' ffreris Minours ' in 

James Blacwode, of Oxford, in 1490 left to the Minorites there 
' et unum Gublet de Argento pouncede 

Master John Martoke, elected Fellow of Merton College in 1458, 
left each Order of friars at Oxford 6s. Sd. (will executed 1500, proved 

Margaret Goldsmith in 1503 left 13J. \d, to be divided among the 
four Orders 

^ Early Lincoln Wills, p. 186. 
Acta Cur. Cancell. A a a, fol. 
194 b. 

^ Ibid. fol. 213. 
' Old White Book, fol. 125 b. 
•'' Wood, MS. D. 2, p. 61 (Lincoln 
Coll. Archives). 

P.C. C. Wattys, fol. 174. 

Testamenta Eboracensia (Surtees 
Soc), Pt. Ill, p. 284. The will was 
proved at Oxford and York. 
« Old White Book, fol. 135. 
» Ibid. 136. 

Acta Cur, Cancell. Q, fol. 48 b. 
Memorials of Merton Coll., 238. 
i» Ibid. f. 61. 

Ch. VII.] 


Thomas Banke, Rector of Lincoln College, willed in 1503 
* that the friars of each of the Religions in the town of Oxford should 
celebrate exequies for him, and that each house should receive of his 
goods 6s. Sd.^ ' 

/o/in Pereson (buried at St. Mary Magdalen), left the four Orders 
13J. \d. in 1507I 

In the same year, Thomas Clarke, the executor of the will of John 
7^<2//^, promised to pay Dr. Kynton, Minorite, 26^-. in four instal- 

Edmund Crofton, M.A., who made bequests to Brasenose College 
and the convents of St. Frideswide, Osney, and Rewley, left 2(is. 8d. 
to the four Orders (1508)*. 

William Hasard, of Magdalen College, Proctor of the University in 
1495? by a will dated ipth Aug. 1509 and proved 31st Aug. of the 
same year, bequeathed 10s. to each house of friars, 

' praying each Order to celebrate one trental for his soul with the exequies 
of the dead and a mass on the day of his death 

' Richard ffetiplace, of Estshifford^ (Berks) Squyer,' made a will in 
1510 containing the entry : 

' Item I bequeth to the iiij orders of freers in Oxford xxvjj. viijV., and 
eueryche of theym to kepe a solempne dirige and masse praying for my 

'Dame Elizabeth Elmys of Henley upon Thamys' in 15 10 left to 
each of the four Orders in Oxford, if she died in that neighbourhood, 
10s. for a trental, &c. 

' And I will that thos said places of freeres to whom my legacies shall 
come, Tmmediatly aftir shall syng in their places oon masse of Requiem w* 
placebo, dirige, laudes, and commendacion 

' Sebyll Danvers,' widow, of Waterstoke, in the diocese of Lincoln 
and county of Oxford, in 151 1 left the four Orders 13^. ^d. to be 
divided equally among them^. 

Thomas Dauys, oi St. Edwardstowe, Worcester diocese, in 151 1 
gave in his will 

* to the iiij orders of freeres for iiij trentalles to be said in Oxford xb.'' 

William Perot, of Lambourne, Salisbury diocese, in 151 1 left to the 
' Grey freres of Oxon xxd?^ ' 

^ Ibid. f. 209. ford-on-Thames). 

2 Ibid. f. 26. ' Ibid. 

^ Acta Cur. Cancell. T , f. 28. ^ Ibid. qu. 2. 

* Ibid. f. 59. ^ Ibid. qu. 1-2 : he bequeaths sheep 

^ Ibid. fol. 96. to various parish, churches. 

P.-C. C. Fetiplace, quire i (Shif- Ibid. qu. 7 : Lambourn, Berks. 



[Ch. vir. 

Richard Harecourt, Esquire, of Abingdon, left 26s. Sd. to the four 
Orders in Oxford in 1 5 1 2 \ 

William Besylis, Esquire, in 1 5 1 5 bequeathed ' to the grey ffryers in 
Oxenfford vjV. viij^/.'^ 

Robert Throkmorton, Knight, willed in 151 8 ^ that 

' ther be said for my soule in as shorte a space as it may be doon after my 
deceas twoo trentalles in the Graye ffrieris of Worceter, ij Trentalles in 
the grey ffreris of Oxford, ij trentalles in the grey ffreris of Cambrygge, 
ij trentalles in the blake ffreris of Oxford (and same of Cambridge), and 
for euery of thes trentalles I will there be gyven xj. apece.' 

Sir Richard Elyot, 'Knyght, one of the Kinges Justices of his corn- 
men benche/ willed in 1520, that the four Orders at Oxford and 

* haue at my burying or moneth mynde to kepe dirige and masse for me 
iijj. m]d' * 

John Tynmouth^ Franciscan friar. Bishop of Argos, Suffragan of 
Sarum, and parson of Boston, left to the Grey Friars of Oxford £5: 
the will was made in 1523, and proved in 1524^ 

In 1526 Richard Leke or Leek^, 'late bruer of Oxford,' bequeathed 
^d. to each Grey friar of Oxford being a priest, and 2d. to each ' being 
noo prest ; ' ds. 8d. to the friars ' to make a dyner in their owne 
place;' 6s. 8d. to the Warden 'to prouide for the premisses ; ' 20^. 
for altars ; and an additional los. to be paid in three instalments, 
namely, ' at my burying,' ' at my monethes mynde,' and ' at my yeres 

Walter Cur son, of Waterperry'^, 'gentilman,' bequeathed a legacy in 
these terms : 

' Also I woll and gyue to the iiij orders of ffreers in Oxforde for iiij Tren- 
talles to be doen and had for my soule and my ffrendes soules xb. eqally 
to be dewyded that is to wit to euery one of them xj.' (executed 24 Nov. 
1526, proved 2 May, 1527). 

John Rogers (Exeter College) in 1527 also bequeathed each Order 


John Coles (1529), left the four Orders i3>9. ^d. (his executors were 

' P. C.C, Holder, qu. 2. 

Ibid. qu. 6. 
" r. C. C. Maynwaryng, qu. 2. 

Ibid. qu. 24. 

Wood, MS. B 13, p. 14. 

^ P. C. C. Porch, qu. 9 : see Appendix 


Ibid. qu. 19. 
« Acta Cur. Cane. EEE, f. 283 a. 
Ibid. fol. 300 b. 

Ch, VII.] 


John Se?nan, of Oxford, by will dated 1529, gave 

' vnto euery one of the iiij orders of fFryours in Oxford, so that they be at 
my buryall and monethes mynde, xj.^ ' 

Anthony Hall, of Swerford, a considerable landowner, desired in his 
will dated 1529 and proved 1530, tp 

' haue a trentall of masses to be said for me, the one half at our lady ffryers 
(i.e. Carmelites), and the other half at the gray ffryers 

John Byrion, of ' Abburbury,' also a farmer or landowner, left in 1530 
to the four Orders at Oxford 4^.^ 

Thomas Goodewyn, of Alkerton (Oxon), a large sheepfarmer, be- 
queathed 2S. Sd. to the 'gray fifryers of Oxford,' in 1530''. 

In 1532 Wi'lk'am Clare, of Hollywell, Oxford, left 3^. 4d. to each 
Order of friars at Oxford ^ 

Jane Foxe^oi Burford, in 1535 bequeathed her lands and tenements 
and ' ii c (200) shepe ' to her son, and 5^-. ^d. 'to the iiij order of 
frears in Oxford**/ 

Henry Standish'^, Friar Minor, and Bishop of St. Asaph, in 1535 

' five marcs to buy books to be placed in the library of the scholars of the 
friars Minors in the University of Oxford,' 

ten marks to the church of the same friars, £40 for the exhibition of 
scholars^ in the University of Oxford, and £40 to build an aisle in the 
church of the friars Minors at Oxford. 

Thomas Sowche, of ' Spellusbury,' left to the ' fore orders of freers in 
Oxford, euery one of them m]dy 

Richard Elemens or Flemeus, of ' Welleford' (Berkshire?), in 1536 
left ' vnto the Gray freers yn Oxford xs}^ ' 

John Claymond, S.T.B., President first of Magdalen College, then 
of Corpus Christi College, left 20^. to each of the convents of friars at 
Oxford in 1536, 

' ut celebrent in ecclesiis suis pro anima ejus 

^ Oxf. Wills and Adminis. Series I, ^ Ibid. fol. 103. 
Vol. I, f. 2. ' P. C. C. Hogen, qu. 26. See notice 

2 Oxford Wills, Series I, Vol. I, fol. of him in Part II. 
18 b. He had land in Steeple Aston, ^ Prob. not ' religious students.' 
Hooknorton, &c. : among his bequests ^ Oxford Wills, ut supra, f. 119: no 

are, ' Item to our lady of pyte a shepe. date is given ; the will seems to have 

Item to seynt Antony a shepe.' been proved in the early part of 1536; 

^ Ibid. f. 36 b. Sowche was an owner of pasture lands. 

* Ibid. fol. 58 b. 10 jbi^j^ J27. 

^ Ibid. fol. 68 b. One of his sons was 11 Wood, MS. D. 2, p. 613. 
a canon of Osney. 



[Ch. VII. 

Elizabeth Johnson, of Oxford, widow, in 1537 l^^t 

* to the four ordres of fryers four nobles to singe dirige and masse at AU- 
hallowes churche at the buryall and moneth mynde.' 

The will was proved on Jan. 12th, 153!, — after the suppression of the 
friaries \ 

Many testators authorized their executors to make due provision of 
trentalls and masses ' for the wealth of their souls,' without specifying 
where they were to be celebrated : the friars no doubt came in for a 
share of these. Thus Thomas Hoye, Vicar of Bampton, in 1531 
gives the following instructions^ : 

Mt is my will that the forsaid goodes be preysid and put to vendicion and 
the money therof cummyng to be ordered and distributed by myn 
executors for trentallys of masses off Requiem eternam and masses of the 
V woundes of our lord to be celebrate and said for the welthe of my soule 
and all Christen sowles. Amen.' 

On the other hand, the parish priests or rectors of churches were 
legally entitled to one-fourth of the gifts, bequests, and fees given by 
their parishioners to the friars ^ : but it is impossible to say whether 
the right was generally enforced. In 1521 Leo X, 

' owing to the importunate exaction of the funeral fourth by some rectors 
of churches,' 

exempted the friars from the payment*. 

Among other sources of revenue may be enumerated the institution 
of annual masses for fees (of which the wills often make mention), 
commutations of penances for money ^, payment by the University 
and others for the use of their church, schools, and other buildings 
on various occasions®, and collections in church^. At the beginning 
of the sixteenth century we hear of a 

* gild of St. Mary in the church of the Friars Minors 

which no doubt supported one or more friars to say mass in one of 

^ Ibid. fol. 65. The overseer of the 
will was Dr. J. London, Warden of New 
College ; the witnesses Alderman Ba- 
nister and W. Plummer. 

^ Oxford Wills and Adminis. Series 

I, Vol. I, fol. 87 b : of. ibid. fol. 5, &c. 
^ Wadding, Vol. V, 342-3 (privilege 

of Boniface VIII, 1295) ; Mon. Franc. 

II, Pref p. xvii. 

* Wadding, Vol. XVI, p. 134. 

'•' Restricted by Constitutions of 1260; 
Archiv. f. L. u. K. Gesch. VI, 92. Cf 
Wiclif, Two Short Tracts, &c., p. 37 : 

* The Friars suffren men to lie in sinne, 
fro yere to yere, for an annual rent.' 

^ Cf. Grey Friars at Cambridge, in 
Willis and Clark, Architect. Hist. II, 724. 

' Cf. Chaucer's Sompnour's Tale. 
Forbidden 1260 ; Archiv, f. L, u. K. 
Gesch. VI, 92. 

^ Acta Cur. Cancell. '^I, fol. 135b: 
* . . . Confessus est coram nobis Ric. 
Barlow quod debet magistris Gilde 
Sancte Marie in ecclesia fratrum mi- 
norum tresdecim nobilia que mutuo a 
predictis magistris recepit,' &c. 


the ten chapels. Of manual labour there is little evidence ; the only 
kind mentioned is the transcription of manuscripts of which we have 
already spoken. 

We may here say a few words on two other points. Firstly, from 
what classes of society were the Franciscans mainly drawn? In the 
thirteenth century a very large number of men of position, of high 
birth, were attracted to the Order ; but that this was unusual may be 
gathered from the rejoicings which took place over converts who were 

* valentes in saeculo^.' There is every reason to suppose that the Grey 
Friars, as well as the other students at the University, were mainly recruited 
from the sons of tradesmen, artisans, and villeins'^. Friar Brackley, D.D. 
was the son of a Norwich dyer^; and the towns probably supplied the 
greater proportion of the Oxford Franciscans*. Secondly, what led 
men to take the vows of the Minorites? Excluding again the thir- 
teenth century (when the highest motives were predominant), and con- 
fining ourselves to the later times, we must admit that, apart from 
those who entered the Order as boys, either from choice or at the 
instigation or compulsion of relatives^ — the leading motive was a 
superstitious belief in the externals of religion, in the efficacy of ' the 
washing of cups and pots.' How strong this feeling was may be seen 
from the fact that Latimer was at one time in danger of yielding to it. 

* I have thought,' he wrote to Sir Edward Baynton, * that if I had been a 
friar in a cowl, I could not have been damned, nor afraid of death ; and in 
my sickness I have been tempted to become a friar 

1 Mon. Franc. I. 541. 'apostate' friars must have been very 

^ Lyte 196, and note i. considerable to judge from the frequent 

3 Mon. Franc. II, preface. edicts against them. 
* See their designations or surnames, ^ Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, 

of London, York, Nottingham, Hartle- Vol. V, p, 607. Wadding, V, p. 139, 

pool, &c. Pope Martin IV was buried in a Fran- 

5 See e.g. John Cardmaker in Part ciscan habit, a.D. 1285. Cf. Ibid. XIV, 

II. The proselytising tendency has al- p. 58 ; Polit. Poems and Songs (R. S,), 

ready been referred to. The number of II, 19, 32. 



Attitude of the Grey Friars towards the Reformation in its intellectual, religious, 
and political aspects, — The Divorce. — Visitation of Oxford in 1535. — 
Suppression of the friaries in 1538. — Condition of the Grey Friary. — Expulsion 
of the friars; their subsequent history; Simon Ludford. — Houses and site 
of the Grey Friars. — Dr. London tries to secure the land for the town. — The 
place leased to Frewers and Pye ; bought by Richard Andrews and Howe ; 
resold to Richard Gunter. — Subsequent history of the property. — Total 
destruction of the buildings. 

The intellectual torpor which oppressed Oxford for more than 
a century after the disappearance of Wiclif and his followers was 
due less to the repressive measures adopted by Archbishop Arundel, 
than to the want of vitality, of adaptability to new modes of thought, 
in the scholastic philosophy and method, with which the intellectual 
life of Oxford had for so long been identified. The University as 
a whole did not extend a warm welcome to the New Learning, 
and it was to be expected that the Mendicant Orders especially 
should be attached to the old state of things, with which their past 
greatness was connected, and to which their present position and 
any prestige they still possessed were due \ The Grey Friars con- 
sequently were inclined to oppose the revival of learning ; and 
Tyndale no doubt classed them among ' the old barking curs, Duns' 
disciples and like draff called Scotists, the children of darkness,' 
who 'raged in every pulpit against Greek, Latin, and Hebrew V 
Dr. Henry Standish, sometime Warden of the Grey Friars of London 
and Provincial Minister of England, attacked Erasmus' version of the 

^ The Franciscans still maintained a 
certain reputation as theologians : one 
of them was appointed each year to 
preach the University sermon on Ash- 
Wednesday; Acta Cur. Cane, 1, fol. 

263 a, 264 a and b ; EEE, fol. 362, 363, 
366 b : the custom was probably of 
ancient origin. Cf also the notice of 
John Kynton. 

2 L} te, Oxford, p. 435. 

Ch. VIII.] 


New Testament in a sermon at Paul's Cross and in conversation at 
Court, and seems to have been the recognised leader of the ' Trojan ' 
party in England \ But even among the Minorites there are traces 
of the influence of the Renaissance. Another Provincial Minister, 
Richard Brynkley, was a student of Greek, and was supplied with 
a copy of the Gospels in Greek from the Franciscan Library at 
Oxford. Friar Nicholas de Burgo seems to have been one of that 
band of Humanists whom Wolsey attracted to Oxford, that they 
might propagate in his own University the learning and culture 
of Italy ^ 

The close historical relation, notwithstanding the fundamental 
differences, between the intellectual movement and the religious 
movement, was neatly expressed in a saying current among the 
friars : * Erasmus laid the egg ; Luther hatched it ^/ The beginnings 
of the English Reformation in its religious aspect are to be sought 
among the educated classes, especially at Cambridge. The Minorites, 
while generally hostile to the new religion*, did not take a leading 
part in suppressing it. And when it is remembered how very little 
progress the Lutheran doctrines made in England before the Disso- 
lution, the few instances of sympathy with those doctrines recorded 
in the lives of Oxford Franciscans acquire a certain importance^. 
These, however, were exceptional cases. If we trace the fortunes 
of individual Franciscans after the Dissolution, it will be found that 
no generalization as to their attitude towards the Reformation can be 
made. A few remained loyal to the old religion ®, others embraced 
the new and on both sides persecution was suffered for conscience' 

* Calendar of State Papers, Hen. 
VIII, Vol. Ill, Nos. 929, 965. Cf. 
Seebohm's Oxford Reformers, 326-7. 

^ See notices of R. Brynkley and N. 
de Burgo. 

3 Erasmus, Opera, III, 840 : * Ego 
peperi ovum, Lutherus exclusit. Mirum 
vero dictum Minoritarum istorum mag- 
naque et bona pulte dignum. Ego 
posui ovum gallinaceum, Lutherus ex- 
clusit pullum longe dissimillimum ' 
(quoted by Mullinger, Cambridge, I, 
588, n. 2). 

* Kynton, e. g., took part in the con- 
demnation of Luther's doctrines and 
books at the conference in London, 
April 21, 1521. 

' See, notices of John Rycks and 

Gregory Basset. Foxe (Acts and Monu- 
ments, IV, 642, h9 1 5 31) says that Dr. 
Call, ' by the word of God, through the 
means of Bilney's doctrine and good 
life, whereof he had good experience, 
was somewhat reclaimed to the gospel's 
side.' William Call, D.D. of Cam- 
bridge, was at this time Provincial 
Minister of the English Franciscans. 
In this connexion attention may be 
drawn to the lectures on St. Paul's 
epistles delivered by Minorites ; see J. 
Porrett and W. Walker. 

^ See notices of E. Ryley, Gregory 

' See Thomas Kirkham (?), R. Beste, 
John Joseph, Guy Etton, J, Cardmaker, 
R. Newman. 



sake * ; others again contrived to reconcile themselves with both old 
and new according to circumstances ^ 

With the Reformation as a political movement, the Franciscans 
had more sympathy. A large section of them had, long before this, 
taught the supremacy of the State over the Church in all things 
political^; they approved in principle the confiscation of Church- 
property for the common good*; and Friar Henry Standish, in 
defending the claim of the temporal courts to try and punish 
criminous clerks, together with the broad principles on which that 
claim rested, was only applying to present circumstances the time- 
honoured traditions of his Order ^ It is true that the Friars of 
the Observance resisted the royal supremacy in 1534. But the 
supremacy claimed by Henry VIII went beyond anything asserted 
by his predecessors, involving, as it did in effect, the establishment of 
a lay jurisdiction superior to all ecclesiastical courts in spiritualibus 
as well as in temporalihus^ constituting Henry ' a king with a pope 
in his belly ' ^. The Franciscans at Oxford seem, like most of the 
religious, to have accepted the supremacy in this extended form 
and to have taken the oath without demur: at least there is no 
evidence to the contrary 

The oath administered to the monks and friars involved an acknow- 
ledgment, not only of the royal supremacy, but of the lawfulness 
of Henry's divorce from Katharine and marriage with Anne Boleyn, 
and a promise to preach the same on every occasion ^. The attitude 
of the Oxford Franciscans to the divorce, so far as it can be ascer- 
tained, may be briefly stated here. 

Henry attached great importance to securing a decision in favour 
of his divorce from the chief universities of Europe. The divorce 
became the all-absorbing topic at Oxford ; and individual Minorites 
took a prominent part in the discussions. But the convent as a whole 
did not present a united front. Dr. Thomas Kirkham, a Franciscan, 
is mentioned as one of the Doctors of Divinity who opposed the 

' One only, J. Cardmaker, appears to 
have been burnt. 

2 See E. Bricotte, J. Crayford, H. 

2 Eulog. Hist. Ill, 337-8. See notice 
of J. Mardeslay. 

* Cf. Muninienta Academica^ p. 208. 
In this respect the Franciscans were 
at one with Marsiglio of Padua and 

5 Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, 
Vol. II, Nos. 1313, 1314: Brewer, 
Henry VIII, I, 250-3. Cf. R. L. 
Poole's Wycliffe, 32-3. 

^ Gasquet, Henry VIII and the 
English Monasteries, I, 215. 

^ Dixon, Church of England, I, 213 ; 
but see Gasquet, I, 248, note. 
Dixon, ibid. 

Ch. VIIL] 



divorce and were ready to write against it ^ Dr. Kynton seems to 
have been on the same side at first ^; Archbishop Warham com- 
plained of his having spread calumnious reports about himself in 
connexion with the ' King's matter/ and demanded his punishment. 
But it is doubtful whether in the end Kynton had the courage of his 
opinions; he was one of the committee of three appointed by the 
theological faculty to decide the question with the assistance of thirty 
other members to be nominated by the smaller committee^. This 
body subsequently issued, in the name of the University, the qualified 
declaration in favour of the King, the tenour of which is well-known. 

The most active champion of the King's cause was also a Minorite, 
Dr. Nicholas de Burgo, a native of Italy, who enjoyed the patronage 
of Cardinal Wolsey^ The unpopularity of the divorce, among those 
who were guided by their sentiments rather than by their personal 
interests, is shown by the treatment he received at Oxford. He was 
pelted with stones in the street, and the good women of the town 
would have 'foyled' him 'if their handys might have served their 
harts ' ^. In retaliation the friar caused about thirty women to be 
locked up in Bocardo for three days and nights ^ As we shall 
see later on, his services did not go unrewarded"^. The position 
of Friar Nicholas, however, was exceptional, and his action cannot be 
regarded as representative of the feelings of the Oxford Convent. 

The causes which led to the dissolution of the monasteries do 
not concern us here. The friaries were not included in the Act 
of 1536 for the abolition of the lesser monasteries; they possessed 
as a rule no estates except the site on which they were built, and 
the gains to be derived from their disendowment were perhaps 
regarded as insufficient compensation for the odium which the 
measure would necessarily involve. The first blow had already fallen 
upon the Observant Friars, the fearless champions of the legality 
of the Queen Katharine's marriage and of the Papal supremacy. 
The conventuals were left alone till Henry decided on the general 
suppression of the religious houses throughout England. The object 
of the royal party was then to obtain what was called a ' voluntary ' 
surrender of their property from the members of each religious 

^ Wood, Annals, anno 1530. ^ Wood, Annals, sub anno 1530; 

^ Lyte, Oxford, 475. Lyte, Oxford, 474. 

^ Wood, Annals, anno 1530. ^ Wood, ibid. 

* Boase, Register, 128. Cal. of State ' See notice of N. de Burgo in 

Papers, Hen. VIII, Vol. IV, Nos. 1334, Part II. 
6619 ; 'Vol. V, 623 ; cf. V, No. 593. 

I 2 


community ; and among those who had the courage to offer op- 
position were many houses of Franciscans, 'with hom/ writes the 
Bishop of Dover, ' in every place I have moche besynes ' \ But 
among these we cannot reckon the convent at Oxford. 

In 1535 Cromwell sent his agent, Lay ton, and others, to Oxford 
to reform the University. After abolishing the study of the school- 
men ^, the visitors proceeded to deal with the religious students ^. 
For the reform of the monasteries, they were armed with a set 
of eighty-six articles of inquiry and twenty-five injunctions ^ the 
real though not avowed object of which was to make monastic 
life unbearable and so to prepare the way for ' voluntary ' sur- 
renders ^. 

* We have further,' writes Dr. Layton to Cromwell on the 12th of Sep- 
tember ^, ' in visitynge the religiouse studenttes, emongyste all other 
injunctions, adjoyned that none of them for no manner of cause shall cum 
within any taverne, in, alhowse, or any other howse whatsoever hit be, 
within the towne and the suburbs of the same, upon payne onse so taken 
by day or by nyght, to be sent imediatly home to his cloister whereas he 
was professede. Withoute doubte we here say this acte to be gretly 
lamentede of all the duble honeste women of the towne, and specially of 
ther laundres that now may not onse entre within the gaittes, and muche 
lesse within ther chambers, wherunto they wer ryght well accustomede. 
I doubt not but for this thyng onely the honeste matrones will sew unto 
yowe for a redresse.' 

It is probable, that, between this time and the summer and autumn 
of 1538, when the general dissolution of the friaries took place, many 
of the Oxford Franciscans had left their house The Friary, it will 
be seen, was wretchedly poor and in a ruinous condition ; ' and few 
do geve any almys to them ' I The commission to visit the Oxford 

^ Wright, Suppression, p. 212 (Cam- 
den Soc). 

2 ' We have sett Dunce in Bocardo,' 
&c. Wright, Suppression, p. 71 (quoted 
by Wood, Dixon, Lyte, Gasquet, &c.). 

3 Wright, ibid. 

* Gasquet, I, 255. The articles and 
injunctions are printed in Wilkins, 
Concilia, III, 786, seq. They were 
drawn up with reference to the monks, 
not friars; but no distinction seems to 
have been made between the various 
classes of religious students at the Uni- 

Gasquet, I, 255-7. 

^ Wright, Suppression, 71. 

^ Of the nine Minorites (namely J. 
Tomsun, T. Tomsun, W. David, R. 
David, W. Browne, G. Etton, H. Glase- 
yere, J. Crayford, and H. Stretsham) 
who were admitted to opponency or to 
B.D. between 1534, when the troubles 
began, and July 1538, only one appears 
in the list of those desiring ' capacities ' 
at the dissolution. Many brethren in 
other convents, and perhaps in this, fled 
to the Continent. Gasquet, II, 245-6. 
Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, Vol. 
VII, Nos. 939, 1020. 

Cromwell Corresp. 2nd Scries, Vol. 
XXIII, f. 71 1 a (J. London to T. Crom- 
well, Aug. 14). 

Ch. VIII.] 



friaries in 1538 consisted of Dr. John London, the mayor (Mr. 
Banaster) and ' master aldermen ' (apparently Mr. Pye and Mr. Fryer). 
On the 8th of July\ Dr. London writes to Cromwell that he and 
his fellow-commissioners have been 'at all the places of the 
fryers in Oxforde,' and wishing ' to know your lordeships pleasur ' 
on certain doubtful points, he proceeds to give an account of his 

* At Mr. Pyei's comyng home Mr. Maier and Mr. ffryer wer at London, 
and forasmoch as we dowbtyd of ther spedy comyng home, and Mr. Pye 
and I wer creadable informyd that it wasse time to be doing among the 
friers 2, we went to euery place of them and tok such a vew ^ and stay 
among them as the tyme wolde permytt.' 

After visiting the Carmelites and Austin Friars, they came to the Grey 

*The Grey ffryers,' continues London*, ' hathe prayty Ilondes behynde 
ther howse well woddyde, and the waters be thers also. They haue oon 
fayre orchard and sondry praty gardens and lodginges. It ys a great hoge 
howce conteynyng moche ruinose bylding. They haue impledged and 
solde most of ther plate and juellys forcyd by necessitie as they do saye, 
and that remaynyth ys in the bill. Ther ornamentes of ther church be 
olde and litill worthe. Ther other stuff of howsholde ys ybill worth x ti. 
They haue taken vppe the pypes of ther condytt lately and haue cast them 
in sowys to the nombre Ixxij, wherof xij be sold for the costes in taking 
vppe of the pypes, as the warden saith. The residew we haue putt in safe 
garde. Butt we haue nott yet weyd them. And ther ys yet in the erthe 
remaynyng moch of the condytt nott taken vppe. In ther groves the 
wynde hathe blown down many great trees, wich do remayn upon the 
ground. Thees freers do receyve yerly owt of thexchequer of the 
Kinges almys 1 markes. Thys howse ys all coveryde w* slatte and no 

Before August the 14th the doctor had sent up the plate of the 
Oxford friaries to Cromwell's servant in London, Mr. Thacker, and 
received from him ' a bill indentyd conteynyng the parcels of the sayd 
plate w* the nombre of ownces.' ^ The following is the list of 


Juelles and plate in the grey ffryers 

Imp'mis a crosse of sylu' and gylt 
A chales all gylt . . . , 

Hiij vnc'. 
xiiij vnc'. 

^ Cromwell Corresp. 2nd Series, Vol. 
XXIII, f. 709 a (J. London to T. Crom- 
well, Aug. 14). 

among themselves. Ibid. 
3 Or * vow ' ? 

* Ibid. f. 709 b. ^ Ibid. f. 711 a. 

^ Chapter House Books, Ay^, f. 29 
(Rec. Off.). 

^ T|ie White Friars had already sold 
an annuity and divided the proceeds 


A n other all gylt .... 
A nother pcell gylt 
A nother chales pcell gylt . 
A pyxe of sylu' gyldyd w* owt a cou' 
A sensar of sylu' waynge 
A payer of small cruettes gyltcd . 
V masers olde w* bonds of sylu' weyng w* the trees ^ 
A black horne w* sylu' bonde and fot weyng the 


iij dosyn sponys .... 
A knappe ^ of the cou' of a maser 

XV vnc . 
xiij vnc'. 
xiiij vnc' et di. 
XV vnc'. 
xxxij vnc'. 
ij vnc' iij qrt'. 
Ixxxxij vnc'. 

X vnc' et di. 
xxxiij vnc'. 
ij vnc'. 

The treatment of the friars themselves was a more complicated 
problem. All of them seem to have been willing to become secular 
priests, and London urged 

' that with spede we may haue ther capacyties, fFor the longer they tary 
the more they will wast ^.' 

On the 14th of August* he complains that 

* as yet we haue nott the capacities and tberfor be at the chardge in 
fyndyng them mete and drink.' 

On the 31st of August, again, he writes to Cromwell from Oxford^: 

' I have causyd all our fower ordre of fryers to change ther cotes, and have 
despacchide them as well as I can till they may receyve ther capacities, 
for the wiche I have now agen sent uppe thys berar doctor Baskerfelde ^, 
to whom I do humblie besek your lordeschippe to stonde gudde lorde. He 
ys an honest man, and causyd all hys howse to surrendre the same and to 
chaunge ther papistical garmentes. I wrote to your lordeschippe specially 
for hym to have in hys capacytie an expresse licens to dwell in Oxford, 
altho he wer benefycyd ; and your lordeschipp then wrote that yt wasse 
your pleasur he and all other shulde have ther capacities according to ther 
desyer, and for that thys man is now an humble sutar unto your lorde- 
schippe. He hath be a visitar of dyvers places wiche they do call custodies, 
and knowith many thinges as well in London as otherwise, wiche he hath 
promised me to declare unto your lordeschippe, if it be your pleasur he 
schall so do.' 

The Hst of Oxford Grey Friars who 'wold haue ther capacytis' 
which was sent to Cromwell contains eighteen names, thirteen of 
them being priests, one subdeacon, and four not in holy orders. The 

^ Mazer, a large drinking bowl (Skeat); 
* trees ' seems to mean merely wood, 

2 'Knob.' 
Cromwell Corresp, uc stipra, fol. 
710 b. 

* Ibid. fol. 711a. 

Wright, Suppression, p. 217. 
^ Warden of the Grey Friars. 
^ Chapter House Books, Aj^, 
31 b. 


Ch. VIII.] 



names are: Edward Baskerfelde, Warden, S.T.P. Friars Brian 
Sanden, Richard Roper, B.D., Rodulph Kyrswell, Robert Newman, 
William Brown, John Covire (or Conire or Comre), James Cantwell, 
Thomas Cappes, John Stafforde Schyer {?), William Bowghnell, James 
Smyzth, Thomas Wythman, priests ; Friar John Olliff, subdeacon ; 
and Friars Symon Ludforth, Thomas Barly, William Cok, and John 
Cok, non infra sacros. 

It is not often possible to trace the subsequent career of the friars 
when they had been turned adrift on the world. The monks as a 
rule received pensions, and the entries respecting the payment of these 
in the Ministers' Accounts and other records, afford some clue to their 
fate. ' The Mendicants except in a few isolated cases received no 
pensions. Dr. London in his letter of the 8th of July ^ asked Cromwell 
* what reward euery freer shall have . ... ^ at ther departinge,' 
but the question no doubt refers merely to the gift of a few shillings, 
which was usuaWy made to each friar on his dismissal. No instance 
occurs in the records of a pension having been paid to any of the 
Grey Friars who were at Oxford at the time of the suppression It 
is probable that Baskerfeld, who was an important person in the 
University, received a benefice with license to live in Oxford. Robert 
Newman seems also to have been presented to a living^. But 
the career of only one of these eighteen friars can be traced with 
any certainty. Simon Ludford, a native of Bedford, became an 
apothecary in London. On November 6, 1553, he supplicated for 
the degree of M.B. at Oxford after six years' study in the medical 
faculty. On November 27, he obtained the degree and was admitted 
to practise. The College of Physicians remonstrated with the Uni- 
versity and recommended that the degree should be revoked on the 
ground of Ludford's ignorance. Though the University refused to 
withdraw its Hcense, the ex-friar proceeded to Cambridge, but the 
Physicians hastened to warn the authorities there against him. They 
had, they wrote to the University, already examined Ludford ' on the 
17th day before the Calends of March, i553'(?), and, finding him 
completely ignorant of medicine, philosophy, and the liberal sciences, 
and distinguished only by ' blind audacity,' unanimously voted against 
his admission. Ludford left Cambridge, but persevered. In May 1560, 

^ The request that he may live in * W. Vavasour is I think the only 
Oxford, &c., is here inserted in Latin. Franciscan who studied at Oxford 
^ Cromwell Corresp. ut stipra^ f. whose pension is recorded. Cf. Gasquet, 

Several words illegible in MS. 

n, 453-5- 
5 See Part II. 


he supplicated for the degree of M.D. at Oxford, stating that he had 
long practised in London by permission of the London College of 
Physicians. In July he incepted as M.D. of Oxford. In April 1563 
he was made fellow of the College of Physicians, and he was censor 
of the same College in 1564, 1569, and 1572.^ 

We turn now to the Minorites who had studied at Oxford, but who 
were living in other convents at the time of the dissolution. Of these 
a considerable number obtained benefices^, a few even rising to 
positions of some importance in the Church ^. But what proportion 
these successful cases bore to the unsuccessful cannot be even 
approximately ascertained; it would naturally be higher among 
friars who had received a university education than among the 
common herd. Yet it is unHkely that a majority even of the former 
were presented to livings. The number of disbanded monks and 
friars seeking employment as priests must have been very large, and 
at the same time the demand for priests was growing less and less.* 
Some of the friars probably drifted into secular employments ; others 
perhaps joined the ranks of the ' sturdy beggars ' of whom so much is 
heard in the sixteenth century. It can hardly be doubted but that the 
lot of many M^as one of hardship and suffering. 

In the eyes of Cromwell and his royal master the only question of 
real importance was the most advantageous disposal of the property. 
The buildings of the Grey Friars were of little account, and the con- 
vent was among those 

* bowses of freres that have no substance of lead, save only some of them 
haue smale gutters 

The site, however, was of considerable value, Dr. London was 
anxious that it should be secured for the city ; and his letter ^ gives a 
curious picture of the state of Oxford at the time of the dissolution. 

' It ys rumoryd her that dyuers of the garde do intende to begge thees 
howsys of the Kinges hyghnes, and that with other consideracions 
moveth me now to be an humble petitioner vnto your lordeschippe for 
my neybours. We haue in Oxforde two of the Kinges grace's seruantes 

^ Boase, Register, p. 222 ; Munk,Roli * Private masses though declared to 

of the Royal College of Physicians, 2nd be meet and necessary and agreeable to 

ed., Vol. I, p. 64. Oxf. Univ. Arch. Reg. God's law, in the Six Articles, were no 

I,8,fol. 138b, T39, 139b, 190,190b, 192b. doubt falling into disfavour. 

^ Some dozen instances will be found ^ Chapter House Books Ay^j, 9-10. 

in Part II ; a few arc rather doubtful. Cromwell Corresp. 2nd series, Vol. 

■' See J. Cardmaker, J. Crayford, Guy XXIII, f. 710 a-b. 

Ch. VIII.] 



Mr. Banaster and Mr. Pye, two as burgerly and as honest men as lyveth 
in any town and hathe no thing to lyve vpon, nother farmes abrode nor 
fees saving oonly ther wages of the Kinges grace iiijV. a daye. Mr. 
Banaster ys now mayer, and Mr. Pye hath be mayer, to hys great 

The writer then urges that Mr. Banaster should have the site (' cyte ') 
and profits of the White Friars, Mr. Pye those of the fair of the 
Austin Friars. 

*]Mr. Pye specially hath be diligent to bring vnto the Kinges grace's 
hondes thees howses, and therefor I besek your gudd lordeschipp to be 
gudd lord vnto hym. And syns Mr. Mayer com home he ys as diligent 
as maye be and so is Mr. ffryer.' 

London^goes on to plead for his ' neybours of Oxford,' 

*seying so gudd an occasion ys come wherin your lordeschipp may do 
vnto them the hyest benefytt that euer dydd honorable man. The 
greatest occasion of the povertie of thys town ys the payment of ther 
fee-farme. fFor thys ys customablie seen, that such as befor they haue 
be bayliffes hath be prety occupyers, if in ther yere corn be nott at a 
hie price, then they be nott able to pay ther fee-farme. And for the 
worschipp of ther town they must that yere kepe the better howsys, 
fest ther neybours and wer better apparell, wich maketh them so pore 
that few of them can recouer agen. If by your gudde lordeschips 
mediation the town my^t haue the grey and black fryers growndes after 
the Kinges grace hath be answerd for the wodd and buyldinges with 
other thynges upon the same, and lykewyse the cytes of the Whyte and 
austen fryers after the decese of Mr. Banester and Mr. Pye ; It wolde 
mervelosly helpe the town, and geve them great occasion to fall to 
clothynge, ffor vpon the grey and black fryers water be certen con- 
venyent and commodiose places to sett fulling mylles vpon, and so 
people my5t be sett awork. Now the baylys forcyd by necessitie 
taketh such tolls of such as passith by the town with catell or any 
maner of cariage as makith men lothe to com herbye : and Oxford ys 
no great thorowfare whereby moche resort schuld helpe them. Thys 
benefytt shuld lytill hynder the kinges maiestie and mervelosly helpe 
thys pouer town ; and your lordeschipp schuld do a blessyd dede to helpe 
so many pouer men wich by ther fee-farme be notably poverischyd. And 
yet the Kinges grace schuld save a G markes yerly in hys cofers by reason 
of the grey and black fryers wich hath euery of them C {sic) markes by 

The plan here sketched out, creditable as it is to its author, was 
not carried into effect. On August loth, 1540, William Frewers and 
John Pye of Oxford, obtained a lease of the house and site of the 
Grey Friars, together with the grove containing by estimation five 
acres^ for twenty-one years, at a rent of 20^. a year — half the amount 


of the rent which the same persons paid for the Black Friars ^. Much 
of the Grey Friars' property was expressly excepted from this lease ; 
namely, the close called ' le Churcheyarde ' now held by Richard 
Gunter of Oxford at an annual rent of ■^s. 4^., the orchard or garden 
called ' Paradise/ and the garden called ' Boteham,' now held by 
William Thomas at an annual rent of 6s. 8d. Further all large trees 
and shrubs were reserved to the King, together with all those buildings 
within the precincts of the two friaries ' which the King had com- 
manded to be levelled or taken away.' 

In 1544 the tenants seem to have opened negotiations for the 
purchase of the property. In the official 'particulars' sent up to the 
royal commissioners we read : 

* These houses of ffryers ar wythin the towne of Oxford and as I haue 
lernyd they ar not nyghe eny of the Kinges houses neyther hys graces 
parkes fforestes and chase by seven myles. And what ffyne wylbe gyuen 
ifor the same I know not neyther can lerne. And they ar the ffermers 
them selues y* desyreth to by the premysses ^. 

The price which the tenants offered was probably unsatisfactory ; 
the impecunious Pye with his wages of 4d. a day can hardly have had 
a chance against wealthier speculators in monastic lands. In 1544 a 
successful bid was made by Richard Andrewes of Hales, Esquire 
(Glouc), one of the largest of these speculators ^ who as usual was 
acting in partnership with another, in this case John Howe. On 
July 14th, 1544, the King granted to these two, in consideration of 
£1094 3^. 2d. paid by Richard Andrewes, various monastic lands in the 
counties of Derby, Middlesex, Oxford, &c., including the sites of the 
Black and Grey Friars in Oxford *. 

* We give also and for the aforesaid consideration by these presents con- 
cede to the said Richard Andrewes and John Howe, the whole site of 
the house late of the friars Minors, commonly called " les Grey ffreers " 
within the town of Oxford now dissolved. And also our whole grove 
of land and wood with its appurtenances containing by estimation five 
acres of land, now or late in the tenure or occupation of William ffrewers 
and John Pye or their assigns; and our whole close of land called 'le 
Churcheyarde ' with its appurtenances, now or late in the tenure or 

* Augmentation Office Miscell. Books, 
Enrolment of Leases, Vol. CCXII, fol. 
195 (Record Office). 

^ Particulars for Grants, Augm. Office, 
35 Ilcn. VIII, sec. 4 (Record Office). 
It is among the deeds relating to Richard 
Andrews, but there is nothing to show 

that he and Howe were at that time in 
any sense the ' farmers ' of the property. 

3 Cf. Uixon, Church of England, II, 

' Tat. Roll, 36 Hen. VIII, Rait 3, m. 
37 ; Originalia Rolls, 36 Hen. VIII, Pt. 
4; V, m. 12. 

Ch. VIII.] 



occupation of James Gunter or his assigns; and our whole garden 
or orchard called " Paradyse," and our whole garden called Bateham or 
Boteham, now or late in the tenure or occupation of William Thomas 
or his assigns, with all and each of their appurtenances situated within 
the town of Oxford, lately belonging to the priory or house of the friars 
Minors . . . . ; and all our houses, buildings, stables, granaries, curtilages, 
gardens (orios), orchards, gardens (gardina), waters, ponds, vineyards, land 
and soil whatsoever with their appurtenances lying within the said 
boundary of the house of the friars Minors .... Which site of the late 
house of friars Minors and all the aforesaid houses^ buildings, gardens, 
orchards, &c., belonging thereto, now amount {extenduntur) to the clear 
annual value of 30J. . . . We except however always and totally reserve 
out of the present concession, all the bells and the whole of the lead and 
glass on the said houses of the friars Minors and Preachers, except the 
lead and glass in the gutters and windows of the houses or mansions of the 
same friars : and also in like manner all the buildings and structures of the 
late churches, cloisters, refectories, dormitories, and chapterhouses of the 
said friars.' 

All the property granted was to be held by Richard Andrewes 
and John Howe and the heirs and assigns of Richard Andrewes, in 
chief, ' for the service of the twentieth part of one knight's fee.' An 
annual rent was to be paid to the King from each parcel of property, 
the rent of the site of the Friars Minors being 3i-., that of the Friars 
Preachers 4^'. 

The purchase was purely a matter of speculation, and the next 
month (August 26th, 1544), Andrewes and Howe obtained from the 
King, for a fine of ^s., license to alienate the site of the Grey Friars, 
with the grove, churchyard. Paradise, and Boteham, and the buildings, 
except those already reserved for the King, to Richard Gunter, alder- 
man of Oxford, and Joanna his wife, and the heirs and assigns of 
Richard Gunter, to be held by them ' for the services due thence to us, 
our heirs, and successors ^' It does not appear whether the leases of 
Frewers, Pye, and Thomas, were cancelled or allowed to run their 

The subsequent history of the property is obscure, and probably 
would not repay an exhaustive investigation. Wood states that the land 

* being shifted through severall hands doth now acknowledg also severall 

Part of it was ' now inhabited by tanners ^' The island or grove on 
the south of Trill Mill stream belonged 

Orjginalia, 36 Hen. VIII, Pt. 4, ^ Wood-Clark, II, 411. 
m. xl. 3 Ibid. I, 310, note. 



'to Sir William Moorton, Kt., Judge of the King's Bench, in right of 
his wife Anne, daughter and heir of John Smyth of Oxford, Gent 

Writing about a century later, Peshall states that the site 

now forms the messuage or Tenement and large Yard of Charles Collins, 
Gent; the Garden, Orchard, and Tenement of Swithin Adee, M.D., late 
Sir James Cotter's, Bart., and the large Garden and Orchard called 
Paradise Garden. The Island in their possession ... is occupied by- 
Mr. Shirley, which serves partly for a Tan Yard and Buildings necessary 
thereto 2.' 

In a short time little was left of the buildings — so complete was the 
work of destruction. ' The trees were soon cut down, all the greens 
trod under foot, the church thrown down, and the stones, with the 
images and monuments of the greatest value, scattered about 
The name only survived; Agas in his map {1578) puts the Graie 
Friers where the house of the Black Friars stood. ' The ruins of this 
college are gone to ruine,' wrote Wood, ' and almost lodged in ob- 
scurity * : ' and the ' scanty fragments ' {ruder a pauculd) which were 
visible to Hearne and Parkinson as they walked towards the Water- 
gate ^ have long since vanished. Even the use to which the materials 
were put is unknown. Some of the stones form no doubt the foun- 
dation-work of many houses in St. Ebbe's : but while something 
definite is known about the materials of the Houses of the other 
Mendicant Orders, the records are silent respecting the greatest of the 
friaries ^. 

1 Wood - Clark, II, 361, 396, 

2 Wood-Peshall, Ancient and Present 
State, p. 270. 

3 Dugdale, Vol. VI, Part 3, p. 1529: 
Wood-Clark, II, 389. 

* Wood-Clark, II, 411. 

^ Hearne's Pref. to Otterbourne ; 
Parkinson was the author of Collectanea 
A nglo-Minoritica. 

^ None of the printed books, so far 

as I know, contain any notice of the 
uses to which the materials of the 
Franciscan convent were put. Among 
MS. sources, I have examined the 
church-wardens' accounts of Carfax (to 
which the Rector kindly gave me the 
fullest access). Wood MSS. C. i, *ex 
archivis S. Petri de Bailly;' and D. 2 
(notes from parish archives). The early 
records of St. Ebbe's and St. Giles' are 
no longer to be found. 





I. W. of Esseby, Warden and Gustos, c. 1225. — 2. E, de Merc, Warden, 1237. — 
3. P. of Tewkesbury, Gustos, 1236-1248. — 4. J. of Stamford, Gustos, 1253. — 
5. Martin, Warden, c. 1250. — 6. Adam of Warminster, Warden, 1269. — 7. J. 
Godyngton, Warden, 1300. — 8. J. of Okehampton, Warden, 1340. — 9. R. 
Glyff, Gustos, 1465. — 10. R. Salford, Warden, 1488. — 11. W. Vavasour, 
Warden, c. 1500. — 12. R. Burton, Warden (and Gustos), 1508. — 13. W. 
Goodfield, Warden, before 15 13. — 14. J. Harvey, Warden, 151 3. — 15. E. 
Baskerfield, Warden (and Gustos), 1534. 

Unlike the Abbots and Priors of the religiosi possessionati, the heads 
of the Mendicant Houses required no royal assent to their appoint- 
ment. Their names consequently do not occur in the royal records, 
and to this fact is due the incompleteness of the following list of the 
custodians and wardens of the Grey Friars at Oxford. It is a note- 
worthy if not surprising fact, that not a single original work by any of 
these men can now be found. 

William of Esseby (perhaps Ashby in Norfolk) \ the first warden, 
was one of the four clerks who came to England with Agnellus in 
1224 ; he was then a young man and a novice, having recently joined 
the Order in France^, and only assumed the habit of a pro/essus 
when he became warden at Oxford ^. He was among the first three 
Minorites authorized to preach in England 

When the English Province was divided into custodies (c. 1226?), 
he was made custodian of Oxford ^. Afterwards he was sent to found 

^ Jes^op, Gomingof the Friars, p. 36. ^ Ibid. p. 10. * Ibid. p. 21. 

2 Mon. Franc. I, p. 6. ^ Ibid. p. 27. 



[Ch. I. 

the convent at Cambridge, and Eccleston draws a strange picture of 
him solemnly chanting the service, with one other friar and a crippled 
novice, in the wooden shed which served for a chapeP. Later William 
is heard of at Northampton^. About 1238, he was sent by Friar 
Wygmund, the German visiiator of England, to visit Ireland ; his 
mission here proved as abortive as that of the German in England ; on 
his return he went to Cologne to join Wygmund ^ He had ceased to 
be warden or custodian of Oxford before 1237 ^ He was alive when 
William of Nottingham became Provincial Minister, and died ' after 
many years ' at London ^. 

Eccleston gives him a high character. He was specially dis- 
tinguished for his obedience. 

*When Friar Gregory, the Provincial Minister of France, asked him 
whether he would like to go to his native land, he said, he did not know 
what he would like, because his will was not his own, but the Minister's ; 
so, w'hatever the Minister would, he would 

By his tact he did much towards winning for his Order the affection 
of the world, and he was instrumental in leading many fit persons of 
various ranks and ages ' to the way of salvation ^' 

Cambridge Univ. Library, MS. li I. 24, p. 332. seq. (sec. xiv) contains 
a sermon by the ' Prior de Essebi de artificioso modo predicandi^ and 
other sermons perhaps by the same author. Tanner and others 
suggest that this Essebi may be the Franciscan : but 'Prior' was 
a title unknown in the Franciscan Order. The author was pro- 
bably a Prior of Canons Ashby. 

Eustace de Merc was a member of the Oxford convent in the 
lifetime of Agnellus, and had license to hear confessions ; he was 
warden at the time of the visitatorial chapter held by Friar Wygred or 
Wygmund in 1237-8. On this occasion many accusations were 
brought against him, in consequence of which he was for a day and a 
half excluded from the chapter ; the charges are not specified and do 
not seem to have been proved. After fulfilUng the duties of warden 

' Mon. Franc. I, p. 18, 

2 Ibid. 

^ Ibid. p. 30. 

* When Eustace de Merc was warden, 
and Peter custodian. 

•' Ibid. p. 6. Phillipps, MS. 31 19, 
fol. 71, contains the following note in 
an old hand (cf. Bale, Scriptores, II, 

41): * Hie (W. de Esseby) aliquando 
temptatus a carne amputavit sibi geni- 
talia zelo pudicicie ; quo facto papam 
peciit et ab eo gravitcr correptus cele- 
brandi divina meruit dispensacionem. 
Hie eciam Willelmus post multos annos 
quievit London.' 

^ Mon. Franc. I, p. 6. ^ Ibid. 

Ch. I.] 



for a long time, he became custodian of York. The date of his death 
is unknown. 

While he always showed to others 'the sweetness of an angelic 
affection/ he subjected himself until the end of his life to the severest 
discipline ; even in his earlier years, his fasts and vigils and self- 
inflicted stripes endangered his health, and called forth the re- 
monstrances of his superiors ^. 

Peter of Tewkesbury. It is uncertain whether 'PViar Peter, 
custodian of Oxford ' is to be identified with Peter of Tewkesbury ; 
but a comparison of the dates, so far as they can be ascertained, 
brings out nothing inconsistent with this supposition, and we shall 
put the facts about both of them together. Peter of Tewkesbury was 
warden of London about 1234; about this time he went to Rome 
with Agnellus and some Friars Preachers on behalf of the English 
prelates ^. Agnellus confessed to him on his death- bed and constituted 
him his vicar ^. When Albert of Pisa was Provincial, Friar Peter was 
custodian of Oxford; he held the office for twelve years (1236-48 ?)*. 
During the generalship of Haymo, ' Friar Peter, custodian of Oxford ' 
was one of the three friars chosen for the English province to note 
doubtful points in the Rule^. In 1245 he again appears as custodian; 
Adam mentions having written a detailed account to him about the 
proceedings at or before the Council of Lyons ^ Peter of Tewkesbury 
was at the general chapter of the friars at Genoa in 1244, and 
remained afterwards to obtain and take back two Papal bulls about 
the Friars Preachers and Minors, evidently the revocation of the bull 
providing that no Minorite should receive the ohligati of the Preachers 
into his Order When John of Stamford fell ill on his return from 
Lyons, Peter of Tewkesbury was sent to Mantes to come back with 
Adam Marsh, at Grostete's request^. In 1250 he was minister of 
Cologne ^. It was probably in the next year that he was elected fifth 
Provincial of England after the death of William of Nottingham ^° : he 
was succeeded by John of Stamford about 1256 or 1257 ^\ He was 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 31, 43, 58, 61 : see 
Part I, Chapter I. 

2 Mon. Franc. I, 52. 

3 Ibid. 53, 54. 
* Ibid. 28. 

5 Ibid. 48-9. 

6 Ibid. 378. 

' Ibid. 377, 56. 

^ Grpstete, Epist. 334. 

^ Mon. Franc. 63, 308, 313 : Gros- 
tete was at the Roman court at this 
time. C ologne was constituted a separate 
province in 1239. Anal. Franc. I, 

1" Ibid. 71. For date, see W. of 

11 Ibid. : letter LXVIII. 


an intimate friend of Robert Grostete, ' from whom he often heard 
many secrets of wisdom.' Eccleston says of him : 

* Friar Peter of Tewkesbury, minister of Germany, with God's grace 
defended the state of the Order against the King, legate, and many false 
brethren, to such an extent that the fame of the fact spread to many 
provinces, and his zeal of truth was invincibly proved I' 

He was buried at Bedford ^ 

John of Stamford, custodian of Oxford ^ was a man of great 
importance among the friars. He was at the council of Lyons in 
1245 as socius of Adam Marsha The Pope had some thoughts of 
sending him with others on an embassy to the Chorasmeni, Tartars, 
and Saracens, who had attacked the Holy Land, but the plan was not 
carried out^. On his return, he was taken ill at Beaune, and was 
tended by Adam Marsh John of Stamford was one of the three 
friars to whom the general entrusted the confirmation of the election 
of William of Nottingham's successor in the office of Provincial 
Minister (1251)^ Some time after 1245 he became custodian of 
Oxford ; he held the office in 1253 when Thomas of York incepted^. 
He joined about this time with Adam Marsh and Thomas of York in 
a petition to the Provincial, begging for mercy for Hugh Cote, 
probably a lay brother, who had stolen three horses of great value, and 
then repented He succeeded Peter of Tewkesbury as provincial 
minister about 1256 His friendship with Adam Marsh lasted to the 
end of the latter's life : feehng that his last days were approaching, 
Adam begged Bonaventura, then General, to send to him John of 
Stamford, the English Provincial, who was at this time (1257), 
apparently abroad As Provincial he procured an endowment (20^-. 
per annum) for St. Owen's Church in London, the parish in which the 
Minorites then had their house He is said to have died in 1264, 

1 Mon. Franc. 64. 

2 Ibid. 63-4. 

3 Ibid. 537, 559. 
" Ibid. 389. 

5 This is proved by Grostete's Letters, 
No. cxiv. From a passage in a letter 
of Adam Marsh written at Lyons to the 
English Provincial, it would seem that 
Adam was at first accompanied by 
another ' Friar J.' and afterwards joined 
by J. de Stamford : ' Rogo salutari ob- 
sequio meo carissimos patres, fratres 
Ric. de Wauz, J. de Stanford, reli- 
quosque fratres socios sc. et filios 

vestros ; in quorum, si placet, Sanctis re- 
cordationibus me et fratrem J. reno- 
vare velitis in Domino.' Mon. Franc. 
I, .^78. 

^ Mon, Franc. I. 376-378. 
' Grostete, Epist. p. 334. 
" Mon. Franc. I, 71. 
« Ibid. 338, 387. 

Ibid. 340. 
11 Ibid. 537»^5.^9. 305- 

See Adam's letters to him in Mon, 
Franc. I, p. 387, scq. 

Ibid. 305, 306. 

Ibid. 512, 

Ch. I.] 



but there is no good authority for the statement ^ He was buried at 
Lynn, with which place he seems to have had some previous 
connexion : Brewer calls him warden of Lynn ^. 

Martin is mentioned in two letters from Adam Marsh to ' W., 
Minister of England ' as warden of Oxford ; but the superscription is 
untrustworthy and the date of the letters uncertain^. This Martin 
may have been identical with the ' Frater Martinus senex ' (mentioned 
by Eccleston), who established the convent at Shrewsbury, and 
delighted in the recollection of the hardships and poverty which he 
had then experienced *. A Martin de Barton, who was also known to 
Eccleston, and had often seen St. Francis, came to England in the early 
years of the Order, and was afterwards vicar of the English Provincial 
and filled many other offices ^. When custodian of York, Martin de 
Barton enforced the strictest poverty, only allowing so many friars to 
live in any place, as could be supported by mendicancy al'one without 
incurring debts ^ 

Adam of Warminster was warden in 1269; he took part in 
a controversy with the Dominicans at Oxford in that year, defending 
his Order against the charge of being ' receivers of money 

John de Codyngton was warden in 1300, when he received 
license from the Bishop to hear confessions in the Archdeaconry of 
Oxford «. 

John de Okehampton was warden in 1340 ; all that is known of 
him will be found in the Appendix B. 

Richard Clyff was custodian in 1465 and 1466. In the latter 
year he sued John Broghton, sheriff of Kent for a royal debt. He 
was sometime vice-warden of London and was buried in the church 
of the Minorites there 

^ Dugdale Monast. VI, Pt. 3, p. 1522. 

Wadding says he became Archbishop of 
Dublin in 1284 (V, 134): this was J. 
of Sanford; Rymer, I, 655. 

2 Mon. Franc. I, 537 ; 42-43 ; 305, 

3 Letters CLXXVI and CCIII. Letter 
CLXXV was no doubt written to W. of 
Nottingham (P. of Tewkesbury being 
mentioned in itl, but it is unsafe to 
ascribe the following letter to the same 

date. He is probably the warden re- 
ferred to in Letter CC. 

* Mon. Franc. I, 8. ^ Ibid. 25. 

6 Ibid. 27. In Phillipps MS. fol. 74, 
is the note, * Iste frater Martinus (de 
Barton) obiit Northamton.' 

' Appendix C. 

8 Wood-Clark, II, 387. 

® Exchequer of Pleas ; Plea Roll, 6 
Edw. IV, m. 20 (cf chapter VII) ; MS. 
Cotton Vitell. F xii, f. 289 b. 


Richard Salford was warden in 1488 and 1489 ; he recovered 
debts from Sir John Paston, sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, and Sir 
Edmund Bedyngfeld, sheriff of the same counties ; the records of these 
suits contain the only notices of him now remaining \ 

William Vavasor was studying at Oxford and transcribing 
philosophical treatises in 1490 and 1491 ^. He incepted as D.D. in 
1500, and was warden of the convent about the same time^. In 
Thomas Cromwell's list of learned persons not living in Oxford 
(a.d. 1 531) is the name of 'Dr. Vavysor, Grey Friar at....'*. At 
the dissolution he was warden of the Grey Friars at York ^, and was 
one of the few Mendicants who received a pension ; the amount was 
£5 a year^ 

Robert Burton was warden on April 12, 1508, when he applied 
to the Chancellor's Court to recover a debt. 

' Eodem die dedimus terminum domino Joanni Gardener principali aule 
bovine ad satisfaciendum fratri Roberto Burton gardiano fratrum Minorum 
xxv^ viii^ sibi debitos in fine quatuor septimarum,' &c. 

As B.D. he suppHcated for D.D. on March 8th, i5o|- after 
studying for twenty years at Oxford and Cambridge, preaching two 
University sermons at Oxford, and six at Paul's Cross, &c. ; the grace 
was conceded on condition that he should respond once more^. 
Afterwards he became regent of the Franciscan Schools in London. 
The register of the Grey Friars, London, notes among those buried in 
the chapel of All Saints in the Franciscan church, 

frater Robertus Burton sacre theologie prof(essor quondam) Regens loci, 
qui obiit 8° die mensis Januarii A.D. 1522 ^ 

^ Exchequer of Pleas, Plea Rolls, 3 
Hen. VII, m. 35 (printed in App. B) ; 
3 Hen. VII, m, 35, dorse; 4 Hen. VII, 
m. 17, dorse ; 4 Hen. VII, m. 34, dorse. 

2 MS. Corp. Chr. Coll., Oxon, 227, 
fol. 46, contains Antonii Andreae trac- 
tattts de tribus principiis naturalibus 
(In calce) scriptus per me fratrem 
Wyllelmum studentem Oxonie, a° in- 
camacionis Dom. 1419 [1491 ?]. Ibid, 
fol. 118 Duns Scotus super Metheorortim 
libros tres prior es : (In calce) ' Ex- 
pliciunt questiones . . scripte per manum 
fratris Wyllelmi Vavysur eiusdem ordi- 
nis, A.D. 1491.' MS. 328 was also 
written by him in 1490. 

' Wood, Fasti, p. 5. 
♦ Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, 
Vol. V, §§ 6, 18. 

^ Eighth Report of the Dep. Keeper, 
App. 2, under York. 

^ Misc. Books, Augment. Office, 233 
(30-31 Hen. VIII), fol. 154 b. 

Acta Cur. Cancell. -1 , fol. 53 b: in 
the margin he is called ' custos fratrum 

8 Reg. G 6, fol. 55. He was still at 
Oxford in June 1509 ; Acta Cur. 
Cancell. T , f 92. 

9 MS. Cott. Vitell. F, XII, fol. 277 b. 
Mr. Brodrick seeks to identify Robert 
Burton, Fellow of Merton in 1480, 

Ch. I.] 


Walter Goodfleld was warden shortly before 1513 ; as warden 
he leased one of the friary gardens to Ric. Leke, brewer \ From 
the University Register^, it appears that on Nov. 27, 1506, he sup- 
pHcated to be admitted to opponency and to read the sentences, after 
studying twelve years in logic, philosophy, and theology ; on May 10, 
1507, in making the same supplication, he stated that he had studied 
the same subjects fourteen years. He was admitted to oppose on 
Dec. 10, 1507. On June 3, 1508, he supplicated as B.D. for 

* This grace was granted on condition that he has studied twelve years 
in logic, philosophy, and theology, and that he proceed before Easter, and 
that he preach once ^preter formaniy after taking his degree, and read one 
book of the sentences publicly and gratis.' 

On March 19, iSyf, he was allowed to count a sermon to be 
preached on Ash Wednesday as his examinatory sermon. On May 12, 
1 5 10, he was licensed in theology. On June 27, 15 10, he was 
dispensed ^ pro suis lec tun's minuiis! On July i, he was admitted 
D.D. ; on Oct. 28, 15 10, he was with three others appointed a judge 
to examine a sentence passed on Thomas Foster by the com- 
missary^; and on Dec. 10, he was dispensed from his necessary 
regency, possibly owing to his duties as warden. He seems to have 
become warden of the London convent after this *. He died on the 
6th of May, 152 1, and was buried in the chapel of All Saints, in the 
Grey Friars Church, London ^. 

John Harvey succeeded Goodfield as warden ; he held the office 
in Feb. i5if ^ Feb. 151 1'', and probably for many years after- 
wards. He had ceased to be warden in 1529, when he was 
required by the vice-warden or sub-warden John Bacheler, in the 
name of the then warden, to answer certain charges made against 
him respecting his administration ^. The following details are known 
about his scholastic career; he was admitted to oppose in theology 
Dec. 6, 1514, and admitted B.D. on Jan. 20, 151! ; he was still B.D. 
in 1529; one of the same name took the degree of B. Can. L. on 
April 3, 1530, but he is not described as a friar ^. 

Proctor in 1489, with the Minorite * MS. Cott. Vitell. F, XII, fol. 277 : 
(Mem. of Merton Coll. 241) ; this seems ' frater Walterus Goodfield, S.T.P. et 
to me more than doubtful. gardianus loci.' 

^ Acta Cur. Cancell. 1 , fol. 194: see ^ Ibid. 
App. B. ^ Acta Cur. Cancell. T , f. 212 b. 

^ The series of graces, &c., relating ' Ibid. f. 261 b, 262 b. 
to W. Goodfield is printed in App. D. « Ibid. EEE, f. 124 b. See App. B. 

2 Boase, Register, p. 298. ® Eoase, Reg. p. 68. Reg. G 6, f. 

K 2 



[Ch. I. 

Edward Baskerfild was probably the immediate successor of 
John Harvey. In Jan. 152I- he held some office, being then Mn 
London on the business of his house ' and likely to stay there some 
months \- he is described as warden in 1533, as cusios fratrum 
minor um Universitatis Oxon' in 1534 ^ and he was warden at the 
time of the dissolution. 

He supplicated for B.D. on April 12, 1526, after 

' studying logic, philosophy, and theology for thirteen years, and preaching 
some sermons at Exeter and Oxford,' 

was admitted to oppose on June 13, and became B.D. on Feb. 18, 
i52|-^. He supplicated for D.D. on Dec. 9, 1531, and March 5, 
i53i-j ^ft^i* sixteen years' study; and became D.D. on July 8, 1532 ^ 
He had previously obtained a reduction of his composition on incep- 
tion first to five, and then to four marks ; 

* Causa est quod est pauperior quam ut possit eam summam pecunie 
(quinque marcas) solvere 

In Oct. 1532, he was dispensed from his necessary regency. In 1533 
we find him at Exeter, trying to extract from Thomas Benet a recan- 
tation of his heresies ^. 

He acted as deputy of the commisary, or vice-chancellor, in 1534, 
i535) 1536, and 1537'^. In this capacity he sometimes held his court 
in the Franciscan convent, as, for instance, when investigating the 
charges of immorality against Friar Arthur ^ His pecuniary position 
seems to have improved: he kept a horse in 1534 ^ and in 1537, one 
Robert Symon was admitted to the privileges of the University as 
servant of Dr. Baskerfild 

At the dissolution he made his peace with the visitors by causing 
his house to surrender at once Dr. London sent him to Thomas 
Cromwell (Aug. 31, 1538), to obtain the 'capacities' for the Oxford 

220. Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, 124 b. 
Reg. H 7, fol. 211 b. 

^ Reg. H. 7, fol. 185. 

^ Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, fol. 393 b, 
270 b. 

3 Reg. H. 7, f. 152 b, 153; Boase, 
Reg. 143. 

* Reg. H. 7, fol. 257, 262 b. 

^ Ibid. fol. 263 b, 271 b ; in the latter 
place he is called ' pater edmundus 
Baskerfell frater ordinis minorum.' 

* Foxe, V, p. 20 : the Martyrologist 
calls him * an unlearned doctor.' 

^ Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, fol. 173, 
270, 322, 387, &c. 

« See Part I, Chapter VII : Acta Cur. 
Cancell. EEE, f. 321 a, ' Datum in edi- 
bus ffranciscanis,' &c. 

« Part I, Chapter VII. 

" Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, f. 

^1 Wright, Suppression, p. 217. 


friars, and begged Cromwell to allow him to live in Oxford ' altho he 
wer benefycyd.' As 

* visitar of dyvers places wiche they do call custodies/ 

he possessed information concerning the friars in London and else- 
where which might be useful to the King's agents, and which he was 
willing to impart to them. He appears to have accompanied 
Dr. London on his visitation after the dissolution of the friars at Oxford, 
and we find him on Jan. 3, 1539, receiving in conjunction with the 
doctor, the surrender of the Black Friars of Derby ^. The name is 
spelt in a variety of ways, e. g. Baskarwild, Bascafyld, &c. ; a fifteenth 
century MS. in the Bodleian (Laud. Lat. 114, § 3), containing 
Cantica Sacra^ belonged to Edward Baskervile, D.D. 

Note. Wood places Herveius de Saham among the wardens of 
the Grey Friars (a.d. 1285). This is a mistake based on a misunder- 
standing of the following passage in Peckham's Register (p. 895) : 

* Et ne pro defectu acquietantiae solutionem dictae pecuniae retardetis, 
damus magistro Herveo de Saham, auditori compoti vestri de bonis dicti 
defuncti, Oxoniae commoranti et regenti, et gardiano Fratrum Minorum 
de eadem, tenore praesentium potestatem ut soluta dicta pecuiiia in forma 
praefata, plenam vobisfaciant acquietantiam de eadem ' (May 6, 1285). 

1 Reliquary, Vol. XVIII, p. 21. 



The following sixty-seven names are classed together under a 
separate heading simply because they are found in a list in an old 
manuscript. The list is evidently intended to include all the Regent 
Masters of the Friars Minors at Oxford^ in chronological order; it 
seems to break off about the year 1350. Whether it is complete 
up to that date may be doubted; but no contemporary, or nearly 
contemporary, notice has been found of any Friar Minor Regent in 
Theology or D. D. of Oxford before 1351, whose name does not 
occur in this list^. 

The list is found in two MSS :— 

I. British Museum; Cotton Nero A IX, fol 77 a-b, in Eccleston's 
Chronicle. Names 1-5 are in the same hand as the rest of the MS. ; 
6-21 in a hand rather larger but not perceptibly later. On the 
reverse of the leaf, they are continued in a later fourteenth century 
hand which ends at the 58th name ; then 59-66 have been added 
not much later (the ink has faded a good deal in this part) ; the last 
name is in a later hand, probably fifteenth century. 

II. Phillipps, MS. 31 19, fol. 76 (at Thirlestaine House). Names 
1-2 1 are in the same hand as the MS., i.e. the text of Eccleston's 
Chronicle; another scribe has added names 22-49 inclusive; then 
the names are continued in another hand to Laurence Briton, where 
the list ends. This MS. omits Henry Cruche and Walter de Chauton, 
so that Laurence Briton is called the 53rd master instead of the 55th. 


I . Adam Marsh or de Marisco was born probably at the end of 
the 1 2th century in the diocese of Bath^ He was educated at Oxford, 

^ See Part I, Chapter 111. Eccleston 
begins the list with the words : * Ipsi 
vero inceperunt tit magistri.' 

^ Except perhaps Friar W. Lemster, 

but it is not certain to which Order 
he belonged; see notice of him, a.d. 

^ Trivet, Annals, p. 243. 

Ch. II.] 


where he studied under Robert Grostete^, whose affectionate interest 
in him dated from his early years ^ His brother Robert was made 
Archdeacon of Oxford by Grostete in 1248 and other members of 
the family were in the bishop's serviced Adam's uncle, Richard de 
Marisco, Bishop of Durham, from 1217 to 1226, gave him a living 
near Wearmouth, which he held for three years ^ and bequeathed to 
him his library in 1 2 2 6 ^. At this time Adam was a Master, probably 
of Arts. Soon afterwards, at the instigation of his friend and pupil ^ 
Adam of Oxford, who had recently become a Minorite, he gave up 
' all worldly greatness and a large income ' to enter the Franciscan 
Order at Worcester, 'through zeal for greater poverty^.' He is said 
to have been appointed by the General Chapter socius of St. Anthony 
of Padua, the first theological student in the Order. The two then 
proceeded, according to the same authority, to study under the 
Abbat of St. Andrew's at Vercelli, where they made such progress 
in five years that the Abbat confessed that his pupils had become his 
teachers ^ In 1230 St. Anthony and Adam Marsh are said to have 
headed the opposition to the relaxations which Elias was attempting 
to bring into the Order but this tradition is probably unfounded ; 
Eccleston says nothing about it^^. After his entry into the Order, Adam 
probably resided for the most part at Oxford, where Grostete was 
then lecturing to the Franciscans. Wood asserts that the latter 
presided at his inception and made the customary speech in praise 

^ Roger Bacon calls Grostete Adam's 
'master.' Op. Ined. 187. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 145, ab annis juve- 

2 Ibid. pref. Ixxvii-lxxviii. 

* Lanercost Chron. p. 58, where Adam 
after his death is said to have appeared 
to a friar and said it was well with him, 
* because I have escaped the judgment, 
but that cursed church which I held for 
three years nearly gave me over to dam- 

^ Close Roll, 10 Henry III, m. 6. 

® Mon. Franc. I, 15: * fuit autem 
tunc socius Magistri Adae de Marisco et 
ad robas suas.' 

M. Paris, Chr. Maj. V, 619-20. 

^ Ibid. p. 16. The date of his entry 
must have been between 1226 (when he 
was Magister not Frater, Close Roll, 
ut supra), and 1230. See Grostete's 
Letter^ pp. 17-21 written before 1231 ; 
and Wadding, II, 240. He probably 

entered the Order in 1227, or perhaps 
at the end of 1226. The entry on the 
Close Roll about the Bp. of Durham's 
library is dated Worcester, Sept. 3. 
Canon Creighton puts the date of 
Adam's entry into the Order ten years 
later. Diet, of Nat. Biogr. 

^ Wadding, II, 48. Evers, Analecta 
(Hist, of Friar Nic. Glasberger), p. 33. 
I have not been able to find any early 
authority for these statements. A letter 
from Adam to the Abbat of St. Andrew's 
is extant. Mon. Franc. I, 206. The 
University of Vercelli was founded in 
1228, and it is probably in this year, 
if at all, that Adam went there. Denifle, 
Die Universitaten des Mittelalters, I, 

" Wadding, II, 240-1. St. Anthony 
died 1231. 

" The account in Eccleston refers to 
the deposition of Elias in 1239. Mon. 
Franc. I, 45-7. 


of the inceptor at the ceremony^; but the statement, though probable 
enough in itself, lacks authority and seems to have originated from 
a confusion between Adam and Robert Marsh^ : it is not unlikely 
that Adam received his theological degree abroad. There is no direct 
evidence of his having lectured on theology to the friars at Oxford 
before 1252^, but there can be no doubt that he began to do so not 
later than 1247 (when Thomas Wallensis was elected Bishop of 
St. David's), and he probably delivered lectures long before. He 
was certainly before this time one of the recognised leaders of the 
Enghsh Franciscans*. He was on a commission of three elected 
by the English province to report on the Rule when Haymo was 
general (i 239-1 244), and recommended that no change should be 
made in the statutes of St. Francis^. He wrote a solemn exhortation 
in the name of the English Minorites to Boniface of Savoy on his 
consecration to the Archbishopric of Canterbury in 1245^ William 
of Nottingham submitted to him the names of three friars from whom 
he was to select one to act as Vicar in the Provincial Minister's absence 
(1250?)^ In his latter years he was one of the foremost men in the 
church. At the instance of the Archbishop of Canterbury and for his 
use, he wrote an address to the Pope on the occasion of Henry III 
taking the cross (1250)^. He addressed a long letter of advice to 
St. Sewalus on his appointment to the Archbishopric of York in 1255". 
In the same year he was nominated by Alexander IV to settle a 
dispute between the Bishop and the Prior and Convent of Winchester 
He was on a Papal commission to try a cause between the King and 
the Bishop of St. David's, and between the same bishop and the 
Abbat of Gloucester and on another commission appointed to 
examine the claims of Richard de Wiche to canonization^^. He 

^ Cf. Trivet, Annals, p. 306. 

' Mon. Franc. I, 135. Wood-Clark 
II, 364: Wood refers to Gascoigne, 
Liber Veritatum, I, 663 : I have not 
seen the passage, which does not occur 
in the extracts edited by Heame or 
Rogers ; but Gascoigne cannot be re- 
garded as an authority in this matter. 

^ Ibid. 232 (prob. Nov. 1252), 281, 
335 Qan. 1253), letter CXC was how- 
ever probably written before this time, 
c. 1250, but I can find no other reference 
to either of the lawsuits mentioned 

* Brewer in one place calls him Pro- 

vincial of the Minorites (p. 613) : this 
is a slip. Nor was he warden of the 
London convent ; ' Frater A. Gardianus 
Fratrum Minorum Londini ' (Mon. 
Franc, p. 181) was not A. de Marisco. 
See ibid. p. 396. 
5 Ibid. 49. 

® Ibid. 77. Boniface was elected in 
' Ibid. 355- 
^ Ibid. 414, seq. 
« Ibid. 438-489. 

Ibid. 95, 609-612. 
» Ibid. 342. 

" Wadding, IV, anno 1256. 

Ch. II.] 



supported Grostete in his revolt against the scandalous nepotism of 
Innocent IV ^ At Oxford his character, learning, and friendship with 
the great, gave him a very important position, and he acted as spokes- 
man now of the Franciscans, now of the whole University^. His fame 
was European, and Grostete was afraid that the Parisians would 
secure him to supply the place of Alexander of Hales (1245)^. 
Among his correspondents and friends were many of the leading 
men of the age, such as Walter de Cantilupe*, Richard de Wiche, 
Walter de Merton, Richard Earl of Cornwall, John of Parma, and 
Bonaventura. He assisted the Archbishop of Canterbury in his 
visitation, and accompanied Grostete to the Council of Lyons. At 
one time he is wanted to attend the Parliament at London^, at 
another he is summoned by the Queen to Reading, to treat of ' matters 
touching the King and his heirs ^' He incurred the royal displeasure 
by an outspoken sermon at Court (Oct. 1250)"^; but his advice was 
asked and listened to by the King who afterwards called him his father^. 

* When the Jews . . . had transgressed against the peace of the kingdom, 
so that both by the judgment of the King and the princes of the land they 
were judged worthy of death, he alone resisted their arguments and 
forbade that they should be put to death 

In 1247 he was sent abroad with the Prior of the Dominicans on 
the King's business, and forty marks were granted to buy horses 
and harness for the ambassadors In 1257 he was sent with 
Walter de Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester, on a similar mission, his 
expenses being paid out of the treasury". He was no less intimate 
with the Earl of Leicester than with the Bishop of Lincoln. He 
lectures Eleanor de Montfort on her duties as a mother and wife, and 
on her excess in dress He speaks equally plainly to Simon de 

* Better is a patient man than a strong man,' he writes to the hot-headed 
earl, * and he who can rule his own temper than he who storms a city 

The friar took a keen interest in his friend's great deeds, recognised 
his noble qualities, and the value of his efforts ' to purge, illuminate, 
and sanctify the church of God,' and looked to him as the guardian 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 139. 

= Ibid. I, 99, 347. 

^ Grostete, Letters, 334. 

* Cf. ibid. p. 302. 

' Mon. Franc. I, p. 105. 

® Ibi^. p. 152. 

' Ibid. p. 275. 

* Lanercost Chron. p. 24. 
3 Ibid. 

10 Liberate Roll, 31 Hen. Ill, m. 4 
(App. B). 
" Ibid. 42 Hen. Ill, m. 3. 

Mon. Franc. 294, 295, 298, 299. 
^3 Ibid. I, 264. 



[Ch. II. 

of the public weaP. He encouraged the Earl to go forward in his 
thankless task of saving Gascony, and tried to win the King over 
to his side^. 

' If,' he writes to the Earl in 1250 ^, 'you have received the answers of 
broken friendship and feigned affection, what else are you now suffering 
than what you before expected ? The clear circumspection of your wis- 
dom will remember, in how many conferences, after repeated and careful 
examination, we drummed into each other's ears the execrable shameless- 
ness of seductive cunning, such as we now see; although, considering the 
trustworthiness of courageous fidelity, your wisdom did not think proper 
to decline the danger of a truly grand exploit, for the imminent sus- 
picion merely of some stupendous dishonesty.' 

With all his other occupations Adam Marsh did not neglect the 
poor and oppressed; he begs Grostete to assist two poor scholars 
relatives of the bishop; he writes to Thomas de Anesti on behalf 
of an able and honest schoolmaster who is in want of the very 
necessaries of Hfe ; a weeping widow brings her troubles to him, 
sure of sympathy and help^. His health gave way under the strain 
of his manifold duties and the severe discipline of his Order: he 
suffered from weakness of the eyes and other infirmities'. In 1253 
he lost his lifelong friend Grostete, who bequeathed bis library 
to the Oxford Franciscans out of love for Adam Marsh®. In 1256 
the King and Archbishop of Canterbury tried to force him into 
the bishopric of Ely ; his rival Hugh Balsham who had been elected 
by the chapter appealed to Rome and obtained a decision in his 
favour on Oct. 6, 1257. His candidature, probably none of his own 
seeking, seems to have laid the friar open to a charge of worldly 
ambition, which must have embittered his last days^. Feeling the 
end approaching, he wrote to Bonaventura to send the Provincial 
John of Stamford, 

*by whom, through God's blessing, I may be directed through things 
transitory and my thoughts raised to things eternal ^.' 

On Dec. 23, 1257, he was ordered abroad by the King^ He 
probably died on Nov. i8^°, 1258, and was buried next to Grostete 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 225, 264; and the long 
account of his trial, p. 1 2 2 . Cf. Part I, p. 3 2 . 
2 Ibid. 268, &c. 

^ Ibid. 266-7. sentence at the end 
of the letter seems to refer to the defeat 
of St. Louis at Mansourah. Cf. pp. 
278-9. (The translation is Brewer's.) 

* Ibid. 137, 244, 398. See also 
Brewer's preface. 

5 Ibid. 305, 348, 367- 

* Nic. Trivet, Annals, p. 243 ; Mon. 
Franc. I, p. 185. 

' M. Paris, Chron. Majora, V, 619. 
Cf. Mon. Franc. I, 412. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 305. 

» Liberate Roll, 42 Hen. Ill, m. 3. 

1" W. of Worcester, Itin. p. 81, from 
Franciscan Martyrology of Salisbury. 

Ch. II.] 


at Lincoln \ Besides the treatise mentioned below, none of his works 
remain^ except the letters, which, stilted and obscure in style, do not 
justify the title of Doctor illustris, with which subsequent generations 
honoured him ^. His reputation as a philosopher and theologian must 
rest on the evidence of his contemporaries, and on the greatness of the 
school which he did so much to found. Matthew Paris calls him 
' literatus Grostete found him 

* a true friend and faithful counsellor, respecting truth not vanity,' — * a wise 
man and a prudent, and fervent in zeal for the salvation of souls ^' 

His most famous pupil Roger Bacon had nothing but praise and 
admiration for his master, who Hke Grostete was 'perfect in all 
wisdom ^' 

Extant works : — Epistolae. 

MSS. Brit. Mus. : Cotton Vitell. c. viii. (sec. xiii-xiv). 

Bodl. : Digby 104, fol. 90 (sec. xiii), letter 147 only. 
Edited by Brewer, Monumenta Franciscana, I (1858). 

Pastorale excerptum (perhaps merely an extract from the letters). 
MS. Vienna : Bibl. Palat. 4923, fol. 40^-42 ^ (sec. xv). 

2. Ralph de Colebruge was the second Franciscan master who 
lectured at Oxford. He entered the Order while regent in theology 
at Paris, where he won some fame; after finishing his course of 
lectures, he was appointed by the General of the Order to rule in 
theology at Oxford, probably before 1250; he was still a novice 
when he entered on his duties at Oxford 

3. Eustace de Normaneville, probably took the Franciscan 
habit at Oxford about 1250 or before ^ His conversion was of 
peculiar importance to the Order, 

^ Lanerc. Chron. p. 58. 

^ Bale and Pits give lists of his 
works, but produce no authority. Le- 
land states on the evidence of the 
Catalogus de eruditis Francis c anis , 
which he had seen in the Minorite 
convent at Oxford, that Adam wrote 
* a fair number of commentaries on Holy- 
Scripture.' One edition of Earth, of 
Pisa (Bononiae, 1620) mentions as his 
works, Elucidarium Scripturae, and 
Theological Lectures. This passage is 
not in the edition of 15 10. It is not 
probable that the 'Ordinances for the 
household of Bishop Grostete,' or rather 

Grostete's Rules for the Countess of 
Lincoln, are by Adam. Mon. Franc. I, 
582. Royal Hist. Soc, Walter of 
Henley, pp. xlii, 122. 

^ Not his contemporaries, as Brewer 
states. I do not know when the title 
first originated. 

* Chron. Majora, V, 619. 

5 Epist. Nos. XX and XCIX. 

^ Op. Ined. 70, 74-5, 88, 186, 428. 

' Mon, Franc. I, 39, and n. i. Cf. 
ibid. 542, ' Rodulphus de Corbrug.' Cf. 
Collect, Anglo-Minoritica, 48. 

^ The good effects of Eustace's con- 
version were commented on by ' Peter, 



[Ch. II. 

'because he was noble and rich, and had laudably ruled in arts and 
decrees, and had been Chancellor of Oxford ^, and was about to incept in 

It must have been soon after his entry that the friars at Norwich 
asked him to become their lecturer. Adam Marsh was deputed 
by the Provincial to make the proposal to him. Eustace refused the 
honour on the plea of ill-health and ' unprepared aptitude of mind ^/ 
Eccleston mentions him as the third who lectured at the Oxford 
Grey Friars as a master ^. He was afterwards sent to Cambridge and 
was the third regent master of the Franciscans there 

4. Thomas of York (1253) is first mentioned in a letter of Adam 
Marsh written at Lyons, 1245; the writer sends for various books, 
among which is 

* the chapter of the First Prophecy (Abbat Joachim ?) which the beloved 
brother in Christ, Thomas of York had 

Soon afterwards we find him consulting with Adam, Grostete, and 
the Vicar of the Provincial Minister, about sending English friars to 
Denmark^. He wrote to Adam about the defeat of St. Louis and 

minister of England,' 1 251-1256 (Mon. 
Franc. I, 40). But Eustace entered the 
Order during the ministry of W. of 
Nottingham. Two of the letters (Nos. 
178 and 200) in which Adam Marsh 
mentions Eustace as a friar are addressed 
to ' Friar W., minister of England,' but 
several of these superscriptions are 
undoubtedly wrong and the rest conse- 
quently of little value. Letter 179, 
however, written at the same time as 
178 and stating Eustace's refusal to 
lecture at Norwich, is addressed to 
Robert of Thornham, who was then 
evidently custodian of Cambridge (Mon. 
Franc. I, 62). In a letter to W. of 
Nottingham (No. 173) Adam states that 
this Robert was just starting for the 
Holy Land, and as he certainly went 
(Mon. Franc. I, 62), there is no reason 
to suppose that he delayed long. What 
then is the date of letter 173? That 
the superscription is correct is shown by 
the mention in the letter of Peter, 
minister of Cologne, i. e. P. of Tewkes- 
bury, William's successor in England ; 
Adam also mentions his regret at being 
unable to accompany Grostete to the 

Roman court owing to his having to 
assist the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
These details fix the date of Robert's 
departure (or resolution to depart) to 
Palestine at 1250: thus letter 179 can- 
not have been written later than 1250, 
and Eustace must have entered the 
Order in that year at latest. He wit- 
nesses a charter as friar in 1251 ; Wood, 
MS. D 2, p. 537. 

^ Le Neve and others place his chan- 
cellorship in 1276 ; Eccleston certainly 
says fuerat. Mon. Franc. I, 39, note 
2, 41 ; Phillipps, MS. fol. 76 a. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, pp. 319, 321. 

3 Ibid. p. 39. 

* Ibid. p. 555. 

5 Mon. Franc. I, 378. Cf. p. 395 
(letter to Th. of York, 1252?), 'Mittit 
vobis frater Laurentius (Adam's secre- 
tary) quatemos matris prophetiae (?) 
pro quibus misistis,' &c. 

^ Ibid. p. 90-1. When John Erlandi 
became Bishop of Roskild, I do not 
know : he was translated to the 
Archbishopric of Lundia in 1254; 
Langebek, Script, rer. Dan. Vol. V, p. 

Ch. II.] 



the Crusaders in 1250, and Adam sent the letter on to Grostete\ 
About the same time Adam remonstrates with him for breaking his 
promises, especially for omitting to send him ' the table of the Trinity ' 
(^tabula trimtatisy. Another letter to him from Adam Marsh 
refers to the anger of the King against Simon de Montfort, whose 
friendship Thomas seems to have enjoyed and whose party he no doubt 
supported. Perhaps it was before 1250 that Adam advised the 
Provincial Minister to instruct Thomas, 

* that he should apply himself to the study of Holy Scriptures by attending 
the lectures of the learned and investigating their writings,' 

with, a view to his eventually becoming lecturer to the Grey Friars 
at Oxford ; failing this, the writer hints that Thomas would probably 
be summoned abroad ^. In the same letter he refers to his ' youthful 
age.' At the beginning of 1253 * Thomas of York was presented to 
incept in theology at Oxford, objections were raised on the ground 
that he had not taken a degree in Arts. Eventually he was allowed 
to incept, but a statute was passed to regulate the conduct of the 
University on similar occasions in the future. The details of the 
controversy are given elsewhere^. The vesperies took place on 
Thursday, March 13th, and the inception on the following day, 
under the presidency of Friar Peter de Manners, apparently a 
Dominican; Adam Marsh, who as master of the inceptor would 
naturally have presided, left Oxford on March 12 th. Thomas of York 
now became lecturer to the Oxford Franciscans ^. He was afterwards 
sent to Cambridge and occurs as the sixth in the list of ' Masters of 
the Friars Minors ' there ^. Adam Marsh writes to him in the most 
affectionate terms and speaks highly of his learning, and the brightness 
of his intellect ^ ; he describes him to Grostete as an earnest, discreet, 
and benevolent man, filled with a heavenly zeal for the salvation of 
souls ^ According to the Caialogus illustrium Franciscanorum he 
wrote a commentary on Ecclesiastes 

^ Ibid. 1 14-5. be *et quintus ponitur frater T. de 

Ibid. 392. In the same letter is the Eboraco.' Ibid. 555. 

sentence: ' Nuper mihi de curia Roman a ^ Ibid. 357, 392-5. 

allatum est Apostolicae Sedis privi- ^ Ibid. 115. Cf. 393, 'Bene fecistis 

legium, pro quo laborare sui gratia . . . qui pro patre secundum carnem 

voluit amantissimus frater J,, domini dilecti fratris J. de Beverlaco in negotio 

papae nuntius.' Cf. reference to the suae salutis tam consultum vigilantiae 

same on p. 313 (a.d. 1250). fidelis adjutorium, nec non et in caeteris 

3 Mon. Franc. I, 357. praesertim ad salutem animarum per- 

* Ibid. 338, 346. tinentibus, tam exquisita circumspectione 

^ Parrt I, Chapter III. exhibere voluistis.' 

® Ibid. 39: but see ibid. p. 552, Leland, Scriptores, j'm^ wmm^ ; cf. 

' Notandum,' &c. ; the last words should Part I, p. 58. 



[Ch. II. 

Frater Thomas de Eboraco super Metaphysicam Aristoielis. 

]MS. Florence : Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Cruets, Plut. xiv, Sin. Cod. V. 

5. Richard Rufus of Cornwall^ was a Master, probably of Arts, 
when he became a Minorite at Paris 

* at the time when Friar Elias threw the whole Order into confusion ' 
(c. 1238). 

He came to England (where he made his profession) while the 
trial of the Minister-General was yet pending in the Roman Court ^. 
He is mentioned as speaking at a chapter at Oxford soon after coming 
to England — probably either the visitatorial chapter or the chapter 
held to protest against the visitor's conduct in 1238^. Soon after 
1250 he received a command from the General to go to Paris as 
lecturer, but he seems to have obtained leave to continue his studies 
at Oxford owing to his weak health ^ He probably lectured on the 
sentences as B.D. about this time. But soon afterwards, ' ob vehemen- 
tiores perturbationum occasiones in Adam Marsh's words, he formed 
the ' inexorable resolution ' of going to France in accordance with the 
General's permission : and Adam in the name of the other friars, 
requested the Provincial to facilitate his departure by providing him 
with suitable companions and the necessary manuscripts ^ Early in 
1253 again, Adam writes to the Provincial : 

' I beg you to look out for some one competent to act as secretary to 
Friar Richard of Cornwall 

1 That Ric. Rufus and Ric. of Corn- 
wall were one and the same is proved 
by Cotton MS. of Eccleston, f. 77, where 
' rufus ' is added in an old hand in the 
margin, and by Phillipps, MS. of Ec- 
cleston, fol. 76 a, ' Ricardus Rufus Cor- 
nubiensis.' Cf. Mon. Franc. I, 16. He 
is probably identical with * Ricardus le 
Ruys,' whose commentary on the sen- 
tences Bale saw at Norwich, ' in claustro 
monachorum.' Script. II, 81. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 16, 39. 

3 Phillipps, MS. 31 19, f, 76 a. 'Iste 
Ricardus veniens in Angliam narravit in 
capitulo Oxon', quod, cum unus frater 
Parisius extasi staret, visum erat ei quod 
frater Egidius laicus sed contemplativus 
sedit in cathedra legens autenticas sep- 
tem peticiones dominice oracionis cuius 
omnes auditores erant tamen fratres in 
ordine lectores. Intrans autem S. Fran- 

ciscus primo siluit et postea sic clamavit, 
O quam verecundum est vobis quod talis 
frater laycus excedit vestra merita sur- 
sum in celo (?). Et quia inquid sciencia 
inflat, caritas autem edificat, plures sunt 
venerati fratres clerici ... in etemo 
regno dei.' (MS. imperf.) 

* Mon. Franc. I, 330, 365, 366. 

^ Ibid. 360, 365. In an agreement 
drawn up in 1252, after a quarrel be- 
tween the Northerners and the Irish in 
Oxford, and signed by representatives 
of the two parties, the name of ' Ricar- 
dus Cornubiensis ' appears among the 
Irishmen (Wood, Annals, 246). This 
was no doubt a namesake of the friar, 
who is often confused with the friar ; he 
is mentioned in Grostete's Epist. p. 138, 
Mon. Franc. I, 135, Le Neve, Fasti, II, 
184, &c. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 366. ' Ibid. 349. 

Ch. II.] 



It may then be inferred that he went to Paris in 1253, where, 
according to Eccleston, 
he gave cursory lectures on the sentences and was judged a great and 
admirable philosopher \' 

After lecturing in Paris, he returned to Oxford, it appears, and 
became regent-master of the friars (c. 1255 0 ^- was here that he 
developed the 'errors,' the verbal subtleties, which Roger Bacon 
so unsparingly denounced. Writing in 1292, Bacon says^: 
' Et optime novi auctorem * pessimum et stultissimum istorum errorum ^, 
qui vocatus est Ricardus Cornubiensis, famosissimus apud stultam multitu- 
dinem, set apud sapientes fuit insanus et reprobatus Parisius propter 
errores quos invenerat et promulgaverat, quum sollempniter legebat sen- 
tencias ibidem, postquam ^ legerat sentencias Oxonie, ab anno Domini 
1250 o. Ab illo M CC L igitur tempore remansit multitudo in huius magistri 
erroribus usque nunc, scilicet per quatraginta annos et amplius, et maxime 
invalescit Oxonie sicut ibidem incepit hec demencia infinita.' 
Adam Marsh, though in somewhat general terms, gives a far more 
flattering account of Richard ^. 

Martin de Sancta Cruce, Master of the Hospital of Sherbourne, 
bequeathed to him in his will dated November, 1259, uniim hahitum 
integrujjiy and a copy of the Canonical Epistles ^. 

Assisi MS. 176 contains a compilation ascribed by a note in a late 
hand to ' Master Richard Rufus of England ; ' the volume was in the 
possession of the friars at Assisi in 1373, consists of 226 leaves, and 
seems to contain more than one treatise : it is not rubricated. 

Inc. 'Deus autem qui dives est in misericordia propter nimiam 
caritatem suam.' 

6. John Wallensis was B.D. of Oxford before he entered the 
Order He must have become D.D. and regent master of the Fran- 
ciscan schools at Oxford before 1260". It was probably after this that 
he went as lecturer to Paris, where he was honoured with the title of 

^ Ibid. 39. Bacon says, ' solemniter * Auctorejn^ not in MS. 

legebat;' see below. errorem. 

^ It may be considered certain that ^ Charles reads priusquam. 

Thomas of York became lector in 1 25 3 MS. legeret. 

and that Richard succeeded him — ^ ' Cui conversationis honestas et 

whether immediately or not is a little claritas scientiae, pietas affectionis et 

doubtful ; the Cotton MS. of Eccleston opinionis integritas, facultas erudiendi 

calls Richard sextus {lector), instead of et disserendi subtilitas,' &c. Mon. Franc. 

quintus. I, 365. 

' Royal MS. (Brit. Mus.) 7 F, VII, » Durham Wills (Surtees Soc), Vol. 

fol. 81 ; cf. Charles, Roger Bacon, 415 ; I, pp. lo-ii, 

the MS.^is very inaccurate, Charles still Mon. Franc. I., 542. 

more so. See notice of H. de Brisingham, 



[Ch. II. 

Arbor Vitae \ and where he was buried 2. But before his death he 
was again in England. In October, 1282, 'Friar John Wallensis, 
S.T.D./ was sent by Archbishop Peckham as ambassador to the in- 
surgent Welsh ^ In 1283 he was one of the five doctors at Paris 
who were deputed to examine the doctrines of Peter John Olivi*. 
He enjoyed a great reputation as a theologian, and the widespread and 
lasting popularity of his works is shown by the large number of MSS. 
and printed editions which have come down to us. His writings are 
specially illustrative of the practical side of the Franciscan teaching. 
Summa de Penitentia. Inc. ' Quoniam provida solertia est.' 

MSS. Brit. Museum: Royal 10 A ix. f. 1-50 b (sec. xiii) ; 4 D iv. fol. 
244 b (sec. xv) ^. 
Paris: — Bibl. Mazarine, 569, f. 86b (sec. xiv). 
Falaise: — Bibl. Publ. 38, p. 372 (sec. xiv). 
Cf. Worcester Cathed. Libr. MS. 114 (=789) 'Jo. Wallensis ordinis 
Praedicatorum summa de confessione ^' 

Breviloquium de quatuor virtuUbus cardinalibuSy or, de virtutibus 
antiquorum principum et philosophorum : four or five parts : 
i. De justitia; ii. De prudentia; iii. De temperantia; iv. De 
fortitudine ; v. De ordinatione virtutum (this is sometimes included 
in part iv). Inc. prol. ' Quoniam misericordia et Veritas.' 
MSS. Brit. Mus.: Royal loAix., f. 67b-99 (sec. xiii); 12 Exxi, §2, (sec. 

xv); Burney 360, f. i (sec. xv); Harleian 632, f. 25 (sec. xv). 
Oxford:— Bodl.: Bodley 58 ( = 2006); Laud, Miscell. 603, fol. 
103 (sec. xiv). — Corp. Ghr. Coll. 18"^. — Oriel Coll. 34 (sec. 
xiv ineuntis) ^. 

Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 3706 (sec. xiv), 6346 (xiv), 6776 f. 1-54, (xiv) 
imperf. at the beginning. 

Toulouse, 340. Cf. MS. St. Omer, 400 (sec. xiv). Bre'viloquium 
de sapient'ia . . . sanctorum doctorum, etc. : inc. ' Quoniam 
unica est Veritas ' ( = ' quoniam misericordia et Veritas ? *) 
Printed at Venice, 1496; Lyons, 151 1 (fol. 200 seq.); Argentina, 15 18 
(fol. 151 b-164) ; and sine annoet loco (Louvain 14&5 ?) under 
the title Liber de instructione principum per quatuor partes 
secundum quatuor -virtutes cardinales. 

Or dinar tum^, or, Alphabeium viiae religiosae : 3 parts : 

^ Earth, of Pisa, Liber Conform. Lector of Freiburg ; see p. 1 50, 

fol. 81. ' Ascribed to Thomas Wallensis, 

2 Wadding, IV, 325. ^ Stated to have been composed at 

^ Peckham's Register, II, 421-2. the request of Episcopus MaglonensiSy 

* Hist. Litt. de France, t. xxv, p. t 78. i. e. Magalona, Narbonne. 

5 This MS. belonged to the London ^ Mentioned again by Tanner, as a 

Franciscans. different work under the title, De ordi- 

® Probably the Sumtna of John natione universali. 

Ch. II.] 



i. Diaetarium ; ii. Locarium ; iii. Itinerarium. Incprol. ' Nunquid 
nosti ordinem coeli.' Inc. pars i. ' Quoniam omni negotio.' 

MSS. Brit. Mus. : Harl. 632, f. i (sec. xv). 

Bodleian: Tanner 110, f. 124 (sec. xiv ineuntis) ; Laud, Miscell. 

497 (sec. xv). 
Dublin :— Trinity Coll. 138 ( = 278). 
Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 3588 (sec. xiv). 
Charleville, 113 (xiv) and 272 (xiv). 
Printed at Venice, 1496 (fol. 260); Lyons, 1511 (fol. 217-255); Ar- 
gentina, 15 18 (fol. 164). 

Summa collectionum (or, collationuiii), or, Communiloquiuni, Summa 
collationum ad omne genus hominiim, or, De vitae regimine, or, 
Margarita Dociorum, or. Communes loci ad omnium generuvi 
argumenta. A compendium for the use of young preachers, 
consisting of 7 parts : 

i. De constitutione reipublice ; ii. De colligatione membrorum 
reipublice ; iii. De informacione hominum ; iv. De republica eccle- 
siastica ; v. De instructione scolasticorum ; vi. De instructione 
religiosorum ; vii. De informacione hominum ut sint parati ad 
mortem. Incprol. 'Cum doctor sive predicator evangelicus.' Inc. 
pars i. ' Quoniam respublica, ut dictum est, est universale quoddam 
corpus.' Inc. cap. i. ' Sed primo notandum est quod respublica est 
res populi.' 

MSS. Brit. Mus. : Harl. 632, f. 36 (xv). 

Oxford :—Bodley 815 ( = 2684), f. 108 (sec. xv).—Balliol Coll. 

274 (a.d. 1409). —Lincoln Coll. 67 (sec. xiv). 
Cambridge: — Peterhouse 12 or 2-3-9. — Pembroke 123. Cf. 

Public Library Kk II, 11 (sec. xv). 'Summa compilata a 

fratre Johanne Walense ' — tie republica added in the table 

of contents. 

Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 3488 (sec. xiv), 3935, f. i (sec. xv). 
Evreux 1 1 (sec. xiv). 
Basel, F.I 1 1. 16. 

Printed at Cologne c. 1467 by U. Zell ; Augsburg, 1475 ; Ulm, 1481 ; 

Venice, 1496 (f. 1-166); Lyons, 1511 (f. 1-139) ; Paris, 

Floriloquium philosophoriim^ or, Floriloquium sive compendiloquium de 
vita et dictis illustrium philosophorum^ or, de philosophorum diciis 
exemplis et vitis. i o parts : 

i. On philosophy in general ; ii. On the name and profession of 
phiMsophers ; iii. On the succession of illustrious philosophers and 



their life ; iv. On the Hfe and maxims of some less famous philo- 
sophers; V. Of divers philosophic perfections; vi. On the four 
principal sects of philosophers — peripatetics, stoics, academicians, 
and epicureans; vii. On the seven liberal arts; viii. Poets and 
authors of apologues ; ix. On the abuses of philosophy ; x. On the 
places where philosophic studies have been most honoured (e.g. 
Paris and Oxford mentioned). Inc. prol. i- ' Cum enim debeamus 
apes imitari.' Inc. prol. operis. ' Cum ex vita gentilium.' Inc. opus. 
' Circa primum notandum quod diversimode describitur philo- 

MSS. Brit. Mus. : Royal 6 B xi. f. 127 (sec. xiv). 

Bodl. : Laud. Misc. 603 (xiv). 

Cambridge : — Corp. Chr. Coll. 307 (xv). 

Paris: — Bibl. Mazarine 727, § 5. 

Toulouse 340, vi. (xiv). — St. Omer 622 (a.d. 1346). 
Printed at Venice, 1496 (f. 167-232); Lyons, 1511 (f. 140-194) ; Ar- 
gentina, 1518 (f. 107-147). 

Breviloqiiiiim de sapientia sanctorum. 8 chapters: 

Inc. prol. ' Cum varii sint homines omnes. . . . Licet in priori 
tractatulo^.' Inc. cap. i. ' Sapientia enim dicitur ab eo quod est sapere.' 

MSS. Bodl. : Laud. Misc. 603, f. 99 (sec. xiv). 
Cambridge : — Corp. Chr. Coll. 307 (xv). 

Toulouse 340, vi. (xiv). 
St. Omer 622, § 3 (xiv). 
Printed at Venice, 1496 (f. 233) ; Lyons, 1511 (f. 195-200 b); Argen- 
tina (f. 147 b-151 b), and sine anno et loco (Louvain 1485 ?). 

Summa justitiae^ or, Tractatus de sepiem vitiis ex \_Gul, Alverno^ 
Parisiensi. 10 parts. 

i. De peccato in generali ; ii. De superbia ; iii. De invidia ; iv. 
De ira ; v. De avaricia ; vi. De accidia ; vii. De gula ; viii. De 
luxuria ; ix. De quinque sensibus corporis ; x. De quibusdam pec- 
catis, &c. Inc. prol. ' Summa justicie Christi fidelium est declinare 
a malo et facere bonum.' Inc. opus. ' Justicia que est via ad regnum 
ut supradictum est in duobus consistit.' 

MSS. Brit. Mus. : Harl. 632, f. 168. 

Cambridge : Peterhouse 89 ( = 1751). 
Cf. MS. Oxford : — Exeter Coll. 7, § 4 (sec. xv). Jo. PVallensis Liber de 
•vitiis ex Parisiensi confectus : inc. ' Peccatum vitandum est.' 

' i. e. Breviloq. de IV viriutibus. 

Ch. II.] 



Tractaius de vitiis et remediis eoi-mn (doubtful). 

Inc. ' Dicendum est de vitiis seu peccatis primo in generali.' 

MS. Brit. Mus. : Royal 4 D iv. f. 226-244 (sec. xv)} 

Cf. Anonymous Summa de vitiis et 'virtutibus in MS. Paris : — Bibl. 

Mazarine 924 (sec. xiv), which is compiled chiefly from the 

Summa of William Peraud. 

Moniloquium vel collectiloquium. A work in 4 parts for the use of 
young preachers : 
L De viciis ; ii. De virtutibus oppositis dictis viciis ; iii. De 
penis ; iv. De gloria beatorum. 

The object is thus set forth in the prologue : 

'Cum almus Christi confessor beatus Franciscus, a suramo magistro Ihu 
Christo perfectissime edoctus et suo spiritu plenissime (?) inspiratus, in sua 
sacra regula monuerit fratres suos, ut in suis predicacionibus sint eorum 
eloquia casta et examinata ad edificacionem et utilitatem populi, annun- 
ciando eis vicia et virtutes, penam et gloriam, cum brevitate sermonis : ad 
occasionem dandam minoribus predicatoribus coIHguntur dicta autentica 
sanctorum de predictis 4 annunciandis.' 

Inc. proL ' Cum almus/ &c. Inc. opus. ' Cum autem nostra sit 
intencio ut dictum est aliqua auctentica in generali colligere.' Inc. 
pars i., dist. z'., cap. i. 'De primo notandum quod describitur 
vicium sub nomine malh' 

MSS. Brit. Mus. : Had. 632, f. 248. 

Cambridge : — Peterhouse 87 or 2-0-4, * De quatuor predica- 
bilibus ad omne genus hominum.' — Pembroke Coll. 123. 

Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 6776, f. 55-352 (sec. xiv). Imperf. at the 
beginning; fol. 58, 'Cum autem sit intentio.' — 'Explicit 
summa de viciis et virtutibus compilata a fratre Johanne 
Galensi ordinis fratrum minorum. Orate pro eo.' 

Falaise :— Bibl. Pub. 38, p. 468. 

Munich: — Bibl. Reg. 23595 (sec. xiv), ' Distinctiones predica- 
biles Johannis Gallensis de virtutibus.' 

Legiloquium sive liber de decern precepHs, or, De decern mandatis divinis, 
or, Summa de precepii's. 
Inc. ' Scribam eis multiplices leges. . . . Omnipotens creator 

MSS. Brit. Mus. : Had. 632, f. 307 b (sec. xv) imperfect. 

Oxford: — Bodl. Rawlinson C. 534, f. 106 (sec. xiii) : cf. Bodl. 

2501, 'forte Jo. V/allensis.' — Lincoln Coll. 67, f. 143 (xiv). 
Paris: — Bibl. Mazarine 569, f. 139b (xiv). 

^ The name of the author is given in a hand considerably later than the MS. 

L 2 



Bruges 239 (Haenel p. 756). — Falaise 38, p. 325 (xiv. ineuntis). 
— Toulouse 340 (xiv). 
Extracts printed by Charma, 'Notice sur un MS . . . de Falaise/ 

Manipuhis FIoru??i, begun by John Wallensis, finished by Thomas 
Hibernicus, to whom it is usually ascribed ; excerpts from the 
fathers, in alphabetical order. 
Inc. prol. ' Abite in agro, &c. Paupercula non habet messem.' 
I?ic. opus. ' Abstinentia. Bonum est in cibo.' 

MSS. Oxford: — Merton Coll. 129 (sec. xiv). — Lincoln Coll. 98 (xiv). 
Cambridge : — Caius Coll. 402 (a.d. 1306), 
Paris:- — Bibl. Mazarine 1032, &c. 

Troyes, 1785 (finitus a.d. 1306). — Basel, B iv. 9 (written a.d. 

Printed at Piacenza 1483, Venice 1493, &c. 

A similar work, ascribed in the same hand as the text to Friar John 
Walensis, is contained in MS. Charleville 136 (sec. xiv); 
inc. ' Accidia. Nota accidiosus est.' 

De origine progressu et fine Mahumeti et qiiad^'uplici reprohatione 
prophetiae ejus, cap. xv. 
Inc. ' Ad ostendendum quod Mahumetes.' 

Printed at Argentina 1550. The editor, G. Fabricius says: *hunc 
Galensis libellum in dissipatis Bibliothecis inventum collegi.' No 
MSS. of the work have been discovered, and its authenticity 
seems very doubtful. It is not mentioned by the earlier biblio- 
graphers, such as Philip de Bergamo and Tritheim. Except in 
the number of chapters, it appears to differ entirely from the 
Tract, contra falsitates legis Machometi of Peter de Pennis : Quetif- 
Echard I 569 ; MS. Chapitre de Bayeux 42. 

Sermones de tempore ei de Sanctis. 

MSS. Bodl. : i956=>E. B. i. 14, now Bodley 50; referred to by 

Munich: — Bibl. Reg. 26941 (sec. xiv. ineuntis) contains a 
sermon preached at Paris by John Wallensis. 

Charleville 1 1 3 § 3 (sec. xiv and xiii), Sermones de tempore : inc. 
' Dominica prima de adventu ' : these are anonymous but 
follow some works by J. Wallensis in the MS. 

Postilla super Johannem. 

MSS. Vienna: — Bibl. Palat. 1533 (sec. xiv). 

Florence : — Laurcntiana, ex bibl. S. Crucis, Plut. xxvii. Dext. 
Cod. iii. ' Tabula super Postillam Fratris Joannis de Val- 
lensis (sic) super Joannem.' The work itself is missing. 

Ch. II.] 



This appears to be identical with the Postilla in E'vangelium Joannis^ 
printed among Bonaventura's works. It is doubtful whether 
the commentary should be ascribed to either of these 
writers. (See Hist. Litt. xxv. 193-4.) 

CoUationes in Johannem. Ascribed also to Bonaventura, and printed 
among his works (edit. 1589, torn, ii) : probably by the same 
author as the preceding Postilla. 

Gf. MSS. Oxford : — Exeter Coll. 39 (xiv), Thomas Wallensis; — Bruges, 
338, 'Joannes Anglicus super Joannem ' (Haenel) ; or 474, ' Scripta 
Johannis Anglici super Johannitium ' (Laude). 

Commentaries on Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy , Joshua, 
Judges, Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Song 0/ Solomon, Lsaiah. 

MSS. Oxford: — Bodl. Laud. Misc. 345 (sec. xiv), ascribed to John 
Wallensis. — Merton Coll. 196 (sec. xiv), and New College 30 (sec. 
xv), ascribed to Thomas Wallensis. — Leland mentions the same 
works in the library of Christ Church, Canterbury, where they 
were ascribed to John Wallensis (Leland Collect. IH. 7). 

The following works are sometimes assigned to John Wal- 
lensis : — 

Expositio super Pater Noster. 

MSS. Charleville 873 contains, according to Haenel (p. 120), Joannis 
Wallensis . . . expositio super pater noster et dietarium super 
vita religiosa.' In the new catalogue this treatise is given as 
anonymous, the same volume, No. 272 (sec. xiv), containing the 

Mondee Abbey (diocese Lisieux), Cod. 3, Joannes Galesius Ordinis 
Minorum super Pater noster (Montfaucon, p. 1333). 

Ln fahulas Ovidii, or, Expositiones seu moralitates in lib. i. (?) Meta- 
morphoseon sive Jabularum (Leland and Tanner). This appears 
to be the work generally ascribed to Thomas Walleys, and, by 
M. Haureau, to Peter Bercherius^. There is no real ground 
for assigning it, as Leland does, to John Wallensis. 

MSS. Oxford : Bodl, Auct. F. 5. 16 ( = BodL Sup. A. I Art. 86 or Bodl. 

2581), Johannes Anglicus. 
Brit. Mus. : Royal 1 5 C xvi, anon. 

Cambridge : — Peterhouse 1 2 or 2-3-9 ' ^ fratre Thoma Waleys 
de provincia Anglie ordinis Predicatorum.' 

' Memoires de V Acadeinie des in- wrote at Avignon from 1320 to 1340. 
scriptions, t. XXX, pp. 45-55: Peter M. Haureau has no doubt made out his 
was a ^Benedictine who lived and case. 


[Ch. II. 

Dublin : — Trin. Coll. 8, anon., but bound up with works by 
John Wallensis. 

Reims 741 (Haenel p. 405), ' Liber fabularum a magistro Joanne 

Anglico compositus.' 
Troyes 1627 (sec. xiv), Thomas Waleys. 
Printed at Paris 151 1, &c. 

hi mythologicon Fulgentii. 

A commentary on this by John Wallensis is mentioned by Leland in the 
Library of the Friars Minors at Reading [Collect. Ill, 57). Many 
anonymous treatises on the work are extant ; e. g. 

MSS. Brit. Mus. : Royal 7 C I f . 31 1.— Dublin :— Trin. Coll. 8 (§ 8), 
bound up with works of John Wallensis. 

Cf. notice of John Redovallensis. 

Comment, in Valerium de non dticenda uxore. 

Seen by Leland in the Franciscan Library, London. The incipit which 
he gives is merely that of the work itself, and is no assistance in 
identifying the commentary of John Wallensis. The latter refers 
to the epistle in his Bre'viloq. de quatuor -virtutibus cardinalibus : 
MS. Brit. Mus. : Royal 10 A ix, f. 83 b-84. 

Cf. notice of John Redovallensis. 

As to other works attributed to him with some show of reason by 
the older bibliographers : 

De cognitione njerae 'vitae, mentioned by Wadding, is the same as the 
Ordinarium. An anonymous treatise with this title is in Royal MS. 
10 A ix. f. 109-133 (which contains some works by John Wal- 
lensis). Inc. ' Sapientia Dei que os muti aperuit.' 

De 'visitatione infirmorum : Augustine's treatise on this is in the Royal 
MS. above mentioned (fol. 134-145). 

Declaratio regulae S. Francisci (printed at Venice, 151 3 in Firmamen- 
tum Trium Ordinum), is usually attributed to John Peckham. 

Pastoralia by J. Wallensis; formerly in Harl. MS. 632, f. 261 ; 
(see old table of Contents); fol. 250-265 (old pagination) are 
missing. Boston of Bury calls this De cura pastorali : inc. ' Licet 
beatus.' Expl. ' et haec ad David.' 

Collectio episiolarum decretalium Romanorum pontlficum was by John 
Gallensis of Volterra (c. 1200): printed at Ilerda 1576, &c. : 
MSS. Nat. Libr. Paris 3925, A ; Toulouse 368 (sec. xiii. med.). 

Indices duorum operum ; an alphabetical table of contents in Harl. MS. 
632, f. 133-167. 

Summa confessorum ; by John Lector of Freiburg : see MSS. Troyes, 
156 and 1492 (sec. xiv), &c. Inc. ' Quoniam dubiorum \' 

^ Another handbook for confessors is 622, § 6, Tract, de instriutionc con- 
occasionally found bound up with works fessorum, and Charleville 113, § 2, 
of John Wallensis. Sec MSS. St. Omer Libelliis de niodo atidiendi cottfcssiones. 

Ch. II.] 


De oculo morali\ identical with the work attributed to Grostete and 
Peter de Limoges. Inc. ' Si diligenter.' It may be noticed that 
Boston of Bury attributes this to John Wallensis and does not 
mention it among Grostete's works (Tanner, Bibl. pp. xxxiii, 

De correptione sin)e correctione. Inc. : ' Probata virtus.' Exp/. ' Gommo- 

rabitur ' (Boston of Bury). 
De exortatlone. Inc. ' Qui exortatur ' : Expl. ' Moderantis ' (ibid.). 
De disciplina. Inc. ' Disciplina ad mentem instruendam ' (ibid.) ^. 
In quatuor libros Sententiarum. Inc. ' Quoniam teste B. Augustino ' 

(Barth. of Pisa, and Ph. of Bergamo). 
De arte predicandi, ascribed to John Wallensis in MS. Paris : Bibl. 

Mazarine 569, f. 80 b : really by Thomas Walleys. 

7. Thomas Docking, also called Thomas Good^, was a native 
of Norfolk and probably entered the Order at Norwich. In a letter 
written a.d. i 252-3 ^ Adam Marsh asks the Provincial Minister to 
assign the bible of the late P. of Worcester to ' friar Thomas de 
Dokkyng/ who was distinguished by good morals and pleasant 
manners, a clear head, great learning and ready eloquence ; his friends 
were ready to pay handsomely for the book. He was evidently a 
student at this time. He became D.D. and reader to the Franciscans 
at Oxford about 1260 ^ In 1269, when he took an active part in the 
controversy with the Oxford Dominicans, he is described as ' sometime 
reader at Oxford^.' According to Blomefield, he was warden of 
Norwich and died about 1270^ His theological works, chiefly 
biblical commentaries, were long held in high repute ; some are still 

Expositio super lihrum D enter onomii. 

MSS. Brit. Mus: Royal 3 B xii (sec. xv). 
Oxford .-—Balliol Coll. 28 (a.d. 1442). 

Lincoln : — Cathedral Libr. (Haenel p. 799), 'Thomas Bockering.' 

Inc. : ' Simpliciores et minus expertos Ordinis Minorum, vocati Dockyng, eo 

confessores.' It is by John Lector of quod natus fuit in villa vocata Dockyng.' 

Freiburg : MS. Mazarine 1322. Hist. ^ Mon. Franc. I, 359-360 : the letter 

Litt. XXV. 269. mentions 'the irrevocable intention of 

^ There is an error in Tanner s ex- Friar R. of Cornwall.' 

tracts from Bury (p. xxxiii) : 'Quoniam * Or 1265? See notices of H. of 

misericordia ' given as the incipit of Brisingham and W. of Heddele. 

De disciplina belongs to the preceding App. C. 

■work, Compendiloquium. Cf. Bale, MS. ^ Hist, of Norfolk, IV, m ; no 

Seld. supra 64, fol. 83 ; Tanner, Bibl. authority is given. 

435. He is probably the ' Bokkyng ' 

Royal MS. 3 B. XII (sec. xv) : quoted by William of Ockham (Goldast, 

'Liber magistri Thome Gude, i.e. Boni, p. 957) ; and he is often referred to by 

Doctdris sacre Theologie Oxonie et Thomas Gascoigne, 


[Ch. II. 

Comment, on Isaiah. 

MS. Oxford:— Ball. Coll. 29 (sec. xv). 

Exposiiio super Epistolas S. Pauli. 

MSS. Oxford : — Ball. Coll. 30 (sec. xv), containing Galatians, Ephe- 
sians\ Hebrews. 
Magd. Coll. 154, Galatians, imperf. (sec. xv). 

Lectiira super Apocalypsin, doubtfully ascribed to him. 

MS. Oxford .'—Ball. Coll. 149 f. 107. Inc. ' Panis ei datus. Querit 

Expositio Decalogi, Inc. ' Non habebis deos alienos in conspectu 
meo. Hoc est in corde.' 

MS. Bodl. 2403 ( = T. Bodley NE. F. 4. 9), now Bodley 453, f. 57-9° ^ 
Questions on St. Luke. 

MS. Paris:— Bibl. Nationale, 3183, § 8 (sec. xiv). 

Questio utrum Job in prosperis fuerit altior coram Deo quam in 
MS. Ibid. § II (sec. xiv). 

Comnwtt. super Sententias, mentioned in the Catalogue of Illustrious 
Franciscans (Leland)^ 

8. H. de Brisingham is probably the same as 
' Frater Henricus Lector Oxoniensis Fratrum Minorum,' 
who composed a Summa de Sacramentis in 1261 ^. He afterwards 
became thirteenth master of the Friars Minors at Cambridge ^ 
Blomefield claims him as a Norfolk man, and says that he died about 
1280'^. He is perhaps to be identified with '■Henricus de Oxonio 

^ At the end of this commentary ; 

* Explicit lectura H. M. et d. Dockyng 
super Epistolam ad Ephesios.' 

At the end of this MS. (sec. xv) : 

* Explicit expositio ffratris Thome 
Dockyng super preceptis decalogi se- 
cundum formam textus deutronomii 
quinti.' The same volume contains an 
anonymous treatise on the creed (' de 
sufficientia articulorum in Simbolo,'&c. : 
Inc. * Est quedam mensura fidei '), which 
Bale (MS. vSeld. sup. 64, f. 177) care- 
lessly identifies with Docking's Epos, 
dccato/^^i; and an anonymous treatise on 
the decalogue, which Tanner ascribes 
to iJocking {luc. ' Si autem vis ad vitam 

ingredi') : cf MS. Laud. Misc. 524, fol. 
67 b (olim Laud. F. 12). 

^ Tanner (Bibl. 230) mentions his 
Correctioncs in S. Scripturam, 'MS. 
olim in monast. Sion and Tabulam 
super Granimaticam Dokking, MS. 
Line. Cathed. Libr. F. 18. 

* Brewer's reading ' A. de Brisigham ' 
is incorrect : MSS. Cott. Nero, A IX, 
and riiillipps, 3119, f. 76. 

MS. Laud. Misc. 2, fol. 159 b. 

^ ' Frater T. Brisigham, scd in- 
cepit Oxoniac, &c.' Mon. Franc. I, 
5.5 .S. 

' Hist, of Norfolk, IV, p. 114. Cf. 
B^alc, Script. 

Ch. II.] 


Chordigerae sectael whose sermons were seen by Bale in the Franciscan 
Library at Reading \ 

The De Sacramentis Summa is his only extant work. 
MS. Bodl. Laud. Misc. 2, f. 130 (sec. xiv. ineuntis). 

9. William of Heddele (Durham or Northumberland ?) is 
mentioned by Adam Marsh in a letter to the Provincial, c. 1253, as 
'your desirable son Friar William de Hedele^.' We know from 
another source that Heddele was reader at Oxford in 1269, when he 
took part in the controversy with the Friars Preachers^. When 
Prince Edward went to the Holy Land, 

* he took with him,' in the words of the so-called Lanercost Chronicle 

* the reader and master of the Friars Minors at Oxford, Friar William 
de Hedley, a man beloved of God and in favour with men.' 

The chronicler puts these events in the year 1266. Edward took the 
cross in 1268 and sailed in 1270. Friar William died on the outward 
voyage in the sea of Greece : 

' his corpse,' continues the same authority ' being given to the waves as 
the custom is, followed the course of the ships for three days, until, at 
Edward's command, it was taken again into the vessel and afterwards 
committed to the earth.' 

10. Thomas de Bungay (Suffolk) has been traditionally associated 
with Roger Bacon and regarded as a wizard by later generations. 
Very httle is known of him. He perhaps entered the Order at Norwich. 
He lectured as D.D. in the Franciscan convent at Oxford about 1270; 
he seems like Roger to have attached a great importance to mathe- 
matics and may have held his views on the value of natural science 
and of induction. He lectured afterwards at Cambridge, being the 
fifteenth in the list of Franciscan masters there. He was the eighth 
English Provincial Minister, and was succeeded by Peckham, probably 
in 1275. He was buried at Northampton ^ 

According to the Catalogue of Illustrious Franciscans he wrote 
a Commentary on the Sentences ^ None of his works are printed ; 
only one seems to be extant in MS. 
De celo et mundo : 3 books. Inc. ' Summa cognicionis, &c. Aristo- 
teles probat hie tres questiones in primo capitulo. Prima est 

1 Bale, Script. II, 93-4; MS. Seld. 
sup. 64, fol. 65 b ; Wadding, Script. 
166. This may equally well have 
been Henry de Apeltre, the twelfth 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 360. 

^ Appendix C. 

* Lan. Chron. p. 81. 

5 Mon. Franc. I, 537, 552, 555, 560. 
Blomefield, Norfolk, IV, 114. Charles, 
Roger Bacon, p. 24. 

^ Leland, Script, p. 302. 



[Ch. II. 

quod omne corpus est completum quo ad divisiones/ Expl. 
' Hie terminantur questiones super 3 c. et m. a Magistro T. de 

MS. Cambridge : — Caius Coll. 509, § 3 (sec. xiv. ineuntis). 
Cf. MS. Bibl. Nat. Paris 16144 (sec. xiii), 'Thomas super librum de 
celo et mundo ' (Aquinas ?). 

1 1 . J ohn Peckham was born in Sussex and received his earliest 
education in the Priory of Lewes \ He took the Franciscan vows 
about 1250 he was then tutor to the nephew of Master H. of Anjou, 
perhaps in the University of Paris, but was probably for the time being 
residing at Oxford ^. On entering the Order he resigned the tutor- 
ship. Adam Marsh calls him ' Dominus Johannes de Pescham Scholar is] ' 
he may therefore either have had no degree at this time, or that of 
bachelor. He appears to have spent some time at Oxford, as in later 
years he expresses his gratitude for the training he received in the 
Franciscan convent of that University He then returned to France, 
studied under Bonaventura, and took the Doctor's degree at Paris, 
where he ruled in theology ^. Among his pupils was St. Thomas of 
Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford ^ At Paris too he came in contact 
with Thomas Aquinas and probably attended his lectures. He was 
present when the latter submitted his doctrine about the ' Unity of form ' 
to the judgment of the masters in theology ; 

' we alone,' the Archbishop wrote afterwards, ' stood by him, defending 
him to the best of our power, saving the truth ' .' 

He was at Paris during the troublous times which followed William 
of St. Amour's attack on the Mendicants, and wrote a defence of the 
latter ^ He returned to England probably about 1270 or soon after, 
and was admitted at Oxford to the same degree as he held at Paris ^ 
He now became lecturer to the Franciscans. On May 2, 1275, he 

^ Peckham, Registmm, p. 902 : ' in 
ipsius vicinia coaluimus a paivo, et ab 
ejusdem profcssoiibus solatia recepimus 
et honores.' 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 256. The date is 
uncertain. Adam Marsh describes liim, 
' quern et honestior convcrsatio ct littcr- 
atura provectior commendabiliter illus- 
trant.' For the spelling of the name, 
cf. Rymer's P'oed. I, 800, 'Peschan.' 

■'■ This is merely a deduction from the 
fact that Adam Marsh wrote about his 
tiitcring the Order. 

* Registnan, p. 977. It is hardly 
necessary to add tliat he was not 
a student at Merton ; as Archbishop, 
he was patron of the college ; ibid. 

Mon. Franc. I, 537, 552. Trivet, 
Annales, p. 299. 
Regist. p. 315. 
' Ibid. 866, 898. Henry of Ghent 
was also present; see his QuodlibeiUy 
Quodl. TI, quacst. ix. 

" Regist. Ill, xcvii, scq. (preface). 
^ N. Trivet, p. 299. 

Ch. II.] 


was with Friar Oliver de Encourt Prior of the Dominicans, appointed, 
by the King's writ, to decide a suit in the University which had long 
been under consideration in the Chancellor's court \ It was probably 
soon after this that he was elected ninth Provincial Minister and con- 
firmed by Bonaventura ^. He did not hold this office long, being in 
1277, summoned by the Pope (Nicholas III?) to lecture on theology 
in the schools of the Papal Court at Rome ^ After lecturing here for 
something less than two years, he was appointed Archbishop of 
Canterbury by Papal bull in January 1279, and consecrated by the 
Pope in the following March*. His official connexion with the 
Order did not cease ; he was deputed by the Pope 
' protector of the privileges of the Order of Minors in England,' 

and frequently used his powers for the benefit of the Franciscans ^. 
His relations to the Oxford Franciscans, as well as his condemnation 
of erroneous doctrines at the University, have already been noticed. 
While enforcing to the uttermost his legal rights, the Archbishop 
evinced a special solicitude for the poor, feeding them in time of 
famine, remonstrating with covetous abbats and careless landlords^. 
He himself is said to have travelled on foot, to have surpassed all in 
watchings and fastings and prayer, to have used none but vile garments 
and bedding — in fine to have lived as became one who held perfection 
to consist in the contempt of riches and the search for truth He 
died on December 8, 1292, and was buried 'among the monks' of 
Canterbury near Becket's tomb ^. His heart was buried in the choir 
behind the High Altar at the Grey Friars of London ^. He named as 
his executors the Friars Minors of Paris The Dominican Nicholas 
Trivet sums up his character in these words : 

*He was a zealous promoter of the interests of his Order, an excellent 

^ Close Roll, 3 Edw. I, m. 18, dorse. 

2 Mon. Franc. I, 537, 560. Mr. 
Martin says that Provincial Ministers 
were at this time appointed by the 
General : this was the case at first, but 
the custom was departed from as early 
as the time of William of Nottingham 
(T240). Mon. Franc. I, 59. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 560. Trivet, 299, 
Lanerc. Chron. 100; Denifle, I, 301, 

* Lanercost Chron. 100, 'post bien- 
nium.' Nicholas III was elected Nov. 
25, 1277 ; this leaves little more than a 
year before Peckham's nomination to the 

Archiepiscopate ; but it is not likely 
that he was made lector by John XXI. 
Le Neve, Fasti ; Milman, VI, 410. 

^ Registrum, pp. 210, 248. 

« Ibid. 715, 68-9, 38-9. 

^ Lanerc. Chron. 144 ; Wadding, 
V, 53, 80 : Registrum , I, pref Ix, 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 537. 
9 MS. Cott. Vitell. F, XII, f. 274. 
Rymer, I, 800. An account of his 
bequests to Christ Church, Canterbury, 
will be found in the Public Library at 
Cambridge, MS. Ee, V, 31, f. 74 b. 
Annales, p. 299. 



[Ch. II. 

maker of songs, of pompous manner and speech, but of kind and thoroughly 
liberal heart.' 

A careful and valuable account of his works will be found in Mr. Trice 
Martin's preface to Peckham's Register, Vol. Ill ^ 

A few additions may be made to Mr. Martin's list of his extant 

Co7istitutiones Ottohoni cum expositione Peccham. 

MS. Cambridge : — Pembroke Coll. 145 ( = 2073). Cf. Wilkins, Concilia, 
II, 50-51. 

Quaestiones ordinariae. Inc. ' Utrum theologia ex duobus.' 

MS. Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 3183 (sec. xiv) ; containing the questions, 
Utrum theologia sit prae ceteris Scientiis nec ess aria Praelatis Ecclesiae, 
and, Utrum theologia ex duobus componi debuerit Testamentis. Cf. 
MSS. ibid. 15805, Quodlibeta S.Thome, J. de Pechan, Guil. de Hozon ; 
and 15986, f. 238 (sec. xiii), Responsio ad questionem Peschant. 

Tractatus Fratris Joannis Pecham Ord. Mm. contra Fratrem Roger turn 
{Ord. Praed.) ohloquentem centra suum Ordme?n (called by 
Tanner, Contra Priorem Ctsterciensium). Inc. ' Super tribus 
et super quatuor sceleribus.' 

MS. Florence :— Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Crucis, Plut. XXXVI. Dext. 
Cod. xii. p. 25 (sec. xiv. exeuntis). 

Formula confessionum. Inc. ' Sicut dicit b. Joannes.' 

MS. Florence : — Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Crucis, Plut. IV. Sinist. Cod. 
xi (A.D. 1433). 

Scriptum super Ethicam. 

MS. Florence : — Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Crucis, Plut. XII. Sinist. 
Cod. xi. 

12. Henry de Apeltre was the twelfth reader at Oxford, and 
seventeenth master of the Friars Minors at Cambridge. Nothing 
more is known about him "^. 

13. Robert Cross or Crouche^ (de Cruce) must have lectured 
at Oxford about 1280. In April of that year Peckham forbade an 
Oxford Dominican to visit a certain ' college of women ' on account 

' Nicholas Glasberger says that he 
wrote a life of St. Anthony of Padua, 
' mtro stilo,' at the command of the 
Minister-General, Jerome of Ascoli. 
Anal. Franc. II, 91. 

" Mon. Franc. T, 552, 555. See II. 
dc Brisingham, note 5. (Ajipletrec in 

Derby, or in Northampton, or Apple- 
tree-Wick in Yorkshire ?) 

^ lie may be the same as Robert de 
Sancta Cruce who went to the Minister 
General with a letter of recommendation 
from Adam Marsh (c. 1250?). Mon. 
I'ranc. I, 3/j,3. 

Ch. II.J 


of grave suspicion, on the accusation of Friar Robert de Cruce ^ 
Leland states that he was immersed in philosophical studies to an 
advanced age, and when at last he betook himself to theology he 
showed greater skill in investigating speculative subtleties than in 
exploring the literal sense ; the statement might be made with equal 
truth of most of the scholastics. He became Provincial Minister 
soon after 1280. The successor of John Peckham, Hugh of Bath, 
died within a short time of his appointment, and was succeeded by 
Robert Cross as eleventh minister^. He held the office in June 

1284, when he obtained for the English Minorites exemption from 
the payment of a custom due to the King from all who passed to 
or from the Continent by the port of Dover ^. In Sept. of the same 
year he held a chapter of the EngHsh Franciscans^; and in March 

1285, he represented the English Province at the General Chapter of 
Milan ^. He may have resigned the dignity at this Chapter ; on 
Oct. 31, 1285, Peckham addresses a letter to ' W., Provincial Minister 
of the Friars Minors ' ; this must be WilKam of Gainsborough ^. 
Robert Cross was buried at Bridgwater ^. None of his works remain. 
Leland mentions his commentaries on the Physics and the Sentences^ 
on the authority of the Catalogue of Illustrious Franciscans. 

14. R. de Toftis, called by Wood, Radulphus de Toftis. 

15. Alanus de Rodano. 

16. Roger de Marston or Merscheton^ was D.D. of Oxford 
and lecturer to the Franciscans before 1290. Some questions on 
which he disputed, perhaps before he became doctor, are preserved 
in a MS. at Assisi^. He subsequently lectured at Cambridge as 
twelfth master of the friars According to Ehrle, Marston's theo- 
logical and philosophical teaching bears strong resemblance in some 
respects to that of Peter John Olivi He became thirteenth Pro- 
vincial Minister perhaps at the great Chapter of Paris in 1292, 

^ Peckham, Reg. 11 7-8. 144. Qu. 134 runs thus: *Disputacio 

2 Mon. Franc. I, 537, 560. Rogeri de Mirstun ordinis minorum.' 

^ Pat. 12 Edw. I, m. 9. (Inc.) 'Circa emanacionem eternam.' 

* Peckham, Reg. 820. (At end): 'Ad(?) hanc questionem re- 

^ Pat. 13 Edw. I, m. 27. spondetur quod essencia est principium, 

® Peckham, Reg. 909. quo sit omnis productio.' 

' Mon. Franc. I, 537, 560. Mon. Franc. I, 555: 'incepit 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 552, 555, 560. Oxoniae.' 

Other variations are Merston (ibid. 537, Archiv f. Litt. u. K. Gesch. d. M. 

and Assisi MS. 158, quest. 6) and III, 459; cf. 413. Are any of his 

Mirstun (Assisi MS. 158, quest. 134). writings extant except the questions at 

^ Assisi MS. 158, questions 6, 134, Assisi? 



[Ch. II. 

certainly between 1285 (when W. of Gainsborough was appointed) 
and 1299 (when Hugh of Hertepol was Provincial). He is said to 
have been warden of Norwich and to have died in 1303 ^ He was 
buried at Norwich ^. 

17. Alan de Wakerfeld ^ was at Oxford in 1269, when he 
represented his convent on several occasions in the controversy with 
the Friars Preachers He was not yet lector. 

18. Nicholas de Ocham occurs in the Assisi MS. as Hotham, 
IMaster Nicolaus de Hotham. and Frater N. de Ocham minor ^. He 
lectured at Oxford towards the end of the thirteenth century. Except 
the quaesiiones disputatae at Assisi, it is doubtful whether any of his 
works are extant ^ Leland says : 

Catalogus eruditorum Franciscanorum "Nicholai Ochami meminit ; cujus 
et depraedicat libros ; Commentarios, videlicet, in Sententias Petri Longobardi^ 
et opus, cui De Verba titulus. Scripsit libellum De latitudine oppositionum, 
ingeniosi indicium astrologi 

Cf. MSS. Paris:— Bibl. Nat. 14565 f. 173 b (sec. xiv). * Fratris 
Nicholai minoris replicationes ; ' and Cambridge : — Gains Coll. 
319, ' Nichohii super 2 et 3 sententiarum, in 3 libris.' 

Another Friar Nicholas Minorite, (called by Sbaralea^, * Specialis '), flou- 
rished about the same time as, or soon after, N. of Ocham, and wrote 
a chronicle on the Franciscan contest with the Pope, a.d. i 321-1328 (MS. 
Bibl. Nat. Paris, 5154: Extracts in Bohmer's Pontes Rer. German. IV, 588 seq.) 

19. Walter de KnoUe was afterwards twenty-third master at 
Cambridge ^ 

20. Hugh de Hertepol or Hartlepool was a friar and a man of 
importance in Oxford in 1282, when Devorguila appointed him to be 
one of the two proctors to whom the government of the new college 
of BaUiol was entrusted ; the statutes of 1282 are addressed to ' Friar 
Hugh de HertilpoU and Master William de Menyl It was probably 

* Blomefield's Norfolk, IV, 112. 
2 Mon. Franc. I, 537. 

^ Assisi MS. 158 twice mentions 
IVaker, who may be this Wakerfield. 
Quest. 76, and at the end of the volume 
' Waker dis(putavit) K(espondit) Penn- 

* Appendix C. 

In Devon's Exchequer Issue Rolls, 
Hen. Ill-Hen. VI, p. 114, there is 
mention of * Master Nicholas de Ocham,' 
30 Edw. I. 
' Assisi MS. 158, questions 16 1-3, 

165 (of considerable length), 123, 
' questio in vesperiis de Hotham ' ; and 
near the end of the volume, * questio 
Hotham in vesperiis cnol (?) Oxon, 
Respondit perseL' The last letter in 
the name ' Cnol ' is uncertain ; but it is 
probably Walter de KnoUe, Ocham's 
successor at Oxford. Cf. H. de Herte- 
pol and J. de Persora below. 

'' Tanner, Bibl. 556. 

" Wadding, Sup. ad Script. 563. 

" Mon. Franc. I, 552, 556. 
Savage, Balliofergus, p. 15. 

Ch. II.] 



some years later that Hugh became S.T.P. and lecturer to the 
Franciscan convent. His disputations seem to have been considered 
valuable and several of them are preserved ^ He disputed 

Mn the vesperies before the inception of Friar John de Persole (i.e. Per- 
sora, his successor) at Oxford 

He became fourteenth Provincial Minister, in succession to Roger 
Marston. The date of his appointment or election is uncertain. 
In April 1299^, we hear of him going as Provincial, with Friar W. 
of Gainsborough as his sodus, to the General Chapter at Lyons ; 
on this occasion the King gave to the two friars 10 marks. In 1300 
(Aug. 7) at Dorchester (Oxon), he chose twenty-two friars of the 
Oxford convent and presented them to Dalderby, Bishop of Lincoln *, 
with the request that he would license them to hear confessions. 
The bishop asked ' whether he was presenting them for all the 
convents in the diocese of Lincoln,' and, finding that it was only for 
the Oxford convent, refused to Hcense more than four. At length 
a compromise was effected, and eight of the friars were Hcensed to 
hear confessions in the archdeaconry of Oxford. In 1301 ^ Hugh 
was again abroad, probably at the General Chapter at Genoa. In 
Sept. 1302, he was, with W. of Gainsborough and others, sent as 
ambassador to the Court of Rome to negotiate for peace with the 
King of France ^ While in Italy on this mission, he attended the 
General Chapter at Assisi ; he probably did not return to England, 
as we are told that he was ' buried among the friars at Assisi 

21. John de Persora or Pershore (c. 1390) called in the Assisi 
MS. John de Persole (see above, under Hertepol). 

22. John of Berwick lectured at Oxford before the end of the 
thirteenth century. He was buried at Stamford. Bale identifies him 
with a Brenlanlius who is referred to by John Pico de Mirandola 
in his treatise contra Astrologos. 

1 In MS. 158 at Assisi. See Part I, 
Chapter III. 

^ Ibid, quest, 185. 

2 Q. R. Wadr. | (R.O.), this refutes 
the statement in Collect. Angl. Min. 
that he was unanimously elected in 1300. 

* Wood, MS. F, 29 a, fol. 178. 

5 Q. R. Wardr. ^, m. i. Cf. Ry- 
mer's Foed. I, 936. 

^ Alm.ain Roll. 30 Edw. I (R.O.). 
Cf. Mon. Franc. I, 514 (1302). 

' Rc^ulphus, quoted by Wadding, 

Script. 360. 

* Mon. Franc. I, 537. The author 
of ' Collis Paradisi ' (?) however quotes 
the following epitaph : ' Hie jacet Fr. 
Hugo de Hergilpol Anglicus Mag. in 
S. T. quondam. Minister Angliae, qui 
obiit III id. Septembris A. D, MCCC 
sedo. Orate pro anima ejus.' Wadding, 
ibid. The General Chapter met at 
Assisi in 1304, Archiv f. L. u. K. Gesch. 
VI, 67. Hugh was appointed ambassa- 
dor to Rome, Sept. 9, 1302. 


Joa finis AngUci Ordinis Minorum Summa Astrologiae Judicialis, quae 
anglicana vulgo nuncupatur (doubtful). 

IMS. Florence: — Laurentiana, in PJut. XXIX (Montfaucon, p. 237, 

Printed at Venice 1489, under the name of Joannes Eschvid {i.e. 
Eshendon or Ashendon ; see MS. Bodl. 3467, p. 91). 

Questiones Joannis de Beroyko de Or dine Fratrum Minorum de Forinis. 
MS. Venice : — Bibl. S. Anton. (Tomasin, p. 9). 
Leland adds : ' Collaudat eruditorum Index Franciscanorum ejus 

In longohardum elucubrationes \ 

23. Thomas of Barneby, wrongly called by Brewer * Johannes 
de Barneby,' is identified by Wood, without much probability, with 
the first Senior Dean of Merton College, who was appointed by 
ICilwardby in 1276^ He is mentioned in a record dated March 20, 
1326, as 'master of the Friars Minors^.' 

24. Adam of Lincoln, D.D. and regent master of the Franciscans 
at Oxford, succeeded Hugh of Hertepol as fifteenth Provincial 
Minister, probably in 1304*; he had ceased to hold the office in 
1310^. He was one of the doctors of theology appointed in the 
Provincial Council of York in July 131 1, to examine the charges of 
heresy against the Knights Templars ^. He was buried at Lincoln. 
The Register of the Friars Minors of London adds : quifecii mira- 
hilia ; probably some word like opera is to be supplied ^. 

25. William of Gainsborough^ must have been Provincial 
Minister before he lectured at Oxford ^. He was Provincial in Oct. 
1285, being the twelfth in order He was doctor of theology in 

^ Bale, Script. ,1.413; Leland, Script. , 
326 ; J, Pious Mirand., Opera Omnia 
(Basel, 1572), Tom. I. Contra AstroL, 
Book Xli. 

2 Wood-Clark, II, 371. Memorials 
of Merton Coll. 185, n. i. 

3 ' Fratri Barnabe Magistro fratrum 
Minorum;' the rest of the passage is 
worn away : Q. R. Wardrobe, V (K.O.). 
The note in MS. Merton Coll. 55, f. 
261, ' memoriale fratris Thome de 
Barneby pro 14 solidis,' is of the fif- 
teenth century. 

* Mon. Franc. I, 537, 560. 

^ See notice of Richard Conyngton. 

^ Wilkins, Concilia, II, 399. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 537. 

^- Geynysborough, Geynisboru , Geines- 
burgh, &c. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 553, 'qui primus 
(prius ?) fuerat minister.' This was by 
no means unprecedented ; Anal. Franc. 
I, 16: ' Minister Generalis . . . absolvit 
fratrcm Simonem a ministerio Theu- 
toniae et lectorem instituit.' Cf. instances 
among the Dominicans, Martene, Thes. 
Nov, Anccd. IV, pp. 1791, 1822. 

Peckham,Rcgist. 909. Mon. Franc. 
I, 537, 560. Cf. Chapter House Records 
(R.O.),* p. 61 : ' fratri Willelmo 

de Geyncsburg' ministro fratrum mi- 
norum in Anglia revertenti in Angliam 

Ch. II.] 



1294, when he was sent with Friar Hugh of Manchester, a Domini- 
can, to the King of France, to protest against the latter's seizure of 
Gascony and to renounce homage in the name of the EngHsh King ^ 
In 1299 he accompanied the Provincial, Hugh of Hertepol, to the 
General Chapter at Lyons ^. Early in 1300 he was called by Boni- 
face VIII to lecture on theology in the Roman Curia ^; the King 
paid his expenses. 

Fratri Willmo de Geynesburgh de ordine Minorum eunti ad curiam 
Romanam ad mandatum Pape ad legendum de Theologia in palatio 
ejusdem Pape, de dono Regis ad quatuor equos sibi emendos pro equita- 
tura sua et socii sui et pro hemes' eorundem portand' versus eandem 
curiam, 50 marc'. Eidem de dono Regis ad expensas suas morando in 
eadem curia pro negotio predicto 50 marc', per manus Domini J. de 
Droken' liberantis eidem denar' apud London' mense Maii. Eidem de 
dono Regis nomine expensarum suarum eundo de Wysebech usque 
London' pro dictis denariis ibidem recipiendis mense predicto zds. M. 
Summa 68 If. 

During the two years that he remained at Rome ^, his energies 
were not entirely confined to his work as lecturer. Boniface was at 
this time endeavouring to bring the war between France and England 
to a close by arbitration. In Sept. 1300, Friar William of Gains- 
borough was appointed by Edward I to act as one of his ' proctors 
and special messengers' at Rome in this matter^; and in Sept. 1302, 
he was employed with Hugh of Hertepol and others in the same 
capacity^. On Oct. 24, 1302, the Pope, passing over the candidate 
of the Chapter, nominated William, Bishop of Worcester; the con- 
secration took place on Nov. 25, the enthronement on June 9, 1303 ^ 
As a protest against the Papal interference, the King imposed a fine 
of 1000 marks on the new bishop ^ but granted him £100 for the 
expenses for his inthronization in consideration of his great need^°. 

de Burdeg' ad expensas suas . . . de ^ Lanerc. Chron. 194; cf. date of his 

dono Regis Ixvi^ viii^ sterl' ; ' May \ 3 appointment to Worcester. 

(1287 ' Almain Roll, 28 Edw. I (R.O.). 

^ Trivet, Annales, 331. '' Ibid. 30 Edw. I. 

^ Queen's Remembr. Wardrobe, |, m. ^ Le Neve, Fasti, III, 53. Annal, 

I (R.O.). Monast. IV, 554, 555. For a full 

^ ' Wardrobe Account 28 Edw. I,' ed. account of the inthronization, see 

Topham, p. 164. Mon. Franc. I, 537, Thomas, Survey of Worcester, App, 

553j .^60, 'qui in curia Romana legit No. 76. 

cursorie et ordinarie.' Lanerc. Chron. ^ Pat. Roll, in Le Neve, III, 53, n. 

says he was called to the Curia to read 96. Cf. Stubbs, Const. Hist. Ill, 

theology ' coram cardinalibus,' p. 194. 308-9. 

* 'Wardrobe Account,' ut sup-a ^" Thomas, Survey, App. No 77 ; cf, 

(May, '1300). Ann. Monast. IV, 556, 


[Ch. 11. 

William still continued to be employed in affairs of state V In March 
1307, at Carlisle, he demanded and obtained from the Papal nuncio 
the excommunication of the murderers of John Comyn ^. On March 
22, he was appointed to accompany Prince Edward on his journey to 
France to claim the hand of Isabella ^. Later in the same year he 
was sent on an embassy to Rome in connexion with the same affair * . 
On his return journey^ he died at Beauvais (Sept. 17); as nearly all 
his attendants died at the same time, it was believed that the calamity 
was due to poison ^. The bishop was buried among the Friars 
Minors at Beauvais 

26. John Basset. 

One of this name is said to have written Chronica in English; he was 
probably much later than this friar. Tanner, B\bL 79. 

27. Thomas Rondel or Rundel^ was lecturer at Oxford in the 
last years of the thirteenth century, having previously read the 
sentences at Parish In 1309 he was one of the commissioners or 
inquisitors appointed to hear the accusations against the Knights 
Templars ; he is then described as master of theology, and probably 
resided in the convent at London where he was buried 

28. Adam of Howden or Hoveden or Houdene^^ was D.D, 
and probably regent master of the Franciscans at Oxford in 1300. 
He was one of the twenty-two friars presented by Hugh of Hertepol 
on July 26 of this year, to receive the bishop's license to hear 
confessions at Oxford, and was one of the eight actually licensed 
He afterwards read at Cambridge as the twenty-ninth master of the 
Friars Minors An ' Adam de Houdene ' was chamberlain to W. of 
Gainsborough, Bishop of Worcester (1302-7), but he was not a friar. 

A sermon of his preached on the feast of Epiphany is in MS. Oxford, 
New Coll. 92, f. 82 b^^ 

' Cf. Rymer's Foed. I, p. 979. 

Lanerc. Chron. 206. 
^Rymer's Foed. I, 1012; Lanerc. 
Chron, 210. 

* Rot. Rom. I Edw. II, m. 10 (Le 
Neve) ; Thomas, Survey, App. No. 78. 

° Thomas, ibid. 

^ Lanerc. Chron. 210. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 537, 553. 

* Assisi MS. 158, quest. 119: ' Dis- 
putavit Gilbertus (Stratton ?) ; Re- 
spondit Rundel minor.' 

^ Phillipps MS. 31 19, fol. 76, 'qui 

legerat sentencias Parisius.' 

Wilkins, Concil. II, 336, 337, &c ; 
cf, 370, ' presentibus magistris minorum 
et predicatorum, gardiano minorum,'&c. 

" Mon. Franc. I, 553. 

'2 Phillipps MS., ut supra. 

'2 Wood MS, F, 29 a, f. 178. 

'* Mon. Franc. I, 556, 

" Pat. 14 Edw. II, m. 9. 

' In fcsto Epiphanie ; Minorum ; 
Houdene.' The MS. dates from the 
latter part of the 14th cent., but we may 
without much hesitation identify 'IIou- 

Ch. II.] 



29. Philip of Briddilton or Bridlington was contemporary with 
Adam of Hoveden, and like him was Hcensed as D.D. by the Bishop 
of Lincoln to hear confessions in 1300 ^ He responded in the schools 
to Master Richard de Heddrington or Herington on the question 
^ an omnes heati equaliter participant heatitudine'^l a problem which 
agitated western Christendom in the early fourteenth century. 

30. Peter de Baldeswell^ was at Oxford in 1300, when he was 
presented by the Provincial to the Bishop of Lincoln, but not 
licensed to hear confessions He was not then D.D. 

31. John de Horley, co. Oxon or Surrey (the same applies to 
him 'as to P. of Baldeswell). 

32. Martin of Alnwick was a member of the Oxford convent in 
1300; he was among the twenty-two friars for whom Hugh of 
Hertepol sought to obtain license to hear confessions, and was one of 
those rejected. He was not a D.D. at this time^. He took his 
degree and lectured at Oxford between 1300 and 131 1. In the 
latter year he was summoned to Avignon to take part in the con- 
troversy between the Conventual and Spiritual Franciscans, as one of 
the foar advisers of the General Minister. The matter was tried by 
a commission of cardinals and theologians; Martin and his fellows 
pleaded the cause of the Conventuals, or Community of the Order. 
The case was adjourned to the Council of Vienne and decided by the 
bull Exivi de Paradiso (which was published in the last session of the 
Council, May 6, 13 13) in favour of the better section of the Con- 
ventuals ^ Martin of Alnwick was evidently one of the leading 
Franciscans of the time. According to Bale he died 1336 and was 
buried at Newcastle ^. 

A universal chronicle, ' Flores temporum seu chronicon uni'versale ab urbe 
condita ad annum 1 349/ is sometimes attributed to him ; Leland, e. g. 
says: * Catalogus quoque Franciscanorum scriptorum Chronicorum 
Alaunovicani meminit' (Tanner, Bibl. 515). See also MS. Arun- 
del 371 (sec. xv). This is the chronicle of Hermann Gigas based 

dene' with Adam of Hoveden, as the ^ Brewer's reading Haldeswel is 

other preachers mentioned belong to the wrong. The Phillipps MS. also reads 

end of the 13th century, e.g. Henry de Baldeswelle. 

Sutton, friar minor, Symon de Gandavo, * Wood MS., ut supra. 

Chancellor (Oxford), &c. ^ Wood MS., ut supra. 

^ Assisi MS. 158, quest. 179. Ric. 
de Hederington succeeded to the prebend 
of Ailesbury in 1 290. Le Neve, II, 95. 

^ Wood MS. F, 29 a, f. 178. 

^ Archiv f. Litt. u. Kirch. Gesch. II, 
361; III, 39; IV, 28seq. 
Script, cent. V, 26. 

M 2 


[Ch. II. 

on the well-known chronicle of Martinus Polonus (pnnted 1750). 
In the preface Hermann says that he has followed, ' inter moder- 
nos, Martinum Romane sedis penitenciarium (?) de ordine fratrum 
predicatorum ' (Ar. MS. 371, f. 2). 
Several philosophical treatises by Martinus Anglicus are extant in MS. 
Vienna : — Bibl. Palat. 4698 (sec. xiv). 

33. Robert of Beverley. 

34. Richard de Coniton or Conyngton (co. Cambridge or 
Huntingdon) was at Oxford in 1300 and was one of the friars to 
whom the Bishop of Lincoln refused the right to hear confessions \ 
He became D.D. and lecturer to the Franciscans between 1300 and 
1 3 10. He was afterwards thirty-first master of the Minorites at 
Cambridge He was sixteenth Provincial of England, and held the 
office in 1310^. About this time the Order was disturbed by the 
violent antagonism of the two parties within it — the ' Community,' 
the lax or moderate party which comprised the majority and included 
the official heads of the Order, and the strict or ' Spiritual ' party. 
A papal investigation into the causes of dispute and into the obser- 
vance of Rule by the Order was instituted, and the leaders of each 
party summoned to the Curia. Richard Conyngton as Provincial 
was the official representative of the English Franciscans at Avignon 
and Vienne (i30i-i3i3)\ He was buried at Cambridge 

He is said by Leiand and Bale to have written a treatise De Christi 
Dominio against Ockham in defence of the papal authority ®. 

Wadding states that he had seen Richard's Commentary on the 
Sentences in the Vatican Bale mentions his exposition on the 
seven penitential psalms, ex monasterio Nordovicensi^. 

Tractatus Magistri Richardi Conygton Ministri Angliae de pauper - 
tate contra opiniones Fratris Petri Joannis [Olivi). Inc. ' Beatus 
qui intelligit super egenum et pauperem. Ps. Praecedit actus 

MS. Florence :— Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Crucis, Plut. XXXVI, Dext. 
Cod. xii (sec. xiv exeuntis). 

35. Thomas of Pontefract was at Oxford in 1300; when the 
bishop of Lincoln refused to grant him license to hear confessions. 

» See above. 35^; HI, 39; Wadding, VI, 171. 

2 Mon. Franc. I, 556. Mon. Franc. I, 538, 553. Bale gives 

Ibid. 538, 560. Reports of Hist. 1330 as the date of his death. 
MSS. Commission, IV, 393 a, letter of ' Leiand, Script. 331 ; Bale, I, 404. 
Gonsalvo, Minister General to ' Friar ' Wadding, VII, 168. 
R. minister of England,' 1310. 'MS. Bodl., Seld. supra 64, fol. 

' Archiv f. Litt. u. K. Gesch. II, i6o. 

Ch. II.] 



He became D.D. and lecturer in theology some years after this. In 
July 1 3 1 1 he was one of the inquisitors appointed to extort confession 
of heresy from twenty-four Templars in the Province of York ^ 

36. Peter de Sutton; 'jacet Stanfordiae," i. e. Stamford, co. Lincoln^ 

37. Ralph of Lockysley^ or Lockeleye* was regent master at 
Oxford about 1310. He was buried at Worcester ^ According to 
Bale (I, 366) he wrote De pauper tate evangelica, &c. 

38. William of Schyrbourne (131 2) was at Oxford in 1300; he 
was one of the friars presented by the Provincial for license to hear 
confessions, and rejected by the bishop of Lincoln ^ He was master 
of the Friars Minors in 1312, and in this capacity gave some support 
to the Dominicans in their controversy with the University 

Leland says : ' Ejus extant Quodlibeta Theologtca, lib. i.' (?) ^. 

39. William of Nottingham is confounded with the fourth Pro- 
vincial Minister by Wadding, Bale, Pits, and the Register of Friars 
Minors of London ^. In a work attributed to him, but really com- 
posed by his namesake, occurs the following note, in a hand of the 
fifteenth century — 

' This Notyngham was secular canon and precentor of the Church of 
York ' (and in another hand), ' afterwards he became a friar of the order of 
St. Francis.' 

In the absence of any confirmatory evidence, no weight can be attached 
to this statement. No William of Nottingham occurs in Le Neve's 
Fasii. At the beginning of the fifteenth century a John of Nottingham 
held two prebends and was treasurer of York : and he may be the 
person referred to in the first part of the note; it is worthy of remark 

^ Wood MS., ut supra; Wilkins' 
Concilia, II, 399 ; Lea, Hist, of the 
Inquisition, III, 301. 

2 Mon. Franc. I, 553. Cf. Digby MS. 
154' 37 (sec. xiii, xiv) ; Letters of 
Friars P. de S. and others, to Roger de 
Merlawe, c. 1 290-1300 (v. ibid. f. 38). 

^ MS. Cott. Nero, A, IX. 

* MS. Phillipps, 3 1 19; Brewer's 
' Rockysley ' is a mistake. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 553. 

« Wood MS. F, 29 a, &c. 
Twyne, MS. Ill, 327 (Acta fratrum 
Praedicatorum). 'Item Fratri Henrico 
Croy xonventus fratrum Praedicatorum 
antedicti, Baculario Sacrae Tlieologiae 

pro Inceptione in Theologia se dispo- 
nenti, responsiones ad hoc secundum 
statuta Universitatis praedictae neces- 
sario requisitae per magistrum Willel- 
mum de Schireburn magistrum Fratrum 
Minorum et alios etiam magistros prius 
concessae, de ordinatione ipsorum Can- 
cellarii et Procuratorum ac quorundam 
aliorum magistrorum, sunt penitus dene- 
gatae.' (Oxf. Hist. Soc. Collectanea, II, 

8 Tanner, Bibl. 668. Harl. MS. 5398 
(§ 3) contains a Sermon attributed to 
John Schyrborn. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 70, 538. 

10 Ball. Coll. MS. 33. 



[Ch. II. 

that the MS. originally came from York. William of Nottingham 
must have been reader to the Franciscans soon after 131 2. While 
regent in theology at Oxford he was largely occupied in transcribing 
IMSS., especially the works of Nicholas de Gorham, the expenses being 
defrayed by his brother Dominus Hugh of Nottingham ^. He succeeded 
Richard Conyngton as seventeenth Provincial Minister^. In 1322 he 
was at the General Chapter of Perugia, and, with the other ministers, 
signed the famous letter in which the Franciscans declared that the 
doctrine De paupertate Christi was not heretical but sane and catholic ; 
this was the beginning of the revolt of the whole Order (as distinguished 
from the Spirituals) against John XXII ^. According to Bale he died 
Oct. 5, 1336 He was buried at Leicester ^ 

Bale ascribes to him Deter minatio pro lege Christianorum, lib. i. 
Inc. ' Numquid deus posset revelare aliquam legem.' 
' Ex Redingensi Minoritarum cenobio.* (MS. Seld. sup. 64, f. 215.) 

40. J ohn de Wylton lectured at Oxford in 1 3 1 4 : in February of 
that year he appears, as representative of the Minorites, in a list of 
twelve regent masters in theology (i. e. the theological faculty for the 
time being), who condemned as heretical eight articles, chiefly con- 
cerning the nature of the Trinity, in the convent of the Austin Friars ^. 
Wood Bale ^, and Tanner ^, call him an Austin Friar. Bale states 
that he studied and lectured as master at Paris, and says that John 
Baconthorpe, in his commentaries on Books I and II of the Sentences, 
speaks of him with high praise His works seem to have perished 

41. John de Crombe (Cott. MS.) or Crombre (Phil. MS.) was 
perhaps a native of Combs in Suffolk : he was buried at Oxford 

Compendium theologicae veritatis per fratrem Johannem de Combis, 
lib. vii. Inc. ' Veritatis theologie cum superni.' 
MS. Cambridge : — Gaius Coll. 193. 

1 Merton Coll. MSS. 166, 168, 169, 
170, 158. 

2 Mon. Franc. I, 538, 560. 

^ Wadding, VI, 396-7 : he confuses 
William Provincial of England with 
William of Ockham ; VII, sub anno 

^ MS. Seld. sup. 64, fol. 215. 

" Mon. Franc. I, 538, 

' Mun. Acad. p. 100. 

' Annals, sub anno 1270; elsewhere 
Wood calls him John Middleton, 
Minorite, ibid. p. 386. 

^ Script. Brit. I, 365. 
9 Bibl. p. 778. 

^" I have not found this reference ; 
Baconthorpe's commentaries on Sen- 
tences I and II fill a folio volume of 
378 leaves (Milan, 1510). 

According to the Old Catalogue, 
MS. Bodl. 783 contains a treatise by a 
John Wylton (the monk of West- 
minster?); the entry is erroneous; the 
MS. (now Laud. Misc. 677) contains 
nothing about John Wylton. 

^'^ Mon. Franc. I, 553. 

Ch. II.] 



Anonymous in MSS. Charleville 19 (written A.D. 1337), and Metz 448 
(sec. xv) : generally ascribed to Albertus Magnus and printed at 
the end of torn. xiii. of his works, Lyons 165 1. 

42. William of Alnwick is possibly identical with the friar called 
Roger of Alnwick in the list of Oxford Franciscans presented to the 
bishop of Lincoln in 1300^. After lecturing at Oxford (c. 13 15-1320?), 
he was sent to the University of Naples, as Doctor of Theology ^. He 
was present at the General Chapter of Perugia in 1322, and joined 
with the other leading men in the Order in declaring that the doctrine 
of Evangelical Poverty was not heretical^. In 1330 he was made 
bishop of Giuvenazzo near Bari ^ He is said to have died at Avignon 
in 1332 ^ Bartholomew of Pisa mentions him among the famous 
Franciscan theologians of the English nation %• William Woodford 
places him among 

* inceptores ordinis Minorum qui egregie scripserunt super sententias 
QuesHones Almoich super primum Sententiarum. 
Questiones Almoich in i el 2 Sentenliarum ^. 

MSS. Padua :— Bibl. S. Anton. (Tomasin, p. 61 b, 62 b.) 

Gf. MS. Ball, Coll. 208 (sec. xiv), an abridgment of the commentary 

of Duns Scotus on the 2nd book of the Sentences by ' Master 

William of Alnwick, Friar Minor.' 

43. William Herberd or Herbert, if we may credit the Lanercost 
Chronicle, which is usually trustworthy at this period, was at Paris in 
1290 ^. From his place in the list of masters, it might be inferred that 
he lectured at Oxford about 13 15-1320. But if the following works 
ascribed to him are genuine, he must have flourished not much later than 
1250-60. They are preserved in a fourteenth-century MS. formerly in 
the library of Henry Farmer of Tusmor, Oxon, now in the Phillipps 
Library at Thirlestaine House 

^ Wood MS., ut supra. Another Wil- 
liam of Alnwick was bishop of Norwich 
and Lincoln in the fifteenth century. 

2 Mon. Franc. I, 553: ' postea apud 
Montem Bononiae Neapoli legit; de- 
mum ILpiscopus.' 

^ Wadding, VI, 396 ; Anal. Franc. 
II, 129 : ' Hugo de Novo Castro et 
Gulielmus de Almuchia, sacrae theo- 
logiae doctores.' 

* Wadding, VII, 112, 169, 'ex Regest. 
Rob. Regis Siciliae.' 

■5 Bale and Pits. 

^ Lib. Conform, f. 8i b, ' Almoith.' 

^ MS. Harl. 31, f. 96 b. 

® Tanner, Bibl. 354, says his com- 
mentaries on the Sentences ' extant 
impr. . . . Lip.' (?) 

^ P. 135, a curious story about the 
Jews at Paris ; * frater W. Herbert, qui 
vidit,' &c. 

^'^ Bernard's Catalogues, Tom. II, no. 
9159: Phillipps Catal. No. 8336 ; the 
same volume contains some works of 
Friar Nicholas Bozon (' Boioun '). I 
have not had an opportunity of examin- 
ing these works of Herbeit's, which are 
probably of some value. 



[Ch. II. 

Sermo Fratris Willielmi Herebert in Ecclesia B. Mariae Virginis Oxon ; 
in haec verba : * Dixit mater Ihu ad eum, Vinum non habent.' 

Sermo ejusdem Fratris in Ecclesia B. Mariae Oxon. in translatione 
S. Edmundi Archiepiscopi in haec verba : ' Homo quidam erat dives et 
induebatur purpura,' etc. 

(St. Edmund was translated in 1247 ; the words however must mean in 
festo translat'wnis, i.e. June 9th.) 

Ejusdem Fratris Epistolae summo Pontifici, Episcopo Coventrensi et 
Lichfeldensi (Roger of Wesham?), Symoni de Montfort, etc.^ 

Historica quaedam de Papis Romanis {anon.). 

Tractatus de Veneno et Antidotis {anon.). 

Hymns in old English'^, quibus haec notula adjicitur : ' Istos Hympnos et 
Antiphonas transtulit in Anglicum non semper de verbo in verbum, sed 
frequenter sensum aut non multum declinando, et in manu sua scripsit 
frater Willielmus Herebert ; qui usum horum autem habuerit, oret pro 
anima dicti Patris.' 

William Herbert was buried at Hereford, which was probably his 
native convent ^. 

44. Thomas of St. Dunstan (Kent ?). 

45. John of Reading (de Radingia) was buried at Avignon. He 
had probably gone to the papal curia in connexion with the revolt of 
IMichael de Cesena and Wilham of Ockham*. 

Cf. MS. Florence :— Laurentiana, ex Bihl. S. Crucis, Plut. XXXV, 
Dext. Cod. xi, Primus Fratris Joannis de Padingia { = Radingia}), 
S.T.D. ord. Min. {super sententias ?). 

46. John of Thornton ; the name is uncertain ; it may be Jornton ; 
the PhiUipps MS. reads Zortone. 

47. Richard of Drayton, was buried at Shrewsbury^. 

48. Robert of Leicester seems to have been a protege of Richard 
Swinfeld, bishop of Hereford, to whom he dedicated his first extant 
work in 1294 ^ He was S.T.P. and in residence at Oxford in 1325, 
and probably lecturer to the friars about the same time. In this year 
he was associated with Nicholas de Tyngewick, M.D. and S.T.B. as 
* Magister Extraneus ' of Balliol College ^. The two were called upon 
to decide whether the statutes of the College allowed the members to 
attend lectures in any faculty except that of Arts, and ordained ' in the 
presence of the whole community' that this was not permissible. 

* Not mentioned in the Phillipps 

' Ittc. : ' Ha tree yat art so vayr y 
kud ; ' Phill. Catal. 

^ Mon. Franc, 1, 553, 

* Ibid. 554. 
' Ibid. 

^ MS. Digby, 212, f. 2. 
' Hist. MSS. Commission, Report 
IV, 443 (deed in Ball, Coll, Archives). 

Ch. II.] 


Among those present in the Hall of Balliol when the decision was 
proclaimed was Richard Fitzralph, afterwards Archbishop of Armagh, 
the great opponent of the Mendicant Orders \ Bale and Pits say that 
Robert died at Lichfield in 1348 ; ' but/ adds Wood, ' I suppose 'twas 

De compoio Hehreorum aptaio ad Kalendarium^ four parts with prologue ; 

composed a. d. 1294. Inc. proL ' Operis injuncti novitatem, 

pater meritis insignissime, magister et domine R. Dei gratia 

Herfordensis antistes ecclesie.' 
Compotus Hebreorum purus. Inc. ' Prima earum est a creacione 


Commentariolus supra tahulas in tractatu primo supra recensito 
descriptas (or, De ratione temporum), written in 1295. Inc. 
' Ad planiorem et pleniorem prescript! tractatus intelligenciam.' 
These three works are contained in MS. Bodl. Digby 212 (sec. xiv). 


MS. Cambridge: — Pembroke Coll. 220, § i ; 'Enchiridion poeniten- 
tiale ... ex distinctionibus . . . Rob. de Leycester (aliorumque).' 

De pauper tate ChrisH. 

Attributed to him by Leland^. 

49. Walter de Foxisley, or Ffoxle in Phillipps MS. (Norfolk 
or Wilts?). 

50. Henry Cruche. A sermon by * H. de Cruce, Minor,' is in 
Merton Coll. MS. No. 248, f. 170. This name is omitted in the list 
given in the Phillipps MS. 

51. John de Ratforde (cf. 63rd master). 

See MS. Bodl. Digby 216, f. 40, containing three theological ques- 
tions to which the name 'Ratforde' is prefixed; the MS. dates 
from the fourteenth century : the questions are : ' an quilibet 
adultus teneatur laudare Deum ; utrum ex sui meriti 'vel demer 'tti 
circumstanttis juste debeat augeri -vel minui pena ; utrum ad omnem 
actum creature rationalis concurrat necessario Dei efficientia specialis.* 

52. John de Preston ^ 

^ Hist. MSS. Commission, Report 
IV, 443 (deed in Ball. Coll. Archives). 

^ Leland's authority was probably 
the Catalogue of Franciscan writers in 
which ,R. of Leicester was mentioned : 
' colligo hunc (Robertum) fuisse Guil, 

Hereberti synchronium, instractus serie 
Catalogi De Scnpt07-ibtis Franciscanis , 
editi ;' Scriptores, p. 304. 

^ A monk of this name is mentioned 
in MS. 24 of Corp. Chr. Coll. Cam- 
bridge, A.D. 134S. 



[Ch. II. 

53. Walter de Chauton* is no doubt identical with Walter de 
Chatton, who with the warden was summoned to appear in the 
Mayor's Court, to answer a charge, brought against the convent, of 
wrongfully keeping two books, in 1330^; he evidently held some- 
official position at this time, presumably that of regent master. He is 
said to have been warden of Norwich, probably his native convent, 
and to have taught theology there ^. He was one of the D.D.'s whom 
Benedict XII consulted in drawing up his Statutes for the Franciscan 
Order in 1336^. This fact lends some support to Bale's statement 
that he became papal penitentiary and died at Avignon in 1343°. 
Bartholomew of Pisa mentions him among the famous writers of the 
Order ; William of Woodford among those who entered the Order in 
their youth, and ' wrote many works of great wisdom 

Cathon sur les Sentences [W. Chatton^ or R. Cowton?]. 
MSS. Paris :— Bibl. Nat. 15886, 15887 (sec. xiv), two copies. 

Questio fratris Galtheri magistri . . . de schaton, que est secunda in 
ordine primi sui in prologo. Inc. ' Utrum Deus possit creare.' 
Expl. ' Et ideo non est simile.' 
MS. Cambridge: — Public Library, Ff. Ill, 26, f. 122, 123, 130b. 
Cf. MS. Harl. 3243, fol. 55, Adam Wodham de di'visione, etc. contra 

54. John de E-idevaus, Rideval, or Redovallensis, sometimes 
called John de Musca, according to Bale ^, flourished about 1330. Of 
the works attributed to him, the Commentary on Fulgentius seems to 
be the same as that attributed to John Wallensis ; similarly perhaps 
with the commentary on the letter of Valerius to Rufmus ; the moral 
exposition of the Metamorphoses seems to differ from that ascribed to 
Thomas Walleys and Peter Bercherius. 

^ Chtantton {sic) in MS. Nero A, IX ; 
omitted in Phillipps MS. The name is 
given in a variety of forms : Certhanton 
or Certanton (Wood), Southampton 
(Brewer), Catton, Gathon, Chattodunus 
(Leland), Ceton, Cepton, Tepton (Barth. 
of Pisa, Pits, &c.), Schaton (N, Glas- 
berger, Analecta Francisc. II, 166), 
('anton (' Chronologia historico-legalis 
seraphici Ordinis Fratrum Minorum,' 
Neapoli, 1650 ; quoted ibid, note 5 \ 
Chvaton (Baronius Raynaldus). 

2 Twyne, MS. XXIII, 488, from the 
Oxford City Records ; cf. Part I, ch. iv. 

^ Blomefield, Hist, of Norfolk, IV, 
p. 112. There is a Calton near Nor- 

* Baronius-Raynaldus, Ann. Ecclesi- 
ast. Vol. XXV, p. 92 ; Anal. Franc. II, 
p. 166. 

Script. Brit. I, 420. 

^ Liber Conformitatum, f. 81 b; De- 
fensorium, cap. 62 (Twyne, MS. XXII, 
103 c). 

^ Woodford refers to ' Chatone's ' 
commentaries on the Sentences; MS. 
Harl. 31, ff. 61, 96. 

" Script. I, p. 409. 

Ch. II.] 



Leciura super Apocalypsi. 

MS. Venice: — St. Mark, Class. I, Cod. 139, fol. 110-119 (sec. xiv), 
' Extracta de lectura fratris Joannis Rydelbast super Apocalypsi, 
ordinis Minorum.' 

' Commeniarius super Fulgencium continens piduras virtutum et vici- 
orum suh ymaginihus deorum et dearum quos colehat vana super - 
stitio paganorum editus a fratre J. de Ridevall de or dine fratrum 
minorum' Inc. * Intencio venerabilis viri Fulgencii.' 
MSS. Cambridge: — Pub. Libr. li II, 20, f. 121-162 (sec. xv) ; and 
Mm I, 18, § 6 (xv). 

Worcester Cathed. Libr. 154 ( = Bernard 829). 
Venice : — St. Mark, Class. I, Cod. 139, f. 1 21-136 (xiv). 

' Ovidii Metamorphoseos fahule ccxviii moraliter exposite' Inc. ' In 
hujus expositionis initio.' 
MSS. Cambridge : — Pub. Libr. li II, 20, f. 162-199 (anon, but in the 

same Meriting as the Comment, super Fulgencium which it follovi^s). 
Wore. Cath. Libr. 89 ( = 764), * Jo. Risdevallus.' 

In Valerium ad Rufinum de uxore non ducenda. Inc. ' Loqui per- 

Cf. MSS. Cambridge :— Pub. Libr. Mm I, 18, § 5 ; and London :— 
Lambeth Palace 330 (xv). 

Commentaries on St. Augustine s De Civitate Dei. Inc. ' Magnus 
dominus et laudabilis nimis in civitate Dei.' 
MSS. Oxford: — C.C.C. 186 and 187 (sec. xv ineuntis) ; on books 
I, 2, 3, 6, and 7, by 'Jo. Rydevallis' or 'Rydewall,' Friar 
Minor ^ 

55. Lawrence Briton is perhaps the same as Laurentius Wallensis 
mentioned by Tanner, who wrote a dialogue on free will ^. A sermon 
by him is preserved in Merton College, MS. 248, f. 170. He flourished 
about 1340. A Dominican of the same name was S.T.P. of Paris in 
the thirteenth century ^. Among the MSS. mentioned in the old 
catalogue (1381) at Assisi^ is a ^ Summa mag. fratris Laurentii 
Vualensis Anglici ordinis Minorum this is perhaps a mistake for 
Johannes Wallensis. 

56. John de Rudinton or Rodyngton belonged to the custody 

1 Cf. MS. Seld. sup. 64, f. 75. 

2 Tanner, Bibl. p. 473 : 'MS. olim 
in bibl. Sion.' The work is however 
printed, and ascribed to Laurence Valla 
(see Panzer, Ann. Typ.). 

3 Archiv f. Litt. u. Kirch. Gesch. II, 

* Fratini, Storia . . . del Convent 0 di 
S. Francesco in Assisi (Prato, 1882), 
p. 205. 


[Ch. II. 

of Oxford, and the convent of Stamford \ He was D.D. of Oxford^, 
nineteenth Provincial Minister of England^, and is described in the 
Register of the Grey Friars of London as ' vir sanctissimus He 
was buried at Bedford^; Bale and his followers mention 1348, the 
<Jate of the first great pestilence, as the year of his death. 
Joannes Rodinchon in lib. i. Sententiarum. 

Included by Joannes Picardus in his Thesaurus Theologorum (a.d. 

Johannis de Rodynton determinationes theologicae. 

MS. Munich : — Bibl. Regiae, Cod. Lat. 22023 (sec. xiv). 
Quaesiiones super quartum librum Sententiarum (by the same author ?). 

MS. ibid. fol. 18. 
Quesiiones super quodlibeta rodincon. 

MS. Bruges, 503 (sec. xv). 

57. John de Howden (c. 1340). 

[John Hoveden of London, S.T.P. and author of many works, was not 
•a friar; he died a. d. 1275 : Tanner, Bibl. 415.] 

58. T. Stansehaw, called by Brewer, G. Stanforth'^, by others, 
Thomas Stanchaw, Straveshaw, &c., was a Minorite of Bristol^. Bale 
says : 

* obiit Avenione A.D. 1346. Ex quodam Minoritarum registro ^' 

Some sermons in MS. Merton Coll. 248 (sec. xiv exeuntis) are ascribed to 

* Stanschawe.' 

A number of works are attributed to him by Bale, ' ex Bibliotheca Nor- 
dovicensi,' and * ex officina Roberti Stoughton 

59. Edmund Grafton. 

60. Stephen Sorel. 

61. Adam Wodham or Godham was one of the most famous of 
the later Franciscan schoolmen He is said to have lived chiefly at 

* Mon. Franc. I, 560 ; Tanner, Bibl. 

2 Mon. Franc. I, 554, 560, 538. 
Cf. John Major, Gesta Scotorum, I, 
cap. 5. 

3 Mon. Franc. I, 53S, 554. 

' Ibid. 538. Ibid. 

* Willott, Athenae, pp. 237-8. Ac- 
cording to Sbaralea, the Thesaui'us was 
approved in 1503, parts were printed at 
Milan in 1506, and the entire work was 
preserved in the Franciscan Library 
at Assisi; Wadding, Sup. ad Script. 
P- 4.51- 

' The ' G ' is certainly wrong ; the 
initial ' T * is inserted in a later hand 
in Cott. MS. The name is doubtful ; 
MS. reads Stanscfi or Stanfth. 

•* Tanner, Bibl. 691. 

^ MS. Seld. supra 64, fol, i 75 ; Script. 
I, 427-8. 

MS. and Script, ut supra. 

" Barth. of Pi.'-a,LiberConformitatum, 
f. 81 b ; Wadding, VI, 344. John Major, 
who edited a version of his Sentences in 
1512, calls him : ' Vir modestus, sed non 
inferioris doctrinae aut ingenii quam 
Ockam,' Gesta Scot. Lib. IV, cap. 21. 

Ch. II.] 


Norwich, London, and Oxford and was probably reader in theology 
at several convents in succession. He was a follower of William of 
Ockham in philosophy and probably attended his lectures. He may 
be the Adam to whom Ockham's Summa logices was addressed ^ The 
date of his lecturing as regent master at Oxford is unknown ; it must 
have been about 1340 or soon after. He was perhaps the ' Frater 
Adam magister in sacra theologia de Anglia/ who went to Basel in 
1339 to consult Friar James de Porta on some miracles alleged to 
have been wrought there ^. He died, if we may believe Bale, at Bab- 
well in 1358 ^. 

Comment, in IV Ubros Senientmrum, abbreviated by Henry of Oyta, 
Inc. prol. ' Ista est lex Adam.' 

MSS. Paris:— Bibl. Nat. 15892 and 15893 (sec. xiv) 

Bruges, 162, ' Magistri Adae lecturae super IV. Sententiarum ' (?). 

Toulouse, 246, the abbreviated version of the lectures of Adam 

Godham or ' Adam de Vodronio ' by Henry de Hoyta, written in 

the Franciscan convent at Paris, a.d. 1399. 
Rouen, 581 (sec. xiv-xv). 

Printed at Paris, 1512. Perhaps some of the MSS. cited above 
contain the original work of Adam Wodham. See Wadding, 
Sup. ad Script. 2-3. 

Quaestiones variae philosophic ae et theologicae, by Godham and others ^. 

MS. Brit. Mus. : Harl. 3243 (sec. xiv). 
Cormnent. super Cantica Canticorum. 

MS. formerly in the Franciscan Library in London (Leland, Collect. 
HI, 49). 

Postilla super Ecclesiasticum, Lib. I. 

' Ex registro Decani Nordovicensis ' (Bale MS. Bodl. Seld. sup. 64). 
Deierminaliones, or, Determinaiiones XI. Inc. ' Utrum officina.' 

Mentioned in Catalogus illustrium Francis canorum, and by Bale (MS» 
ut supra) ' ex bibliotheca Nordovicensi 

12 Tanner, Bibl. 329 ; Wadding, VIII, 
139; J. Major's preface to Wodham's 
Sentences, ed. 151 2. 

^ Wadding, Sup. ad Script. 327. 

2 Analecta Franciscana, II, 177. 

^ Bale, Script. I, 447. 

* In the Bibliotheque de 1' Arsenal, 
MS. 514 {olim 551) has the note: 
' Verisimile est authorem hujus libri esse 
magistrum Adamum de Rodromo ' (i. e. 
Wodhajofi). The MS. really contains 
only Peter Lombard's Sentences with- 

out any commentary. 

" Cf. notice of Walter Chatton. 

® Bale adds that he wrote Sentential 
et conclusiones, Lib. I, ' Absolutio cri- 
minis sive peccati ' (on the power of the 
Mendicants to hear confessions, especially 
against Wetheringsete), ex officina Ri- 
cardi Kele ; Sententias Oxoniensis con- 
silii, Lib. I, 'Sententie septem ponun- 
tur' (?). MS. Bodl. Seld. sup. 64, fol. 
9. For Wetheringsete or Wetherset, 
see Tanner, Bibl. 759. 



[Ch. II. 

62. Robert de Redclive. 

63. Thomas Radford (cf. 51st master). 

64. John "Went or Gwent was a native of the Bristol custody ^. 
He probably incepted in theology and lectured to the Friars at Oxford 
about 1340 or soon after. His character for holiness was such that 
he was believed to have wrought miracles in his lifetime ^. He suc- 
ceeded John de Rodyngton as Provincial Minister, being the twentieth 
in Order, probably between 1340 and 1350^. Bale adds: 

'he died at Hereford a.d. 1348, as I have found in a register of the 

It is however not improbable that he found only the first statement 
in the register and added the date. Both the catalogues of the Pro- 
vincial Ministers state that he was buried at Hereford ^. 

65. Thomas Oterborne can hardly have written the chronicle 
generally ascribed to him. The chronicle itself bears no marks of 
having been written by a Franciscan ; even the notices of the Order 
given in Walsingham and the Eulogium Historiarum are sometimes 
omitted, and usually shortened, in the so-called Otterbourne. But 
apart from this, the evidence of dates is fairly conclusive: the 
chronicle, as edited by Hearne, leaves off abruptly in the year 1420, 
and Hearne puts Otterbourne's death at 142 1. Pits and Wood 
suppose from MSS. which end in 1411 that the writer died in that 
year. Hearne says 

there are not wanting MSS. which bring the history hardly beyond 
Edward II L' 

But even assuming the existence of such MSS. it is practically 
impossible that they can have been the work of the Franciscan doctor. 
Thomas Oterborne must have lectured at Oxford before 1350. It is 
true that the last nine names of lectors given in the list are in a more 
recent hand than the earlier ones ; but the names of Went and Oter- 
borne are in the same writing, and there can be no reasonable doubt 
that they were contemporaries. The dates of Oterborne's two imme- 
diate successors at Oxford are unknown ^, and the list of lectors here 
comes to an end. We cannot therefore know whether there were 
any more lectors before Simon Tunstede. Assuming that he was the 

' Mon. Franc. I, 560. 
2 Ibid. 538. 

^ W. of Nottingham, 17th Minister in 
1322 ; Thomas Kingesbury, 26th Minis- 
ter in 1380; the dates between these 

are uncertain. 

* Script. Biit. I, 432. 

'•' Mon. Franc. T, 538, 560. 

" Unless the conjecture about J. 
Valcys is correct. 

Ch. II.] 


sixty-eighth lector, we may naturally conclude that the sixty-fifth read 
several years before him, i.e. several years before 1351 when Simon 
was ' regent among the Minorites at Oxford \' It is therefore most 
probable that Thomas was reader not later than 1345. The his- 
torian was perhaps the Thomas Otterburn who became rector of 
Chingford in 1393 and was ordained priest in 1394^. 

66- John Valeys^ was perhaps the Friar John Wells who took a 
prominent part in the disputed election to the Chancellorship in 1349, 
as a supporter of John Wyllyot, fellow of Merton, whose conduct 
seems to have been of a peculiarly riotous and lawless character*. 
He may possibly be the John Welle, S.T.P. and Friar Minor ^, who 
was robbed by his servant in London in 1377 ; some curious details 
about this affair will be found in Appendix B. 

67. Richard Malevile of the London Custody (c. 1350.''); this 
name is added in a still later hand. 

^ Digby, MS. 90, f. 6 b (14th century), clearly written in the Cott. MS : it may 

in Bodleian. be Filers : cf. Memorials of Merton 

^ Tanner, Bibl. 567. The chronicle is Coll. p. 199. 

in Brit. Mus. MS. Cotton, Vitell. F, IX. * Wood, Annals, A.D. 1349. 

^ The name is unfortunately not ^ Pat. i Ric. II, pt. 4, m. 37. 



Agnellus or Angnellus of Pisa was custodian of Paris before 
becoming first Provincial of England \ He is said to have been 
made Provincial by St. Francis in 1219^; the order as given by 
Francis a S. Clara ^ is as follows : 

*Ego frater Franciscus de Assisio Minister Generalis praecipio tibi fratri 
Agnello de Pisa per obedientiam, ut vadas ad Angliam, et ibi facias officium 
Ministeratus. Vale. Frater Franciscus de Assisio.' 

It may be doubted whether this letter is authentic, nor is the date 
beyond dispute. It may be considered as certain that Agnellus did 
not come to England till September 1224^. He was then a deacon, 
and about thirty years of age ^ He landed with eight others at Dover, 
went to Canterbury, and thence to London, establishing houses and 
receiving novices. Such was his humility that he long refused the 
order of priesthood, and only at length consented, when the Provincial 
Chapter had procured a command from the General Chapter, that the 
order should be conferred on him ^ He was a zealous guardian of 
the primitive poverty of the Rule of St. Francis, and would only allow 
houses to be built or areas to be enlarged where it was absolutely 
necessary He urged the demolition of a conventual building called 
Valvert at Paris, and forbade the enlargement of the house at Glou- 
cester : he had the infirmary at Oxford built so low that a man could 

' Mon. Franc. I, p. 5. 

^ Wadding, I, 303 ; Anal.. Franc. II, 
pp. 14-15. 

Christ. Davenport, Opera omnia 
(Duaci 1665), To.m, I, Hist. Minor, p. 2 : 
he adds, ' Originale meo adhuc tempore 

in Episcopio Audomarensi servabatur.' 

* Mon. Franc. I, p. 5. Cf. Lanerc. 
Chron. p. 30; Annals of Wore. p. 416 
(Ann. Monast. IV). 

^ Mon. Franc, ibid. 

" Ibid. 53-4. ^ Ibid. 34, 35, 36-7. 


scarcely stand upright in it. He built a school at Oxford of more 
generous proportions, and encouraged the love of learning in the 
Order ^. The choice of Grostete as the first master of the Minorites 
was due to Agnellus^. He was, according to Matthew Paris, on 
familiar terms with the King, and was one of his counsellors In 
December, 1233, he offered his services as peace-maker between 
Henry III and the rebellious Earl Marshall, though his efforts to 
induce the latter to submit were unavailing It would seem to have 
been after this that he went to Rome on some business of the English 
prelates ^ and he may also at the same time have attended a General 
Chapter in Italy ^ On his return, he was seized with dysentery at 
Oxford ; it was believed that his health had never recovered from the 
severities to which he was exposed while labouring for peace in the 
winter of 1233 ^ He recommended that the General Minister, Elias, 
should be requested to appoint Albert of Pisa, or Haymo, or Radulf 
of Rheims, as his successor. He constituted Peter of Tewkesbury his 
Vicar, and made his last confession to him. Pie died at Oxford in 
great pain, crying continually, ' Veni, dulcissime Jesu! The exact date 
of his death is uncertain; it was probably early in 1235 ^ He was, 
says Eccleston, 

* a man specially endowed with natural prudence and foresight, and con- 
spicuous for every virtue ^ .' 

He was buried in a wooden or leaden coffin in the choir of the 
chapel before the altar. When this chapel was superseded by the 
larger church, the friars came by night to remove the body; they 
found the coffin and the grave 

* full of the purest oil, the corpse with its garments incorrupt and smelling 
most sweetly.' 

His bones were laid with due pomp in * a fair stone sepulchre ' in 
the new church, and the miracles which were wrought at his tomb 
were a source of honour and profit to the Convent at Oxford 

1 Mon. Franc. I, 37 ; cf. Earth, of 
Pisa, fol. 79 b. 

2 Mon. Franc, ibid. 

^ Chron. Majora, III, 257: 'familiaris 
erat domino regi et consiliarius ipsius.' 

* Ibid. Cf. p. 251 ; Mon. Franc, I, 
52 ; Ann. Monast. I, 92. 

^ Mon. Franc, ibid. 

^ He was present at the translation of 
the body of St. Francis in 1230; ibid. 5. 

' Mon. Franc. I, 52-4, account of his 
death, &c. 

« This is supported by MS. Cott. 
Nero A. IX, f. 70b: 'A® domini 
MCC 35 frater Agnellus . . . obiit,' 
and Cott. Cleop. B. XIII, f. 146 b. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 52. 

'0 Ibid. 54 ; Earth, of Pisa, fol. 79, 
80; 126, ' miraculis pluribus decoratus.' 




[Ch. III. 

Richard de Ingewrthe or Indewurde (Norfolk) is named 
second in the list of friars who came over with Agnellus in 1224. 
He was a priest and advanced in years; according to Eccleston he 
was the first Minorite who preached to the people ^ citra monies! 
With three other friars he established the first house of Franciscans 
in London (at Cornhill) ; he then proceeded to Oxford with Richard 
of Devon, hired a house of Robert le Mercer in St. Ebbe's, and thus 
founded the original convent in the University town. The two com- 
panions then went on to Northampton, where they again hired a house 
and founded a friary. Richard of Ingewrthe afterwards became 
custodian of Cambridge, which was specially noted for its poverty 
under his rule. In 1230, when Agnellus attended the General Chapter 
at Assisi, he was associated in the Vicariate of the English Province 
with Henry de Ceruise or Treviso, a lay-brother from Lombardy. 
Soon after this he was sent by the General, John Parens, as Pro- 
vincial Minister to Ireland. At length he was released from the 
office in General Chapter by Albert of Pisa (c. 1239), set out as a 
missionary to Palestine, and died there ^ 

Richard of Devon, a young acolyte, was the third of those who 
came over with Agnellus. He accompanied R. of Ingewrthe from 
Canterbury to London, Oxford, and Northampton ; 

'and (in Eccleston's words) left us many examples of longsufFering and 
obedience. For after he had traversed many provinces in obedience to 
commands, he was for fifteen years worn out by frequent quartan fevers 
and remained continually at Romehale 2.' 

Adam of Oxford was a master before he entered the Order ^. The 
account of his conversion given by Eccleston * is as follows : 

Master Adam of Oxford, of worldwide fame^, had made a vow that he 
would do anything he was asked to do ' for the love of the blessed Mary ; ' 
and he told this to a certain recluse, who was a friend of his. She 
revealed his secret to her friends, that is, to a monk of Reading, another 
of the Cistercian Order, and a Friar Preacher; telling them that they 
could gain such a man in such a way ; not wishing that Adam should 
become a Friar Minor. But the Blessed Virgin did not permit anyone in 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 5-7, 7, 9, 10, 27. out any foundation, so far as the fornner. 

I have found no authority for the form is concerned ; see William of Esseby. 

' Kingesthorp ' which Leiand, and his ^ Mon. Franc. 1, 15. In the Phillipps 

followers Bale and Pits, substitute for MS. of Eccleston he is called ' Ada de 

Ingewrthe, except a late marginal note Exonia' (fol. 72 b). 

in Phillipps MS. 31 19, f. 71. * Ibid. 15-16. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 6, 7, 9, 10. Bale's ^ ' Toto fainosus orbe,' probably when 

statement that R. of Devon and W. Eton Eccleston wrote, i.e. after Adam's 

• seipsos castrabant ' is probably with- death. 


his presence to make the needful request ; but deferred it to another time. 
One night he dreamed that he had to cross a bridge, where some m.en were 
throwing their nets into the stream, endeavouring to catch him : but he 
escaped this with great difficulty and reached a very peaceful spot. Now 
when by the divine will he had escaped all others, he went casually to see 
the Friars Minors, and during the conversation Friar William de Colvile, 
the elder, a man of great sanctity, said to him: 'Dear master, enter our 
Order for the love of the Mother of God and help our simplicity.' And 
Adam immediately consented to do so, as if he had heard the words from 
the lips of the Mother of God. 

He assumed the habit on January 25 \ probably a.d. 1227. He 
was at this time assistant, or secretary^, to the great Adam Marsh, 
whom he soon afterwards induced to join the Franciscans. Shortly 
after this, Adam of Oxford went to Gregory IX, and was at his own 
desire sent to preach to the Saracens ^. From a letter of Grostete's, 
addressed to Agnellus and the Convent of Friars Minors at Oxford, 
relating to this subject, and written in or before 1231 *, we learn that 
Adam had formed the resolution of going to preach to the infidels 
before he entered the Order, and that he was induced to take this 
latter step partly because it was likely to add to his influence as a 
missionary. Grostete urges the Friars not to grieve for his loss : 
* for the light of his knowledge is so bright that it ought to be concentrated 
most there where it may dissipate the thickest darkness of infidelity.' 
<Have no fear,' the writer continues, 'that he will be cut off from the 
" Sacred Page ; " he has humility, and no " haeretica pra'uitas " will slip in.' 

He died at Barlete, and miracles are said to have been wrought by 
his rehcs or his memory ^ 

William of York, ' a solemn bachelor,' was probably an Oxford 
man, as he entered the Order on the same day as Adam of Oxford ^ 

Adam Rufus'^ studied under Grostete in the early part of the 
thirteenth century, presumably at Oxford. A letter from ' Robert 
Grostete called Master,' written perhaps before he held any prefer- 
ments, i.e. before 12 10, addressed to 'Master Adam Rufus,' is 
extant; it is a treatise on the nature of angels, and Grostete asks 
Adam to inquire diligently the opinions of the wise men, with whom 
he converses, on the subject. In another letter written about 1237, 

^ ' In die conversionis Sancti Pauli ; ' then Archdeacon of Leicester, an office 

Mon. Franc. I, 15. which he resigned in 1231. 

2 'Fuit autem tunc socius Magistri ^ Mon. Franc. I, 16. 

Adae de Marisco et ad robas suas;' ^ Ibid. 15. 

ibid. ^ Ibid. 16. See Grosseteste, Epistolae, Nos. I, 

* Letter II (pp 17-21) : Grostete was XXXVHI, and p. 449. 

N 2 



[Ch. III. 

Grostete mentions having heard of Friar Ernulphus, papal peni- 
tentiary, from 'Friar Adam Rufus of good memory/ formerly his 
beloved pupil and friend. It may be inferred from his connexion with 
Grostete and Ernulphus or Arnulfus, Vicar of the Order of Minorites \ 
that the Order which he entered was that of the Franciscans. 

Henry de Reresby, who entered the Order abroad, was vicar of 
the custodian of Oxford about 1235 or before. He was made first 
provincial of Scotland by Elias, but died before he could enter on his 
duties^. According to Leland's notes from Eccleston he died at 
Leicester ; according to another account, at Acre in Norfolk ^. After 
his death he appeared to the custodian of Oxford, and said that, 

* if the friars were not damned for excess in buildings, they would at any 
rate be severely punished,' and added, ' if the friars said the divine service 
well, they would be the sheep of the Apostles 

Walter, a canon of Dunstable, and John, a novice of the same 
priory, escaped from their house through a broken window and joined 
the Franciscans at Oxford in 1233. Walter afterwards returned with 
three Minorites to the Chapter of Dunstable, seeking absolution. 
After submitting to corporal punishment, he was absolved ; he was 
further ordered to restore the books and clothes (^quaternos et pannos) 
which he had taken with him, and to deliberate for a year — i.e. during 
his noviciate — whether the discipline of the Order which he had 
entered was more severe than that of the Order he had left ; if it were 
so, he was to remain a Minorite ; if not, he was to return to Dunstable. 
John was found by the Prior of Dunstable at London and similarly 
absolved : he afterwards went to Rome ^. 

John of Reading, who became Abbat of Osney in 1229 ^ joined 
the Minorites in 1235, probably at Northampton He is probably the 
Abbat to whom Bartholomew of Pisa refers as having assisted with 
his own hands at the building of the Franciscan Church at Oxford ^. 
He was certainly at Oxford about 1250, when Adam Marsh wrote 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 45, 47. * lb. 25, 32. 

^ Ibid. 549, cf. p. 32 : 'Fratrem 
Albertum in loco Leycestriae . . . rece- 
pit.' Leland's notes are from the 
Phillipps MS. of Eccleston, which differs 
in some respects from the Cotton and 
York MSS. But Phillipps MS. fol. 74 
adds in a marginal note in an old hand, 
' obiit autem in Acria, plenus dierum.' 

* Ibid. 25. 

' Annals of Dunstable, anno 1233 

(Ann. Monast. Ill, 133-4). 

® Annals of Osney, p. 70 (Ann. 
Monast. Vol. IV) 

' Ibid. 82 ; cf. Mon. Franc. I, 16. 
M. Paris under the year 1241 writes, 
*the Abbat of Osney smitten with 
pusillanimity of mind, left the Order of 
the great doctor Augustine and migrated 
to the Order of Minors, wishing to try 
the novelty ; ' IV, 163. 

" Liber Conform, fol. 79 b. 


to the Provincial that he was in ill-health and requested that Friar 
Adam de Bechesoueres, the physician of the Order, might be sent to 
Oxford to attend him^. Another ' Frater Johannes AngHcus de Redingis' 
was Visitor of Germany in 1229, and Minister of Saxony 1230-1232 ^. 

Albert of Pisa did not, as stated by Bartholomew of Pisa and 
others, accompany Agnellus to England. He was (according to 
Eccleston) Minister of Hungary, Germany (1223-1227), Bologna, the 
March of Ancona, the March of Treviso, Tuscany, perhaps of Spain 
in 1227 ^. He was one of the three recommended by Agnellus as fit 
persons to succeed him as Provincial of England, but he was not 
appointed by Elias till almost a year after the death of the first 
Minister* (c. 1236). He reached England on December 13, and 
celebrated a Provincial Chapter at Oxford on February 2 ^. On 
another occasion Eccleston tells us — 

* Friar Albert was present at the sermon of a young friar at Oxford ; and 
when the preacher boldly condemned loftiness of buildings and abundance 
of food, he rebuked him for vainglory 

Soon after his arrival, Albert appointed lecturers at London and 
Canterbury though he does not appear to have been a learned man 
himself. His connexion with Oxford was slight, and his acts as 
Provincial can hardly claim a place here. After remaining two years 
and a half in England, he went to Rome to take part in the pro- 
ceedings against EHas^. On the deposition of the latter (May 15, 
1239), Albert was elected Minister General. He died in the same or 
the following year ^ and was buried at Rome 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 320 (letter 178); 
for the date see p. 139, n. 8. 

^ Chronica Fratris Jordani in Anal. 
Franc. I, 17, 18. 

^ Mon, Franc. I, 54 ; Wadding, 
Annales III, 22. The period of his 
ministry in Germany is given by Jordan, 
Anal, Franciscana I, 11, 16 ; the au- 
thority for his ministry in Spain is 
Chronica Anonyma, ibid. 284. 

* Mon. Franc, 1, 53, 54. 

5 Ibid. 55. « Ibid. 60. 

' Ibid, 38, « Ibid. 58, 47. 

^ The list of General Ministers in the 
Reg. Fratrum Minorum London! ae 
states : * Frater Albertus Pisanus fuit 
iyU3 generalis, et ministravit tribus 
annis ; qui prius fuit minister in pro- 
vincia Angliae.' Mon. Franc. I, 553. 
Eccleston mentions no space of time, 

but states that Haymo was made Minis- 
ter of England in the same Chapter in 
which Albert was elected General, that 
he ' ministered one year in England, 
and was afterwards elected General ' 
(ibid. 57, 59). There is no reason to 
suppose that Haymo resigned the Pro- 
vincialate before he became General. 
The early dates in the Registrum are 
untrustworthy. Further, a note to the 
Phillipps MS. of Eccleston (fol. 76, 
dorse) says, in a list of General Minis- 
ters : * quintus fuit frater Albertus de 
Pysis bonus et sanctus homo qui non 
vixit in ministerio nisi sex mensibus et 
migravit ad dominum,' The handwriting 
of the note is about contemporary with 
that of the text. 

1" Mon. Franc. I, 48, 58. 



[Ch. III. 

Ralph of Maidstone, bishop of Hereford 1 234-1 239, resigned his 
see in December, 1239, and was admitted into the Franciscan Order 
by Haymo^ . He took this step in accordance with a vow, made 
perhaps before he became bishop ^. It is uncertain at which convent 
he took the habit. Bartholomew of Pisa states that he helped with 
his own hands to build the church at Oxford ^. It is not improbable 
that he was there for some time. He was a Master of Paris, noted 
for his learning, and was among the ' famous Englishmen ' who left 
Paris owing to the disputes in 1229 and settled at Oxford on the in- 
vitation of Henry III According to a later addition in one of the 
MSS. of Eccleston's Chronicle, he lived five years after assuming the 
habit, staying for the most part in the convent of Gloucester ^. The 
Dunstable Annals state that he was, for a time at any rate, rendered 
incapable by a fall from a rock, but whether this took place before or 
after he became a friar is not quite clear ^. He died at Gloucester 
(c. 1245) ^iid 

* was buried in the choir of the brethren, in the presbytery, on the north 
side under an arch 

A most interesting relic of the friar-bishop is now in the British 
Museum. Royal MS. 3 C. xi, a copy of the New Testament 
with gloss (sec. xiii), belonged to the Friars Minors of Canterbury, 

* ex dono Fratris Radulphi de May dene stane, quondam Episcopi Herefordensis* 

He wrote a Commentary on the Sentences when he was Archdeacon 
of Chester (c. a. d. 1220). This is mentioned in a treatise on 
the Sacraments, ' secundum Mag. R. de Maidinstan archi- 
diaconum Cestrensem super Sententias^ 
MS. London: Gray's Inn, 14, f. 28-32 (sec. xiii). 

William of Nottingham was marked out by nature for a Mendicant 

*He told me,' writes Eccleston, 'that when he was living in his father's 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 58. Eccleston gives obligatus.' Barth. of Pisa, Lib. Con- 

a somewhat confused account of the form. f. 82, loib; an account of the 

vision relating to the event ; the vision vision in consequence of which he 

seems to have appeared to Haymo. See became a Minorite. 
Annals of Tewkesbury (R. S.), sub anno ^ Liber Conform, f. 79 b. 
I239; ^J^d Men. Franc. I, 542 (a. D. * M. Paris, Chron. Majora, III, 168; 

1239). cf. ibid. Ill, 305, Lyte, Oxford, p. 31. 

^ M. Paris, Chron. Majora, IV, 163; ^ Mon. Franc. I, 59, note i. This 

Hist. Angl. II, 374 : * Magister Radul- passage does not occur in the Phillipps 

phus de Madenestane, vir quidem mora- MS, of Eccleston. 
lis ct eliganter literatus, sed ordini " Ann. Monast. Ill, pp. 148, 156, 
Praedicatorum (!) fidci interpositione ' Mon. Franc. I, 59, n. i. 


house and some poor boys came begging alms, he gave them of his bread, 
and received the crust from them, because it seemed to him, that hard 
bread, M^hich was asked for the love of God, was sweeter than the delicate 
bread which he ate and his companions ; and so, to make their bread sweet 
like this, the little boys went and begged in their turn {ab in.'vicem) for the 
love of God 1.' 

William's brother, Augustine, was also a Minorite ; he was first in 
the household of Innocent IV, accompanied the Patriarch of Antioch, 
the pope's nephew, to Syria, and at length became bishop of Laodicea^. 
William himself successfully championed the interests of his Order 
against the Dominicans at the Roman Curia ^. At one period he 
lived for some time in the Franciscan convent at Rome, where, though 
(to quote his own words) 

*the brethren had no pittance except chestnuts, he grew so fat that he 
often blushed 

He acted as vicar for Friar Haymo in England (1239), and in 1240 
was himself 

* elected and confirmed Provincial Minister by those to whom the appoint- 
ment had been entrusted 

He had never held any subordinate office, such as that of custodian or 
warden^. He was a diligent student of the Scriptures, and seems to 
have attended Grostete's lectures at Oxford I As minister, he was 
energetic in furthering the study of theology, and in developing the 
educational organization of the Franciscans in England ^ During his 
ministry, the friary at Oxford was greatly enlarged ^. Evidence of his 
popularity was given in the Chapter held at Oxford by the General 
Minister, John of Parma (c. 1248), when the friars unanimously 
refused to sanction his deposition He was 'absolved' from the 
ministry in the General Chapter of Metz, and sent on behalf of the 
Order to the Pope It was probably in this Chapter, that, with the 
assistance of John Kethene and Gregory de Bosellis, he carried a 
decree ' almost against the whole Chapter,' 

* ut privilegium indultum a Domino Papa de recipienda pecunia per pro- 
curatores penitus destrueretur ; et expositio Regulae secundum dominum 

1 Mon. Franc. I, 72 ; Phillipps MS. ^ Ibid. 59. 
f. 80 b reads pueri for plurimi in ^ Ibid, 
line 3. ^ Ibid. 69. 

2 Mon. Franc. I, 62. ^ Ibid. 38, 69, Part I, chapter v. 

3 See Part I, chapter vi. ^ Part I, chapter ii. 

* *Ut plurimum erubesceret,' Mon. Mon. Franc. I, 68. 

Franc. I, 72. Mon. Franc. I, 70. 


[Ch. III. 

Innocentium, quantum ad ea in quibus laxior esset quam Gregoriana, 

The cause of his deposition is unknown, but the event excited 
the displeasure of the English friars, who called a Provincial 
Chapter and unanimously re-elected him^. A letter from Adam 
Marsh, congratulating him on this second election and urging him 
not to decline the office is extant^. But William of Nottingham 
was already dead. When he reached Genoa on his mission to the 
Pope, his socius, Friar Richard, was struck down by the plague ; 

* while others fled, he remained to comfort his companion, and like him he 
was struck down and died 

The date of the Chapter of Metz, and consequently of William's death, 
is not quite certain ; it was probably in the spring or early summer of 
1251 ^. A few extracts from the chronicle of Eccleston (who knew 
him personally) will illustrate the character of the man. 

He sat very long in meditation after matins, and was unwilling to attend 
to confessions and consultations at night, as his predecessors had done. . . . 
Above all things, he was careful to avoid the vice of suspicion. Familiarities 
of great persons and of women he most studiously avoided, and, with 
wonderful magnanimity, thought nothing of incurring the anger of the 
powerful for the sake of justice. He used to say that great persons entrap 
those familiar with them by their advice, and women with their mendacity 
and malice turn the heads even of the devout by their flatteries. He 
studied with all diligence to restore the good name of those who were 
defamed, provided that he thought them penitent, and to comfort the 
hearts of the desolate, especially of those who held offices in the Order ^ 

He represented the tendency to a less strict interpretation of the Rule in 
regard to money than had hitherto obtained in England, holding that— 

' the friars might in a hundred cases lawfully contract debts, and might with 
their own hands dispense the money of others in alms. He said further 
that it was right after a visitation to amuse oneself a little in order to 
distract the mind from what one had heard ' .' 

' Mon. Franc. T, 32. Eccleston says 
this took place in the Chapter of Genoa, 
i.e. either 1244, or 1254. But the 
letter of Innocent IV here referred to 
was published on Nov. 14, 1245 ; while 
W, of Nottingham and Elias, who was 
also mentioned {ibid.), were dead before 
1254: see Ehrle, Archiv fUr Litt. u. 
Ki'rch. Gesch. Vol. VI, p. 31, n.6. The 
declaration of the rule by Gregory IX 
{ Quo elongaii) is given in Wadding II, 

244 : that by Innocent IV, ibid. Ill, 

I 2Q. 

2 Ibid. 70, 303. 
' Ibid. 373. 
* Ibid. 70. 
English Historical Review for Oct. 

Mon. Franc. I, 70. 
''Ibid. 71. Cf. declaration of the 
Rule by Innocent IV, on debts ; Wad- 
ding, III; I 29-130. 


The following story may be regarded as an instance of his cynicism or 
knowledge of human nature : — 

* He used to narrate that St. Stephen, the founder of the Order of 
Grammont, placed a chest in a secret and safe place, and forbade anyone 
to go near it during his life. The brethren were very inquisitive, and 
after his death could not refrain from breaking it open, and they found 
only a piece of parchment with the words ; Brother Stephen salutes his 
brethren and prays them to guard themselves from the laity. For just as 
you held the chest in honour, as long as you did not know what was in it, 
so they will hold you in honour \* 

That the well-known Commentary on the Gospels, called also Unum 
ex quatuor, or De concordia evangelistarum^ by Friar William of 
Nottingham, was by this Wilham, and not by his namesake, the 
seventeenth provincial of the Enghsh Minorites ^, is proved by Eccle- 
ston's words (Mon. Franc. I, p. 70) — 

* . . . . Verba Sancti Evangelii devotissime recolebat ; unde et super unum 
ex quatuor Clementinis (Phillipps MS. f. 80 reads dementis) canones 
perutiles compilavit, et expositionem quam idem Clemens fecit complete 
scribi in ordine procuravit.' 

The commentary was founded on the work of Clement of Langthon ^, 
and the number of MSS. of it still in existence attest its popularity in 
the Middle Ages. 

The work comprised 12 parts. Inc. 'Da mihi intellectum.' 
MSS. Brit. Museum: Royal 4 E ii. (a.d. 1381); readers are asked to 
pray ' pro anima Fratris Willielmi de Notingham, qui studio 
laborioso predictam Expositionem ex variis compilavit.' 
Oxford: — Bodl. : Laud. Misc. 165 (sec. xiv ineuntis), Balliol Coll. 33 
(sec. xiv exeuntis). Merton Coll. 156 and 157 (sec. xiv). Mag- 
dalen Coll. 160 (sec. xv). St. John's Coll. 2 (sec. xv). 
Cf. Merton Coll. 68,fol. 121 (sec. xv), ' Questiones quas movet Notyng- 
ham in scripto suo super evangelia extracte secundum ordinem 
alphabeticum per Mag. Joh. Wykham.' Inc. 'Abel. Queritur 
super : ' Lincoln Coll. 78 (sec. xv), a similar work : Inc. 'Abraham. 
Queritur super illo dicto.' 

Comment, in Longobardum, perhaps by the other W. of Nottingham. 
Mentioned in the Catalogue of Illustrious Franciscans (Leland, 

A. of Hereford (c. 1248) was assigned by the Provincial to Adam 
Marsh as his secretary. Adam thought him too able a man to be kept 

1 Mon. Franc. I, 59. ^ Tanner, Bibl. 183. MSS. Oxford, 

= To whom it is attributed by the St. John's Coll. 2, prologue ; Mag. Coll. 

Reg. Krat. Minorum Lond. Mon. Franc. 160 in cake (see Coxe's Catalogues); 

I, 538f and Brit. Mus. Royal MS. 4 E, ii. 



[ch. nr. 

in this subordinate position ; his learning and eloquence marked him 
out for a teacher and preacher ; many of those appointed by the Pro- 
vincial Chapter to lecture on theology were far inferior to him. In 
addition to this his health would not stand the constant strain to which 
the secretary of the indefatigable doctor was necessarily subjected. 
Adam therefore requested the Provincial to send him to London to 
pursue his studies, as A. of Hereford himself desired ^ 

Laurence de Sutthon was the friar whom Adam Marsh suggested 
to the Provincial as A. of Hereford's successor. A ' Friar Laurence ' 
was with Adam in 1249, and the latter wrote to Thomas of York, 
probably after 1250 : 

* Friar Laurence sends you the books of the mother of philosophy (?) for 
which you sent^.' 

Hugo de Lyndun seems to have been a weak brother at Oxford 
— weak in mind and body — whom Adam Marsh took under his 
especial care (c. 1253) ^ 

John of Beverley was a friar at Oxford when Martin was warden, 
and was known to Adam Marsh. Friar Thomas of York laboured 
for the salvation of the father of this J. of Beverley 

Gregory de Bosellis was the first lecturer to the friars at 
Leicester ° (c. 1240 ?). He was at the General Chapter of Genoa (1244) 
or Metz when he supported W. of Nottingham, Minister of England^; 
and he was Vicar of the Province at the time of the same Minister's 
death He was with the Earl and Countess of Leicester in Gascony^, 
and went to the papal court with the Archbishop of Canterbury 
in 1250% when the rules of the Order against riding on horseback 
were relaxed in his favour He had studied at some University, 
probably at Oxford, and was capable of filHng Adam Marsh's place as 
lecturer to the friars there, though it does not appear whether he ever 
actually did so". 

Thomas of Maydenstan, an invahd novice at Oxford, c. 1253; 

' Mon. Franc. I, 314-5. ' Ibid. 307, 368, 380. 

2 Ibid. 315, 374, 395- ' Ibid. 

3 Ibid. 360, 364 : ' Cui me spirituali- Ibid. 369. Cf. Bodl. Tanner MS. 

ter inter mortales teneri fateor.' 
* Ibid. 317, 393. 

5 Ibid. 38. 
* Ibid. 32. 
' Ibid. 70. 

223, f. 161, a license from Innocent IV 
to the Friars accompanying the Arch- 
bishop, ' equitare et subtelares et capas 
portare,' Aug. 2, 1249. 

^' Mon. Franc. I, 380. 


Adam Marsh hearing a rumour that he was to be sent away from 
Oxford begged the Minister to let him remain, 

* as it is believed that his removal would do injury to the souls of several 
persons of whose conversion no slight hope is entertained.' 

The brethren at Oxford joined in the request \ 

Thomas Bachun of the Convent of Nottingham was recommended 
by Adam Marsh as a suitable person to act as private secretary or 
amanuensis to Friar Richard of Cornwall, when the latter was about 
to proceed to Paris, 1252. It is however uncertain whether he was 
appointed or whether he studied at Oxford I 

Adam de Bechesoueres or Hekeshovre ^ occurs several times 
in Adam Marsh's letters as the chief physician among the early 
Enghsh friars. Thus at one time Adam writes to John of Stamford, 
custodian of Oxford, requesting him to allow a poor sick scholar 
named Ralph of Multon, a friend of the writer s, to consult Friar 
A. de Bechesoueres, who has already done him good. The famous 
Walter de Merton went to him once with a letter of introduction from 
Adam Marsh. He was wanted again at Oxford to attend Friar John 
of Reading, formerly Abbat of Osney. Adam Marsh recommended 
Grostete to consult him about his health. At another time we hear 
of him going to the General Minister in France, with a ' supplicatory 
letter ' from Adam Marsh ; 

*he promised,' adds the latter in a letter to the English Provincial, *to 
return to England soon and humbly submit in all things to the regular 

N. of Anivers, Anilyeres or Aynelers, a youth of ability, fair 
learning and great promise, was ordered by the Minister General to 
go to France, probably about the year 1248. Adam Marsh, anxious 
that the best should be done both for the young friar and the Order, 
after consultation with Peter of Tewkesbury, custodian of Oxford, 
obtained leave from the Provincials of England and France for him to 
stay for a year or two in England, the consent of the General being 
also secured : 

* it is thought,' adds Adam in his letter to the Minister of France, * that he 
will at present find the requisite helps to the successful study of letters 
more easily obtainable in England than anywhere else.' 

N. de Anivers was therefore allowed to spend a year in theological 

* Mon. Franc. I, 357-8. 
2 Ib/d. 349. 

Ibid, 137, 320, 333, 388, 405. 



[Ch. III. 

study at Oxford, Cambridge or London. Adam Marsh maintained 
his interest in his welfare, and, after the year was over, requested the 
Minister of France to allow him to continue his studies in England 
up to the ensuing Pentecost : it is probable that he was a pupil of 
Adam's at Oxford ^ 

William of Pokelington (Yorkshire) entered the Order about 
1250 and made his profession at Oxford in 1251^. He was then 
a master. Shortly before this he had been ill and perhaps took the 
vows on his recovery ^. He was an intimate friend of Adam Marsh 
and at one period acted as his secretary ^ Adam employed him 
several times as messenger to Grostete ^, who had a high opinion of 
him and liked to have him as a companion ^. 

Walter de Madele, Maddele or Maddeley studied in the 
Franciscan Convent at Oxford (c. 1235 seq.). While here, he 
ventured to disregard the custom which forbade the friars to wear 

' It happened,' says Eccleston'^, 'that he found two shoes, and when he 
went to Matins, he put them on. He stood therefore at Matins, feeling 
unusually self-satisfied. But afterwards when he was in bed, he dreamt 
that he had to go through a dangerous pass between Oxford and Gloucester 
called " bqysaliz " (?), which was infested by robbers ; and when he was 
descending into a deep valley, they rushed at him from both sides, shouting, 
" Kill him ! " In great terror he said that he was a Friar Minor. " You lie," 
they cried, " for you do not go barefoot ;" and when he put out his foot 
confidently, he found that he was wearing those same shoes : and starting 
in confusion from sleep, he threw the shoes into the middle of the court- 

Walter was ' soa'us ' or secretary to Agnellus and was at Oxford at 
the time of the latter's death (1235)^. Later he was in Germany 
with Peter of Tewkesbury, minister of Cologne, and returned to 
England in 1249 with Friar Paulinus, perhaps a German, in obedience 
to Peter ^. He enjoyed a considerable reputation as a theologian and 
was lecturer at a Franciscan Convent. Adam Marsh once sent for 
him to come and see him at Oxford. 

' I conferred with him as you desired,' he writes to the Provincial 
' about investigating the meaning of Holy Scripture in the original books of 

' Mon. Franc. I, Letters clxxv, ccxiv, ^ Ibid. 133, 137. 

ccxv. He may have been a Frenchman ^ Ibid. 103, 118. 

by birth. ' Ibid. I, 28. 

Ibid. 118. 
Ibid. 229. 
* Ibid. 133. 

' Ibid. 53. 
» Ibid. 308. 
Ibid. 353 5. 


the saints, and he professed himself very ready to do this or anything else 
which you thought fit to enjoin on him.' 

This was not the only subject discussed at the interview. The 
EngKsh Minister suspected Walter of a desire to go abroad and of 
having obtained from the General the promise of a lectureship in 
some foreign convent or University. The Provincial had indeed just 
received an order from the General to send some English friars to 
teach at Paris, and perhaps Madele's name was mentioned. Madele 
however denied the imputation, and Adam recommended the Pro- 
vincial to keep him in England, sending other friars to Paris, and to 
remedy his grievances. Though he had long taught theology with 
success, no competent provision had been made for him ; he had not 
only to exhaust his mind by studies but also to wear out his body by 
writing daily with his own hand, as he lacked the ' great volumes and 
the assistance of companions,' which had been provided for his 
predecessors in the office. Eccleston refers to him as dead when he 
wrote his chronicled None of Madele's writings^ have been pre- 

Qc. of St. Edmund : Adam Marsh wrote to the Provincial (W. 
of Nottingham) on behalf of Martin the warden and the other friars 
at Oxford, requesting him to order without delay 

* that Friar G. de Sancto Eadmundo be restored to the convent of friars at 
Oxford 3; 

TlLomas of Eccleston, the earliest historian of the Franciscan 
Order in England, was probably a native of Lancashire All that is 
known of him is contained in his Chronicle. He was an inmate of 
the London Convent when William of Nottingham was minister 
(i 240-1 250), and speaks from his own experience of the poverty and 
hard fare of the brethren there ^. He was a student at Oxford in the 
lifetime of Grostete, whether before or after the latter became 
bishop is not clear ^. He knew the earliest converts to the Order in 
England, and enjoyed the intimacy of William of Nottingham"^. His 
history is dedicated to Friar Simon of Esseby — perhaps Ashby in 
Norfolk or Lincolnshire ^. In the preface he states that he had been 

^ Mon. Franc. 28. 

^ Ibid. 355, 'in scriptis et eloquiis 
tarn fratribus quam saeciilaribus utilis 
et acceptus.' 

3 Ibid. 364. 

* Lewis, Topog. Diet. Cf. Mon. 
Franc. I, Ixvi. The name Eccleston 

occurs in the title of the York MS., 
Mon. Franc. I, p. i. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, p. 9; cf. 17. 

« Ibid. 39. 

'' Ibid. 10, 13, 71, &c. 
^ Ibid. p. I, p. Ixvi, Jessopp, 'The 
Coming of the Friars.' 


collecting and arranging materials for twenty-five years, and explains 
his object in writing. 

* Every upright man ought to judge his life by the examples of better 
men, because examples strike home more directly than the words of reason.* 
Other Orders have lives of their holy brethren; this Chronicle is 
intended similarly to edify the Franciscans by giving them some 
account of those who have sacrificed their all to enter the Order and 
observe the Rule of St. Francis ^. From this point of view, chrono- 
logy was of little importance, and there is scarcely a date in the 
whole book. It is impossible to give the exact date at which the 
Chronicle was finished; the deaths of William of Nottingham and 
of Innocent IV are mentioned'^; and the work was probably not 
completed before 1260. It is certainly the narrative of a contemporary, 
often of an eye-witness, and, apart from the manifest sincerity of the 
author, the accuracy of the details can in some instances be tested by 
independent and trustworthy authority. To take one example; 
Eccleston's account of the reception of the friars at Cambridge (pp. 
17, 18) may be compared with the following entry in Close Roll 22 
Hen. Ill, m. 12, (June 15 1238): 

Rex ballivis suis de Cantebr' salutem. Sciatis quod concessimus fratribus 
Minoribus de Cantebr' domum illam cum pertinenciis in Cantebr' que fuit 
Magistri Benjamin Judei et quam prius vobis concesseramus ad Gayolam 
nostram (or vestram) inde faciendam, ad clausum domorum predictorum 
fratrum dilatandum, salvis domino feodi serviciis et redditibus ei inde 
debitis. Et idem vobis precipimus quod eisdem fratribus de domo predicta 
plenam saisinam habere faciatis. 

The following MSS. of the Chronicle ^ Be adventu Fratrum 
Minorum in Anglia?n' are extant, all dating from the early fourteenth 

(1) A mutilated MS. in the Chapter Library at York; Brewer's text 
for the earlier portion of the Chronicle is founded on this. 

(2) Brit. Mus.: Cotton Nero A ix was used by Brewer as the guide 

for the later part : this MS. begins with Collatio IX (i. e. Collatio 
Fill in the York MS.). 

(3) A fragment of the earlier portion of the Chronicle is contained in 
a MS. at. Lamport House; this has been printed by Howlett in 
Mon. Franc. II ; it supplies most of the chapters wanting in the 
Cottonian MS., of which it probably formed a part. 

(4) No. 3119 of the MSS. of Sir T. Phillipps (Thirlestaine House, 
Cheltenham), contains the whole Chronicle, though without many 
of the incidents which occur in the York and Cotton MSS. 
Neither Brewer nor Howlett knew of its existence. A short 

' Mon. Franc. T, p. i. 

2 Ibid. 66, 70. 


account of it will be found in ' The English Historical Review,' 
Oct. 1890, p. 754. 
In the same volume of MSS. is the treatise De impugnatione, 
etc., printed in the Appendix C : Bale and Pits ascribe this to 
Eccleston, but without sufficient authority. 

Roger Bacon is said on the authority of John Rous ^ to have been 
born at or near Ilchester in Dorsetshire. He came of a wealthy perhaps 
noble family; he speaks of one brother as rich, of another as a scholar. 
He was probably nephew of Robert Bacon the Dominican. Roger's 
family espoused the royal cause in the Barons' war and suffered great 
losses^. The year 12 14 is usually given as the date of his birth. 
The .date is an inference from the following passage written in 1267 : 

* I have laboured much at sciences and languages, and it is now forty 
years since I first learnt the alphabet; and I was always studious; and 
except for two of those forty years I have always been in studio 

The last phrase probably means * at a University ' or some place of 
study. Boys of ten or twelve years frequently began their education 
at Oxford, and it is hkely that Bacon went there at an early age 
Roger of Wendover relates that Friar Robert Bacon preached before 
the King at Oxford in 1233, and fearlessly rebuked him for hstening 
to evil counsellors, especially Peter des Roches. Matthew Paris gives 
the story with the following addition : 

* a clerk of the court of a pleasant wit, namely, Roger Bacun, ventured to 
make this joke : " My lord King, what is most harmful to men crossing 
a strait, or what makes them most afraid ? " The King replied, " Those 
men know who occupy their business in great waters." " I will tell you,'* 
said the clerk, " Petrae et Rupes ' 

It cannot be regarded as certain that this Roger Bacon was the 

^ Hist. Regum Angl. pp. 29, 82. In 
John Argentein's Loci communes, 
written about 1476 (MS. Ashmole, 1437, 
p. 155) is the note: 'Hie Rogerus fuit 
filius Fugardi, et creditur quod erat 
Rogerus Baconus natus apud Witnam 
juxta Oxoniam.' 

^ Ibid. 82, 'de generosa prosapia.' 
Op. Ined. pp. 13, 16 : ' Misi igitur fratri 
meo diviti in terra mea, qui ex parte 
regis consistens, cum matre mea et fra- 
tribus et tota familia exulavit, et pluries 
hostibus deprehensus se redemit pecunia; 
et ideo destructus et depauperatus, non 
potuit me juvare, nec etiam usque ad 
hunc djem habui responsum ab eo.' Cf. 
ibid. p. ID. 

^ Op. Ined- p. 65. 

* The report that he was edu- 
cated at Brasenose Hall is merely a 
tradition founded on a foolish legend. 
Historical fictions die hard. In 1889, 
Mr. W. L. Courtney writes in the 
Fortnightly Review, Vol. XLVI, p, 
255, R. Bacon 'seems to have been 
educated at Brasenose College in Oxford, 
although Morton College has also laid 
claim to the honour of his youthful 
learning.' Merton College was not 
founded till Roger was advanced in 
years ; Brasenose College was founded 
more than two centuries after his death. 

5 Chron. Majora, IV, 244-5. 



famous friar. The name was not uncommon; e.g. a Roger Bacon, 
a Thomas Bacon, and a Peter Bacon occur in Pat. Roll 3 Edw I. 
On the other hand Roger was certainly in Oxford in or before this 
year. He states that St. Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, lectured 
at Oxford in his time, i.e. Edmund Riche who became Archbishop in 
1233 ^ At this period too, Roger attended Grostete's lectures and 
made the acquaintance of Adam Marsh, for both of whom he always 
retained the greatest admiration. He found in them that sympathy 
with and understanding of his experimental method, which were denied 
him in later life ^. It was doubtless his connexion with these men that 
led Roger to enter the Franciscan Order. When or where this took 
place is unknown : perhaps at Oxford before the death of Grostete. 
He had clearly reached years of discretion when he took the step. 
This may be inferred from his denunciation of those who entered the 
Orders as boys and begun the study of theology before they had been 
grounded in philosophy ^ It is also implied in such passages as 
these : 

'When I was in another state, I wrote nothing on philosophy.' 'Men 
used to wonder before I became a friar that I lived owing to such exces- 
sive labour 

He began his studies on positive science before 1250 ^ and had by 
1267 spent more than 2,000 librae^. 

* on secret books and various experiments and languages and instruments 
and tables.' 

It is not necessary to assume that this sum was expended before he 
joined the Franciscan Order ; he could, and undoubtedly did, obtain 
money by begging to carry on his experiments Roger left Oxford 
for Paris some time before 1245 ; he states that he had seen Alexander 
of Hales with his own eyes ^ and he heard William of Auvergne 

1 Comp. Stud. Theol. Royal MS. 7, f. 
vii, f. 154 (quoted in Charles, p. 412 ; 
Brewer, p. Iv). The origin of the tra- 
dition that Roger wrote a life of St. 
Edmund seems to be a passage in M. 
Paris, Chron. Maj. V, 369, where the 
historian says that he was supplied with 
details for the life of St. Edmund by 
Robert Bacon. The confusion between 
the two Bacons is continually recurring. 
Even in Luard's edition of Grostete's 
Letters there is an unfortunate misprint ; 
on p. 65 Roger Bacon should be Robert. 

Op. Ined. pp. 70, 75, 82, 88, 91, 
186-7, .^29, 42S, 472, 474. 

3 Ibid. 327, 425. 
* Ibid. 13, 65. 

^ Ibid. 59; he writes in 1267, 'Nam 
per viginti annos quibus specialiter 
laboravi in studio sapientiae, neglecto 
sensu vulgi,' &c. 

® Ibid. : this seems almost incredible ; 
the Parisian libra at this time appears, 
from Paucton and Le Blanc, to have 
been a sum of 20 solidi, not (as Plumptre 
asserts) ' a silver coin about the size of 
the more modem franc' 
See Part I, chapter vii. 

" Op. Ined. 325. A. of Hales died 


dispute on the Intellectus Agens before the whole University : William 
died in 1248 ^ Roger was in France in 1250 when he saw the chief 
of the Pastoureaux, and remarked that 

* he carried in his hand something as though it were sacred, as a man 
carries relics 2.* 

He is said by Rous to have been made D.D. of Paris and to have been 
incorporated as D.D, at Oxford^. When he returned to Oxford is 
unknown; probably soon after 1250. He must have lectured at this 
time; he won some fame, as he says himself*, but without doubt made 
many enemies. About the year 1257 or 1258 — when Adam Marsh 
could no longer protect his great pupil — Roger was exiled from Eng- 
land and kept under strict supervision in Paris for ten years ^ In 
1263 he wrote an astronomical treatise called Computus Naturalium ^ 
Soon after this, a clerk named Raymund of Laon mentioned Bacon's 
name to the Cardinal Bishop of Sabina and roused the latter's interest 
in his discoveries'^. Bacon sent a letter in reply to the Cardinal's 
communication : this has not been preserved. In 1265 the Cardinal 
became Pope Clement IV. On 22nd of June 1266, Clement 
wrote requesting Roger to send him a fair copy of the work which 
Raymond had mentioned, setting forth the remedies he proposed, 
' circa ilia, quae nuper occasione tanti discriminis iniimasti ; ' the friar was 
to do this, in spite of any constitution of his Order to the contrary, 
secretly and without delay ^ The Pope's supposition that the work 
was already written was erroneous ; 

*for,' writes Roger ^, 'whilst I was in a different state of life, I had 
written nothing on science ; nor in my present condition had I ever been 
required to do so by my superiors; nay, a strict prohibition has been 
passed to the contrary, under penalty of forfeiture of the book, and many 

* Charles, p. 10 ; Op. Ined. p. 74. That his name should be suppressed is 
^ Opus Majus, p. 190 (edition of not to be wondered at. (The Reg, of 

1750). Friars Minors at London adds after the 

^ Hist, Reg. Angl. p. 82. name of John of Parma, General Minis- 

* Op. Ined. p. 7, 'famam studii quam ter, 1247-1256 : * Hie etiam scripsit 
retroactis temporibus obtinui.' His fratri Rogero Bakon tractatum qui in- 
name does not occur in the list of cipit, Innominato magistro." ' This 
masters of the Friars Minors at Oxford ; treatise usually ascribed to Bonaventura 
a note appended to that list says, that is really addressed to a secular.) 

* according to other chronicles the fourth * Op. Ined. p. 7 ; Charles, 24-25. 
master is not mentioned here nor have I ® See below. 

elsewhere found his name.' Mon. Franc. ' Op. Ined. p. xiv, seq. 
I, 552^ Phillipps MS. 3119, fol. 76. ^ Ibid. p. i. 
May not this have been Roger Bacon ? ^ Ibid. p. 1 3. 



[Ch. ni. 

days' fasting on bread and water, if any book written by us (i.e, the 
Franciscans) should be communicated to strangers 

However, although the book was not yet written, and notwithstanding 
endless difficulties, want of money, want of mathematical and other 
instruments and tables, the restrictions of the Rule, jealousy of his 
superiors and brethren who, he says, 

*kept me on bread and water, suffering no one to have access to me, 
fearful lest my writings should be divulged to any other than the Pope and 
themselves ^ ' — 

the Opus Majus, the Opus Minus, and the Opus Tertium, were sent 
to the Pope within fifteen or eighteen months after the arrival of the 
papal mandate ^. ' Such a feat ' says Brewer, ' is unparalleled in the 
annals of literature.' The Pope probably used his influence in behalf 
of Roger, as the latter seems to have returned to England about this 
time and to have been freed from annoyance ^ The works sent to 
Clement he regarded merely as handbooks ; at the same time that he was 
writing them, he was engaged on a larger work which was to embrace 
the whole range of sciences as then understood ^. He was working 
at this in 1271 ^ His attacks on all classes, including his own Order, 
became even more violent than hitherto. In 1277 and 1278 synods 
were held at Paris and Oxford to condemn erroneous doctrines. The 
repressive movement extended to the Franciscans; in 1278, Jerome of 
Ascoli, the Minister General, held a Chapter at Paris, and among other 
friars Roger Bacon was condemned ^propter quasdam novitates He 
is believed to have remained in prison for fourteen years. Jerome of 
Ascoli, who became Pope Nicholas IV in 1288, died in 1292. Ray- 
mond Gaufredi, a man of liberal views, was elected General in 1289, 
and released many friars who had been imprisoned for their opinions 
by his predecessors. In 1292 he held a General Chapter at Paris, and 
it is probable that among the friars here set free was Roger Bacon ^ 

* This statute was included in the 
Constitutiones Gene^^ales, passed in the 
General Chapter of Narbonne, 1260; 
the fast imposed was of three days* dura- 
tion; Archiv f. L. u. K. Gesch. d. Mit- 
telalters, Vol. VI, p. no. 

^ Op. Ined. p, xciv, from Wood's 
Antiquitates (said to be taken from the 
Opus Minus). 

^ Op. Ined. p. xlvi. Bacon's diffi- 
culties are fully described in Brewer's 

* Charles, p. 35. 

^ See below ; and Brewer, Op. Ined. 
xlviii, seq. 

^ Op. Ined. p. Iv. 

' Charles, 36-7 ; Wadding, II, 449. 
No record or contemporary account of 
the trial remains. 

® This tradition receives some support 
from a note appended to the Verhum 
abbreviattim of Raymund Gaufredi, 
Sloane MS. 276 (sec. xiv), printed in 
Sanioris Medicmae . . . de arte chymiae. 


It is certain that the last work of Roger's of which we have any notice 
was written in 1292 \ The date usually assigned for his death (1294) 
is a pure conjecture ^. John Rous says that he was buried among the 
Friars Minors at Oxford ^ 

Such then is the chronological outline of his life, as far as it can be 
ascertained. A list of his works will be more useful than a short 
account of his character or philosophy. 

Roger Bacon's Works were neglected and regarded with a pious 
horror in the Middle Ages The result is that many of these which 
have survived at all have reached us in a fragmentary state. 'It is easier/ 
said Leland, ' to collect the leaves of the Sibyl than the titles of the 
works written by Roger Bacon/ The difficulty has to a considerable 
extent been removed by Mr. Brewer's valuable preface to the Opera 
Inedtta, and by the labours of M. Charles. The following account 
of Roger Bacon's works is based chiefly on these two writers. Some 
additions have been made and some rearrangement attempted. 
Miscellaneous works, lectures, &c., probably early : — 
Computus naiuralium, an astronomical treatise, is the earliest work 
of Bacon's to which a date can be assigned ; it was written 
A. D. 1263-4. Inc. 'Omnia tempus habent.' 
MSS. British Museum: Royal 7 F viii. fol. 99-191 (sec. xili). 
Oxford : University College, 48. 
Douai 691, § 2, 
Summary printed by Charles, Roger Bacon, pp. 355-8. 

8ic., Frankfurt, 1603, p. 285 : ' Et ipse calls the accuracy of this statement in 

Rogerus propter istud opus ex praecepto question, Op. Majus, p. xi (ed. 1750)- 

dicti Reymundi a fratribus ejusdem ordi- Bacon's influence however on his age 

nis erat captus et imprisonatus. Sed was slight: 'not a doctor of the 13th 

Reymundus exsolvit Rogerum a carcere or 14th century,' says Charles, p. 42, 

quia docuit eum istud opus.' Cf. ibid. * quotes Bacon ; not one combats or 

p. 265, and Sloane MS. 692, f. 46. approves his opinions.' In an anony- 

^ Namely, Compendium studii theo- mous treatise, De remperatione sanciae 

logiae. Terrae, addressed to Edward III, c. 

^ In Royal MS. 13 C i, fol. 152, is 1370, the author recommends the study 

the following note in a hand of the 1 5th of mathematics, * propter plures earum 

or i6th century: 'Anno Christi 1292 in utilitates, praecipuetactas in libello super 

festo Sancti Barnabe (June 1 1) obiit titilitatibus hujusmodi confecto per fra- 

Rogerus Bacon professor theologie et trem Rogerum Bacon de ordine Mi- 

quasi eruditus ut magister in octo scien- norum ; ' printed in Bongars, Orientalis 

ciis liberalibus ubi alii clerici non posue- Hist. Tom. Secund. (1611), p. 339. 

runt prefer vii sciencie' (' scie' in MS.). W. Woodford refers to his 'curious 

^ Hist. Reg. Angl. p. 29. hook,'' De retardatione se7tecHiHs,Bro\f n, 

* John Twyne says that the friars at Ease. Rerum, Vol. I, p. 197. Some of his 
Oxford fastened all his works with long contemporaries, such as Bungay, Peck- 
nails tio the shelves of their library and ham, William de Mara, seem to have 
let them rot there. Jebb reasonably been more generally influenced by him 

0 2 



[Ch. III. 

De iermino Paschali^ an earlier work, to which Bacon refers in the 

Computus naturalium', (Charles, p. 78). 
Questions on Aristotle's physics. 

MS. Amiens 406, f. 1-25; cf. MS. Bodl. Digby 150, fol. 42 (sec. xiii), 
* Summa Baconis.' 
Quaestiones super librum physicorum a magistro dido Bacon. 

MS. Amiens 406, fol. 26-73. 
De vegetabilibus (gloss on this work then attributed to Aristotle). 

MS. Amiens 406 (intercalated in the preceding work). 
In Aristotelis Metaphysica. 

MS. Amiens 406, fol. 74. 
Tractatus ad declaranda quaedam obscure dicta in libro Secreti Secre- 
torum Aristotelis. Inc. ' Propter multa in hoc libro contenta 
qui liber dicitur Secretum Secretorum Aristotehs sive Hber de 
regimine principum/ 
MS. Bodl.: Tanner 116, fol. i (sec. xiii exeuntis) ; the same MS. fol. 
16, contains Aristotle's supposititious Secretum Secretorum 'cum 
glossa interlineari et notis Rogeri Bacon.' 

Questiones naturales mathematice asironomice, Sec. ' Expliciunt repro- 
bationes Rogeri Baconis.' 
MS. Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 16089, f* 93 (s^^* xiii-xiv). 
Bacon in Meteora. Inc. ' Cum ad noticiam impressionum habendam.' 

MS. Bodleian: Digby 190, fol. 38 (sec. xiv ineuntis). 
Processus fratris Rogeri Bacon . . . de invencione cogiiacionis (astro- 
logical fragment). Inc. ' Notandum quod in omni judicio 
quatuor sunt inquirenda, scil. natura planetae.' 
MS. Bodl.: Digby 72, fol. 49 b, 50 (sec. xiv-xv). 
De somno et vigilia. 

MSS. Bodl. : Digby 190, f. 77 : Inc. ' De somno et vigilia pertractantes, 
Perypateticorum sentenciam potissime sequemur.' 
Cambridge : — Publ. Library li, vi. 5, fol. 85 b-88 (sec. xiii). Inc. 
' Sompnus ergo et vigilia describuntur multis modis.' 

Logic : — 

Sumniulae Dialectices, an elementary treatise on logic, characterised 
by Charles, who expresses a doubt as to its authenticity, as 
very dry, unimportant, and intended for lecturing purposes. 
I71C. ' Introductio est brevis et apta demonstratio.' * Expliciunt 
sumule magistri Roberti {sic) Baccun.' 
MS. Bodl.: Digby 205, f. 48 (sec. xiv). 
Syncategoremata. Inc. ' Partium orationis quaedam sunt declinabiles.' 
MS. Bodl.: Digby 204, fol. 88 (sec. xiv). 


Summa de sophismatibus et distinciionibus. Inc. ' Potest queri de 
difficultatibus accidentibus.' 
MS. Bodl. : Digby 67, fol. 117 (sec. xiii) ; fragment. 
Tradatus de signis logicalibus. Inc. ' Signum est in predicamento 
MS. Bodl.: Digby 55, fol. 228 (sec. xiii). 

Opus Majus, written a. d. 12 66-1 267; 7 parts. Inc. ' Sapientiae 
perfecta consideratio consistit in duobus/ 
MSS. of the whole work: Oxford: — Bodl. Digby 235 (sec. xv and 

Dublin: — Trinity Coll. 81 ( = 221); a transcript of this is in 

Trinity Coll. Cambridge. 
Paris: — Bibl. Mazarine 3488 (sec. xviii). 

Rome: — Vatican 4086 (Montfaucon's Catal. p. 114), ' Rogerii 
Baconi causae universales in septem partes distinctae ' ; pro- 
bably the Opus Majus. 

Parts I-VI edited by Jebb, 1733 : reprinted at Venice 1750. 

The parts often occur separately. 

I. On the four causes of human ignorance: authority, custom, popular 

opinion, and the pride of supposed knowledge. 
MS. Brit. Museum: Cott. Jul. F vii. fol. 186. 

II. On the causes of perfect wisdom in Holy Scripture, or. On the dignity 

of philosophy. 

III. On the usefulness of grammar. 

This part, Charles points out (p. 62), is not perfect in Jebb's edition: 
see Opus Tertium, cap. XXVI, XXVII. 

IV. On the usefulness of mathematics. 

MSS. London: — British Museum: Cotton, Tib. C. V. (sec. xiv); 

Julius D. V. ' De utilitate scientiarum ' ; Julius F vii. fol. 
178 (sec. xv), * Declaratio eifectus verae mathematicae.' And 
fol. 180, *Demoribus hominum secundum complexiones et 

Royal 7 F vii, p. i (sec. xiii), * Pars quarta compendii studii 
theologiae'; pp. 82-125, ' Descriptiones locorum'; pp. 133- 
140, ' De utilitate astronomiae,' or ' Tractatus de corporibus 

Sloane 2629, f. 17, * De utilitate astronomiae.' 

Also Lambeth Palace Library 200 (sec. xv), ' De arte mathe- 


Oxford: — Bodl. E Musaeo 155, p. 185 (sec. xv ineuntis), 'Pars 
quarta in qua ostendit potestatem mathematicae in scien- 
tiis et rebus et occupationibus hujus mundi.' Univ. Coll. 49 
4 (sec. xvii). 


[Ch. III. 

Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 7455 A (sec. xv), *De utilitatibus scientiae 

mathematicae verae.' 
Cf. Bodl. : Digby 218, f. 98 (sec. xiii-xiv). 
Printed, except the last two chapters, by Combach, Frankfurt 16 14, 
under the title : ' Specula Mathematica in quibus de specierum 
multiplicatione . . . agitur,' &c. 

V. Perspective and Optics. 

MSS. London: — Brit. Mus. : Royal 7 F vii. p. 125 (sec. xiii), 'De 
visu et speculis ' ; 7 F viii. f. 47 (sec. xiii), ' Perspectiva 
quedam singularis,' ' Perspectiva R. Bacon, liber secundus.' 
Sloane 2156, f. i (a.d. 1428), and 2542 (sec, xv) : Addit. 8786, 
f. 84, ' Incipit tractatus de modis videndi.' 
Oxford: — Bodl. Digby 77 (sec. xiv) and 91 (sec. xvi). 
Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 2598, f. 57 (sec. xv). 
Venice : — St. Mark, Classis XI, Cod. 10 (sec. xiv). 
Rome: — Vatican (Cod. Lat.) 828, f. 49 (a.d. 1349). 
Printed by Combach, Frankfurt 1614, under the title, ' Rogerii Baconis 
Angli . . . Perspectiva.' 

VI. Experimental Science. 

MSS. Brit. Mus. : Sloane 2629 (sec. xvi), extracts. 

Oxford: — Bodl.: Digby 235, p. 389; Canon. Misc, 334, fol. 53, 
* Alius tractatus ejusdem Fratris Rogeri extractus de sexta 
parte compendii studii theologiae.' Univ. Coll. 49. 

VII. Moral Philosophy. Inc. 'Manifestavi in precedentibus quod 

cognitio linguamm.' 
MSS. Brit. Mus.: Royal 8 F ii. f. 167-179 (sec. xv), three parts out 
of six. 

Bodl.: Digby 235, p. 421 ^ 
Omitted in Jebb's edition: extracts printed by Charles, pp. 339-348. 
Printed at Dublin i860 (?) 2. 

Opus Minus, written in 1266-7, was mainly an abstract of the Opus 
Majus with some additions on the state of scholasticism, on 
alchemy practical and speculative, and on astronomy. Charles 
gives the following description of it. It consisted of 6 parts : 
i. Introduction or dedicatory letter; ii. Pracdcal alchemy; iii. 
Explanation of the Opus Majus ; the order of the sciences inverted, 
i. e. they were arranged according to their dignity, moral philosophy 
first; iv. Treatise on the seven sins of Theology; v. Speculative 
alchemy, or, De rerum generationibus (see below) ; vi. De Coelestihus. 
Of this work only the fragment edited by Brewer {Opera Ined. 

* Cf. MS, Sloane 2629, f 54 b; inc. 
•Moralis philosophia est finis omnium 
Sciinliarum aliaruiii only a few lines. 

2 Charles, Roger Bacon, p. 62, n. 7 : 
I have not seen this edition and can get 
no information about it. 


311-390) from MS. Bodl. Digby 218, has been discovered. This 
includes a few pages of Part ii., all of iii., most of iv., and part of v. 
Wood quotes a passage from the Opus Minus which does not 
occur in this fragment (Opera Ined. xciv. n. i). From this it has 
been assumed that he had access to a MS. of the Opus Minus now 
lost; but the passage is quoted by Leland, and probably copied 
from him by Wood. It may perhaps occur in some other work of 
Bacon's; thus the passage quoted in Op. Ined. pp. xcvii-xcviii, 
from which Brewer argues that ' Wood must have seen some other 
copy of the Opus Minus not now discoverable/ occurs in Brewer's 
edition of the Opus Tert. pp. 272-3. 

Part of the blank on p. 375 is to be filled up from the Opus 
Majus, Pars VI, Exemplumll, where the passage ^Estautem — curabit 
et' occurs, word for word. How much of the Opus Majus was here 
inserted is doubtful ; probably to the end of Exempluni II. Thus MS. 
Bodl. Canonic, Miscell. 334, f. 53, begins with the words, ' Corpora 
vero Adae et Evae^ Opus Minus, p. 373, and leaves off with the 
words, * et alibi multis modis,' which occur at the end of Optcs Majus, 
Pars VI, Exemp. II. 

The last part of the Opus Minus is wholly wanting in Brewer's 
edition. The subject of this part may be gathered from Bacon's 
words in Opus Tert., cap. xxvi (p. 96) : 
* Nunc igitur tangam aliquas radices circa haec quas diligentius exposui in 
Secundo Opere, ubi de coelestibus egi and (p. 99) ' Sed in Opere Minora 
ubi de coelestibus tractavi, exposui magis ista.' 

In Digby MS. 76^ fol. 36 seq. (sec. xiii) is a treatise on this 
subject, forming part of the Physics in the great Compendium 
Philosophiae (see below). It is not improbable, that, before being 
incorporated in this larger work, it formed part of the Opus Minus 
sent to the Pope ; on fol. 42 are the words : 
*et est nunc temporis scilicet anno domini 1266.' 

Opus Tertium, written in 1267 (see Opera Ined. p. 277), 75 chapters. 
MSB. London :— Brit. Mus : Cotton Tiberius C. V. (sec. xiv) ; also 
Lambeth Palace Library, 200 (chapters 1-45). 
Oxford : — Bodl. E Musaeo 155 (sec. xv ineuntis) ; and Univ. 

Coll. 49 (a.d. 1617). 
Cambridge: — Trinity College, MS. Gale (transcript of the 
Cotton MS.). 

Douai, 691 (sec. xvii), wanting chapters 38-52: this MS. has 
been described by Victor Cousin, Journal des Savants for 
1848 (5 articles). 
I'rinted in Bacon's Opera Inedita (Rolls Series), pp. 3-310. 



[Ch. III. 

Charles has been misled by a passage in the work called ' Com- 
vmnia Katuraliuvi ' into thinking that this latter formed part of the 
Opus Terlhim\ Charles, R. Bacon, pp. 65, 83-4 ; his description of 
Opus Tertium is consequently erroneous. The passage is from the 
IMazarine MS. of the Covimunia Naturalium (i.e. No. 3576), 
fol. 85 : 

* Quod est improbatum in secunda parte primi operis, deinde in hoc tertio 
opere explanavi hoc et solvi objectiones.' 

These words refer to Bacon's doctrine that the intelledus agens is 
not part of the soul, but God and angels. This is insisted on in 
the Opus Tertium, cap. xxiii, and it is not likely that Bacon would 
do more than refer to it again casually in the course of the same 
work. The relation of the Opus Tertium to the Commun. Nat. is 
probably as follows : the latter was written or begun first. Bacon 
repeatedly mentions that he was, while writing his three Opera for 
the Pope, engaged on a larger work, Scriptum Principale, which he 
did not send to Clement^. Much of this larger work naturally 
found its way, probably in a summarised form, into the Opus 
Tertium as we know it, the treatise actually sent to the Pope. 

Tractatus de multiplicatione specierum, or, De generatione specierum ct 
muttiplicatione et corruptione earum, is inserted by Jebb in the 
Opus Majus, pp. 358-445, between Part v and Part vi. The 
subject is however discussed in Part iv, which is often quoted 
or referred to in Part v. In the De multiplicatione^ &c. (p. 368), 
are the words : 
Ut tactum est in communibus naturalium. 
Again (p. 358): 

Recolendum est igitur quod in tertia parte hujus operis tactum est, quod 
essentia, substantia, natura, potestas, potentia, virtus, vis, significant eandem 
rem, sed differunt sola comparatione. 

There is nothing about this in the third part of the Opus Majus ; 
but it is found in the Communia Naturalium, The treatise De 
multiplicatione specierum was therefore part of a work of which the 
Communia Naturalium formed the third part. This large work was 
according to Jebb, the Opus Minus ; according to Charles, the 
Opus Tertium 2; according to Brewer, the encyclopaedic Compendium 

^ Op. Ined. 60. * Patet igitur quod to separate works — the Communia 

scriptum principale non potui mittere.' Naturalium to the Opus Tertium, the 

Charles is somewhat inconsistent ; De itiuliiplicatiojie (rightly) to the 

in spite of Bacon's words, ' lertia parte fourth part of the Compendium Fhilo- 

hujus operis,' he refers the two treatises sophiae (pp. 61, 89). 


Philosophiae. Brewer is no doubt right ; the De multipUcatione was 
intended as a sub-section of the great treatise on Physics. 

How then did the treatise come to be regarded as part of the 
Opus Majus, and to be inserted in the MSS. of that work ? There 
can be little doubt that it was, in its original form, the treatise on 
rays sent to the Pope with the Opus Majus, but as a separate work 
{Opera Ined. pp. 227, 230). The references to the Communia 
Naturalium are not inconsistent with this hypothesis : (i) the treatise 
on rays does not seem to have been written specially for the Pope, 
and consequently references to works w^hich he could not know 
were not unnatural; (2) Bacon had already begun the encyclo- 
paedic work, but found it impossible to get it finished or send it to 
the Pope [Opera Inedita, pp. 60, 315). 

Inc. 'Primum igitur capitulum circa influentiam agentis habet 
tres veritates.' 

MSS. London : — Brit. Mus. : Royal 7 F viii. f. 13 ; inc. 'Postquam 
habitum,' &c. Addit. 8786, fol. 20b : inc. 'Postquam habitum 
est de principiis rerum naturalium ' : Sloane 2156, f. 40 (a.d. 
1428) ; inc. 'Postquam,' &c. 
Oxford : — Bodl. Digby 235, p. 305 (inserted in the Opus Majus). 
Dublin : — Trinity Coll. 81 (in the Opus Majus). 
Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 2598 (sec. xv) : inc. 'Postquam,' &c. 
Bruges, 490 (sec. xiii), called Philosophia Baconis. 
Printed in Jebb. 

De speculis (on burning mirrors). Inc. *Ex concavis speculis ad 
solem positis ignis accenditur. 

MS. Oxford :— Bodl. Ashmole, 440 (sec. xvi) I cf. Digby 71. 
Printed at Frankfurt 1 614, in Combach's Specula Mathematical p. 168. 
Speculi Ahnukefi compositio secundum Rogerium Bacon. Inc. ' Quia 
universorum quos de specuKs ad datam distanciam.' 
MS. Bodl. : Canonic. Misc. 408, fol. 48. 
Cf. Brit. Mus. Cott. Vesp. A ii. f. 140. 

Compendium Philosophiae, an encyclopaedic work, which if completed 
would have formed a kind of revised and enlarged edition of 
the Opus Majus, Opus Minus, and Opus Tertium. In the 
Communia Naturalium, cap. i. (MS. Bodl. Digby 70) Bacon 
gives a sketch of his plan. The work was to consist of four 
volumes, and to treat of six branches of knowledge, viz., vol. i. 
Grammar and Logic ; vol. ii. Mathematics ; vol. iii. Physics ; 
vol. iv. Metaphysics and Morals. This Compendium seems to 
' have been known also as Liher sex scientiarum. The latter 



[Ch. III. 

title is found in the collection printed at Frankfurt in 1603 ^ in 
]MSS. Bodl. Canonic. IMisc. No. 334, fol. 49 b; ibid., No. 480, 
fol. 33 ; and E. IMusaeo 155, p. 689. In each of these MSS. 
the same passage is quoted, as follows : 

Dicta fratris Rogerii Bacon in libro sex scienciarum in 3*' gradu sapiencie, 
ubi loquitur de bono corporis et de bono fortune et de bono et honestate 
morum. {Inc.) In debito regimine corporis et prolongatione vite ad 
ultimos terminos naturales . . . miranda potestas astronomic alkimie et 
perspective et scienciarum experimentalium. Sciendum igitur est pro 

bono corporis quod homo fuit immortalis naturaliter {Expl.) ut fiant 

sublimes operaciones et utilissime in hoc mundo, etc. 

Charles identifies the Liber sex scientiarum with the Opus Minus ; 
but this passage does not occur in the extant portion of the Opus 
Minus which deals with the same subject and expresses the same 
ideas {Opera Lied.^ P- 37© seq). It seems probable therefore that 
this passage is an extract from the section on Alchemy in vol. iii. 
of the Compendium Philosophiae. 

Vol. 1. Grammar and Logic. A portion of this has been edited by 
Brewer, Opera Ined., pp. 393-519, under the title Compendium 
Studii Philosophiae. It was written in 12 71, and contains an 
introduction on the value of knowledge and the impediments 
to it, and the beginning of a treatise on grammar. 
MS. Cott. Tiberius C. V. (sec. xiv). 

Two other treatises on grammar by Roger Bacon are extant, and 
probably formed part of the Comp. Phil."^ : 

(1) Inc. ' Primus hie liber voluminis grammatici circa linguas 
alias a Latino. . . . Manifestata laude et declarata utilitate cognitionis 
grammatice ' (chiefly on Greek grammar). 

MSS. Brit. Museum : Cotton Jul. F viii. f. 175 (sec. xv), a fragment. 
Oxford: — Corpus Christi Coll. 148 (sec. xv) ; Univ. Coll. 47 
(sec. xvii). 

Douai, 691 § I (sec. xvii), copied from Univ. Coll. MS. 47. 

(2) Inc. ' Oratio grammatica autem fit mediante vcrbo.' ' Explicit 
summa de grammatica magistri Rogeri Bacon.' 

MS. Cambridge: — Peterhouse, i, 9, 5, James 3 (sec. xiv). 
Vol. II. Mathematics ; 6 books : 

i. Communia mathematicae \ ii-vi. Special branches of mathe- 

* Sanioris medicinae, p. 7, where a grammar falsely attributed to Bacon ; 
passage on alchemy is quoted. inc. ' Scientia est ordinatio depicta in 

* Digby MS. 55 contains a treatise on anima.' See Opera Incd. p. Ixv. 


Liber i. Inc. ' Hie incipit volumen verae mathematicae liabens 
sex libros. Primus est de communibus mathematicae, et habet 
tres partes principales.' 

MSS. British Museum: Sloane 2156, f. 74-97 (sec. xv), ending in the 
second part of the first book. 
Bodl. : Digby 76, fol. 48 (sec. xiii), containing the remainder of 
the first book (?). Inc. 'Mathematica utitur tantum parte.' 

Libri ii-vi. An extant fragment of a commentary on Euclid by 
Bacon may have belonged to this part ; in De Coelestihus (Comp. 
Phil. vol. iii.) he often refers to his commentary on the Elements 
of EucHd (Charles, p. 85). 

MS. Digby 76, f. 77-8 (sec. xiii). 

A treatise, De laudibus mathematicae, expressing the same ideas 
as Part iv. of the Opus Majus, may have been intended as an 
introduction to this volume. 

MS. Royal 7 F vii. fol. 141-152 : cf. Digby 218, f. 98. 

Vol. III. Physics. First came general physics (i book), then 
particular sciences (3 books). 
Liber i. Communia Naiuralium, divided into 4 parts. 
MSS. Brit. Mus. : Royal 7 F vii. f. 84 (sec. xiii), Liber Naturaliv.m. 

* Hoc est volumen naturalis philosophiae in quo traditur 
scientia rerum naturalium, secundum potestatem octo scien- 
tiarum naturalium quae enumerantur in secundo capitulo ; et 
habet hoc volumen quatuor libros principales, Primum scilicet 
De communibus ad omnia naturalia ; secundum De Coelestibus ; 
tertium De Elementis, mixtis, inanimatis ; quartum De -vegeta- 
bilibus et generabilibus.' (This MS. ends at the third part of 
the first book). 

Bodl. : Digby 70 (sec. xiv). Communia Naturalium. Inc. * Post- 

quam tradidi grammaticam' [Desinit ad init. cap. vii]. 
Cf. Digby 190, f. 29 (sec. xiv ineuntis). De principiis naturae; 

beginning illegible. 
Paris : — Bibl. Mazarine 3576 ; olim 1271, f. 1-90 (sec. xiv). 'In- 
cipit liber primus Communium naturalium Fratris Rogeri 
Bacon, habens quatuor partes principales, quarum prima habet 
distinctiones quatuor. Prima distinctio est de communibus 
ad omnia naturalia et habet capitula quatuor. Capitulum 
primum de ordine scientiae naturalis ad alias. {Inc.) Post- 
quam tradidi grammaticam secundum linguas diversas.' 
Extracts printed by Charles, pp. 369-391. 

Libri ii, iii, iv. The special natural sciences, according to the 
Royal IMS. just quoted, were treated in three books. They were 



seven ^ in number, as Bacon enumerates them in the second chapter 
of the first part of the Communia Naturalium, 

* Praeter scientiam communem naturalibus, sunt septem speciales, vide- 
licet perspectiva, astronomia judiciaria et operativa, scientia ponderum de 
gravibus et levibus, alkimia, agricultura, medicina, scientia experimentalis.' 
Liber ii. (i) Optics or Perspective (a version of the De multipli- 
catione specierum). Inc. ' Ostensum quippe in principio hujus 
Compendii Philosophiae/ 
MSS. Brit. Mus: Royal 7 F vii. p. 221 (sec. xiii), fragment, called 
' Quinta pars Compendii theologiae ' ; and Addit. 8786, fol. 2 
[Cf. Bodl. Digby 183, fol. 49 (sec. xiv) ?] 

See the references under Tract, de multipUcatione specierum. 

(2) Astronomy, or, De coelo et mundo. 

MSS. Oxford : — Bodl. Digby 76, f. i (sec. xiii), Compendium Philosophiae. 

Inc. ' Prima igitur Veritas circa corpora mundi est quod non 
est unum corpus continuum et unius nature.' Ibid. fol. 36, De 
corporibus coelestibus, sc. de %odiaco^ sole, etc. Inc. ' Habito de 
corporibus mundi prout mundum absolute constituunt' (cf. 
Opus Minus). Cf. Ashmole 393 I, f. 44 (sec. xv), ' Veritates de 
magnitudine . . . planetarum. Tractatus extractus de libris celi 
et mundi,' etc. Also, Univ. Coll. 49, De corporibus coelestibus. 
Paris: — Mazarine 3576, De coelestibus (five chapters). Inc. 
' Prima igitur Veritas.' 

(3) Gravity, Scientia ponderum de gravibus et levibus. 
Cf. Iractatus trium verborum. 

Liber iii. (4) Alchemy, or, De elementis'^. 
Liber iv. De vegetabilibus et generabilibus ^. 

(5) Agriculture. 

See note in Brewer, Opera Ined. p. li. 

(6) Medicine. 

(7) Experimental Science. 
Vol. IV. Metaphysics and Morals. 

Inc. ' Quoniam intencio principahs est innuere nobis vicia studii 
theologici que contracta sunt ex curiositate philosophic.' 

^ Royal MS. 7 F vii (see above) 
speaks of eight sciences, i. e. including 
what Bacon calls ' scientia de communi- 
bus naturalibus.' 

^ See the works under the heading, 
Alchemy: cf. 'Excerpta ex libro sex 
scientiarum ' in Sanioris mcdicinae, &c. 
(Frankfurt, 1603), p. 7: *Quarta vero 

scientia non modicam habet utilitatem 
. . . et est Alcliymia speculativa.' 

^ The Breve Brcviarium includes a 
treatise De vegetabilibus et sensibilibus, 
and another De medicinis et curis cor- 
p07-u7n\ edition of 1603, PP- 228 and 
156; MS. Bodl. E Musaeo 155, pp. 
549 and 553. 


MSS. Bodl. : Digby 190, fol. 86 b (sec. xiii-xiv). ' Methaphisica fratris 
Rogeri ordinis Fratrum Minorum, de viciis contractis in 
studio theologie ' (25 lines). 
Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 7440 (sec. xiv), fol. 38-40, fol. 25-32. 'Incipit 
metaphysica Rogeri Baconis de ordine praedicatorum' (frag- 

It is, however, probable that these MS. fragments ought to be 
referred to Bacon's last work, the Compendium Siudii Theologiae, 
rather than to the Compendium Philosophiae. 

Compendium studii theologiae, Bacon's last work, bears the date 1292 
(' usque ad hunc annum Domini 1292 '). Extracts from it are 
printed by Charles, pp. 410-416. This work consisted of six 
parts or more. 

Part i. On the causes of error. 

Part ii. Logic and grammar in reference to theology. 

These two parts are extant (though not complete) in MS. British 
Museum, Royal F vii. pp. 1 5 3-1 61 : there is a long gap between 
pp. 154 and 155. 

According to this MS. the work consisted of two parts : 
'Incipit compendium studii theologiae et per consequens philosophiae 
ut potest et debet servire theologicae facultati, et habet duas 
partes principales ; prima liberali communicatione sapientiae inves- 
tigat omnes causas errorum, et modos errandi in hoc studio . . . . 
Secunda pars descendit ad veritates stabiliendas et ad errores cum 
diligentia exterminandos.' 

Part V. is preserved in Royal MS. 7 F. viii. f. 2 (sec. xiii) (almost 
complete) ; it is a treatise on optics. 
Incipit : * Acto prologo istius quintae partis hujus voluminis quam voco 
compendium studii theologiae, in quo quidem comprehendo in 
summa intentionem totius operis, extra partem ejus signans omnia 
impedimenta totius studii et remedia, nunc accedo ad tractatum 
exponens ea quae necessaria sunt theologiae de perspectiva et de 

Part vi. is mentioned in Part v. : it is to be a treatise, ' De 
multiplicatione Specierum^ 

In Part iv. also the words ' in partihus sequentihus ' occur. 

Alchemy was treated in the Opus Minus and in the Compendium 
Philosophiae. Bacon divides it into (i) Speculative alchemy, 'the 
science of the generation of things from elements' ; (2) Practical 
alchemy, ' which teaches us how to make noble metals and colours,' 
&c., and the art of prolonging life (Opus Tertium, cap. xii). Wood 
mentions a treatise of Bacon's De rerum generationihus^ of which he 



[Ch. III. 

had seen two copies varying much. These may have been the versions 

in the Opus Minus ^ and the Compendium Philosophiae ^. A number 
of works on alchemy and medicine ascribed to Bacon have been 
preserved, some of them are undoubtedly genuine, others apocryphal. 
Epistolae fratris Rogerii Baconis de secretis operihus artis et naturae 
et de nullitate magiae [or, De mirabili potestate artis et naturae\. 
The work consists of a letter or collection of letters in ten or 
eleven chapters, the last five of which Charles considers doubtful, 
addressed perhaps to William of Auvergne (who died in 1248), or 
to John of London, whom Charles identifies with John of Basing- 
stoke (d. 1252). 

Inc. cap. I. ' Vestrae petitioni respondeo diligenter. Nam licet.' 
MS. Brit. Mus: Sloane 2156, p. 117. 

Printed at Paris 1542 ; at Oxford 1594 ; Hamburg 161 3 ; in Zetzner's 
Theatrum Chemicum, 1659; and by Brewer in Rog. Bacon Opera 
Inedita, App. I. 

The three following treatises were printed at Frankfurt in 1603, 
under the title, Sanioris medicinae magistri D. Rogeri Baconis angli 
de arte chymiae scripia, &c., and elsewhere. 
Summary of Avicenna's De anima. Inc. ' In illius nomine qui major est.* 
MS. Bodl: Ashmole 1467 (sec. xvi). [Cf. Charles, R. Bacon, p. 59; 
Opera Ined. p. 39.] 

Breve Breviariu?n, or, De naturis metallorum in ratione alkimica et 
artificiali transformatione, or, Coelestis alchymia, or, De naturis 
inetallorum ei ipsorum transmutatione. 
Divided into two parts, speculative and practical alchemy; the work 
contains no doubt some of the ideas incorporated in the Opus 
Minus and the Comp. Philosophiae. The date is uncertain. 
Inc. ' Breve breviarium breviter abbreviatum.' 
MSS. Brit. Mus : Sloane 276, f. 4 (sec. xv-xvi). 

Bodl.: Digby 119, fol. 64 (sec. xiv) ; and Bodl. E Musaeo 
155, P- 513- 

Paris : — Bibl. Nat. new Latin collection, No. 1153. (Abbey of 
St. Germain). 

Tractatus trium verborum, or, Epistolae tres ad Johannem Parisiensem ; 
namely : 

i. ' De separatione ignis ab oleo,' or, ' De modo projectionis ' ; 
ii. ' De modo miscendi ' ; iii. ' De ponderibus.' Inc. ' Cum ego 
Rogerus rogatus a pluribus.' 

^ Printed in Opera Ined. p. 359 seq. Cap. vii of the Communia Naturalium 
^ The special treatise on alchemy in begins, * De generacione. Habito ergo 
this work does not seem to be extant. de principiis naturalibus generacionis.' 


MSS. British Museum: Cotton Julius D.V. ; Harleian 3528, f. 174 ; 
Sloane 1754, * Mendacium primum, secundum, et tertium.' 
Oxford: — Bodl : Digby 119, f. 82 (sec. xiv ineuntis) ; Ashmole 
1448, pp. 1-25 (sec. xv) ; Corpus Christi Coll. 125, f. 84^; 
University Coll. 49. 

Fragment on alchemy, without title. 

MS. Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 2598, f. 138 (sec. xv), 'Explicit de subjecto 
transmutationis secundum Rogerum Bachonis.' It perhaps 
occurs in one of his larger works. 

Lihellus Rogerii Baconi . . . de retardandis senedutis accidentihus et 
de sensihus conservandis (ii chapters). This work is assigned 
.by Charles to the year 1276. Inc. prol. ' Domine mundi ex 
nobilissima stirpe originem assumpsistis.' Inc. cap. i. (De 
causis senectutis). ' Senescente mundo senescunt homines.' 
MSS. Brit. Museum : Sloane 2320, fol. 56. 

Bodl. : E. Musaeo 155, pp. 591-637 (sec. xiv-xv) ; Canonic. Misc. 
334, fol. I (sec. xv) ; and 480, fol. i (sec. xv). 
Printed at Oxford in 1596 (and in English, London 1683). 

Antidotarius, a second part of this work. Inc. ' Post completum 
universalis sciencie medicacionis tractatum.' 

MSS. Bodl, : Canonic. Miscell. 334 (fol. 2 to 25), and 480 (fol. 16) ; 
E Musaeo 155, p. 645. Cf. MS. Canon. Misc. 480, fol. 3 8^-47, below. 

Elder Bacon de sermone ret admiraMlis, sive de retardatione senectutis. 
Inc. 'Intendo componere sermonem rei admirabilis domino 
meo fratri E, cujus vitam deus prolonget.' 

MSS. Bodl.: E Musaeo 155, pp. 655-666; Digby 183, fol. 45 (sec. xiv 
exeuntis) ; Canonic. Miscell. 334, fol. 25-31. 

De unwersali regimine senum et senior um. Inc. ' Summa regiminis 
senum universalis est hoc ut dicit Avicenna.' 

MSS. Brit. Mus. : Sloane 2629, fol. 57, 

Bodl.: Canon. Miscell. 334, fol. 18^-21^ ; 480 {explicit fol. 16) ; 
and E Musaeo 155, p. 638. 

De graduacione medicinarum compositarum. /;?<:. 'Omnis forma inherers.' 

MSS. Bodl. Canon. Misc. 334, fol. 32 ; 480, fol. 23^ (the author's name 
is obliterated in the MS.). 

Tractatus de errorihus medicorum ^. Inc. ^ Vulgus medicorum.' 

MSS. Oxford: Bodl. Canon. Misc. 334, fol. 42 ; 480, fol. 30 (author's 
name obliterated); E Musaeo 155, pp. 669-689. Corpus Ch. 
Coll. 127 (sec xv). 

^ Sloane MS. 3744, p. 71 (sec. xv) elementum ant ex dementis composi- 
conizm?, Errores seamdum Bacon. Inc. turn.' According to Charles (p. 71) this 
* Scito enim quod omne corpus aut est is the Ee Erroribus medicortini. 



[Ch. III. 

Canojies pradici de inedicinis compositis componendis, 'Cap. i. Extractum 
de libro septimo Serapionis qui est antidotarium suum et est 
theoricum capitulum/ (13 chapters.) Inc. ' Necesse est illi 
qui vult componere medicinas.' ' Explicit tractatus de com- 
positione medicinarum per fratrem rugerium bacon editus/ 
MS. Bodl. Canon. Misc. 480, fol. 38^-47. 
De hone viridi (on the manufacture of mercury) ; only the summary 
by Raymund Gaufredi is extant. Inc. ' Verbum abbreviatum.' 
MSS. Brit. Mus. : — Sloane 692, f. 46 (sec. xv). Oxford: — Corpus 
Chr. Coll. 277. Printed at Frankfurt, 1603 {Sanioris 
medicinae, p. 264), &c. 

A number of works on alchemy are attributed to Roger Bacon 
erroneously or without any probability. 
De consider aiione quintae essentiae ; 3 books. 

The author was a Franciscan who entered the Order at Tou- 
louse ^ Inc. opus. 'Dixit Salomon sapientie cap. vii. Deus deditmihi.' 

MSS. Bodl. : Canonic. Misc. 334, fol. 59^. * Primus liber de consider- 
acione quinte essencie omnium rerum transmutabilium. In 
nomine domini nostri Jhesu Christi. Incipit liber de famulatu 
philosophic ewangelio domini Jhesu Christi et pauperibus euan- 
gelicis viris Amen.' Fol. 94^, ' Explicit hber quinte essencie 
secundum fratrem Rogerium Bacun de ordine minorum.* 

Bodl. E Musaeo 155, pp. 431-507. 'Explicit liber tertius de 
consideracione 5*® essencie secundum magistrum Rogerum 
Bacon, correctus et scriptus per Johannem Cokkes manibus 
suis propriis Oxon 

Brit. Museum: Sloane 2320, f. 73 (sec. xv-xvi). 

Paris:— Bibl. Nat. 715 1 (xv). 

Venice :— St. Mark, vol. IV. CI. XIV., Cod. 39. 

De expulsione veneni. Inc. 'Ista subscripta sequerentur post capi- 
tulum de hiis que expellunt venenum.' 
MS. Bodl. E Musaeo 155, p. 507 (not expressly ascribed to Bacon in 
the MS. : see Brewer, Op. Ined. p. xl.). 
Speculum alchemiae. Inc. ' Multifariam multisque modis.' 

MSS. Brit. Museum : Addit. 8786, f. 62 ; 15,549; Sloane 3506 (English 
Bodl.: Ashmole 1416, f. loi (sec. xv). 
Printed in Zetzner's Theatrum Chemlcum^ vol. ii., A. D. 1659; in 
Manget's Iheasurus, vol. i., &c., &c. 

' Charles, R. Bacon, p. 76. It is Dc Consideratione qnartae Sententiae S. 

often, perhaps rightly, atlribuled to Magislri per Rogerum Bacon,' &c. 

John dc Rupescissa. His whole account of this MS. is not 

Brewer reads, 'Explicit liber tertius very trustworthy; Op. Ined. p. xxxix. 


Speculum alchemiae. Inc. ' Speculum alchemiae quod in corde meo 

MS. Brit. Mus.: Harl 3528, fol. 185. 
Speculum secretorum, or, Liber secretorum. Inc. ' In nomine Domini 
... ad instructionem multorum circa banc artem.' 
MSS. Brit. Mus. : Sloane 513, f. 178^ (sec. xv). 

Oxford: — Bodl. : Digby 28, f. 61 (sec. xiv) ; Digby 119, f. 90^*; 
Ashmole 1467, f. 208^, and .1485, p. 117 (sec. xvi). Also 
Corpus Christi Coll. 125, f. 86. 
Printed at Frankfurt, 1603 (p. 387). 

Secretum secretorum naturae de laude lapidis Philosophorum. Inc. 
. ' Secretum secretorum naturae audiant secreti quae loquor.' 
Printed at Frankfurt, 1603 (pp. 285-291). 

Roger ina major et minor, two medical treatises ; neither by Bacon : 
one is by a Roger Baron. 
MSS. Bodl. 2626 ; Gf. MS. St. Omer 624 (sec. xiii) ; Charles, R. 
Bacon, p. 75, note. 
Cambridge, Publ. Libr. li, I. 16 (sec. xiv) and Ee, II. 20. 
Brit. Mus. : Sloane 342, f. 146 (sec, xiii). 

De Magnete. Inc. ' Amicorum intime, quamdam magnetis lapidis.' 
MS. Bodl. E Musaeo 155, pp. 414-426 (anon.) : Charles (p. 18) ascribes 
it to Peter de Maricourt. 

Calendar., wrongly attributed to Bacon ; made by a Minorite at 
Toledo 1297, and extracted from the Tabulae Toletanae. 
MS. Cott. Vesp. A, II. f. 2 ; Cf. Opus Majus p. 140 (ed. Venet, 1750). 

Semita recta alchemiae (or, Liber duodecim aquarum). 
' MS. Brit. Mus.: Sloane 513, f. i8ii'-i88b (sec. xv) : < Explicit semita 
recta alkemie secundum Magistrum Rogerum Bakun.' 
Cf. MS. Sloane 276, f. 21, an anonymous work on the same 
subject, differing somewhat from the above. 
Bodl. : Ashmole 1485, pp. 173-188 (sec. xvi), ' Liber aquarum.' 

Thesaurus spirituum, four treatises on the influence of planets, &c. 
Inc. ' Hec est doctrina omnium experimentorum.' 
MS. Brit. Museum : Sloane 3853, f. 3-40 (sec. xv). 'Hec est tabula 
libri sequentis .... a quodam viro venerabili ordinis Minorum 
fratre summa composita et ordinata, et a diligencia M. Rogero 
Bakon ordinis Minorum nuper recognita, qui quidem liber pro 
omnibus hujus mundi experimentis sufficit,' &c. 
' Explicit liber qui secundum Robertum Turconem et Rogerum 
Bakon fratrem Minorum Thesaurus spirituum nuncupatur.' 
Cf. MS. Sloane 3850, f. 129^, De nigromantia, extracted from the 
{ above. 




[Ch. III. 

De fistula. 

MS. Sloane 238, f. 214^-216^ (sec. xv). ' Secundum Rogerum Bacon 
ut habetur in libro qui dicitur Thesaurus pauperum 

Necromanciae. Inc. ' Debes mundare manus et pedes ante visionem 

MS. Sloane 3884, f. 44^ (sec. xv-xvi) : ' Haecsunt quae Rogerus Bacon 
de pura necromancia dixit.' 

Other worthless recipes, fragments, &c., attributed to Bacon will 
be found in MSB : — 
Bodl. 3, 349, 'Index simphcium ' ; Ashmole 1423, iv. pp. 1-7 'Opus,' 
* Opus Commune,' ' De conclusionibus ' ; Sloane 692, f. 102, 
' Finalis conclusio'; Harl. 2269, art. i; Cott. Jul. D.V. 'De 
colore faciendo ' ; Digby 196, f. 163^, ' Septem virtutes naturae ' ; 
Ashmole 1485 (sec. xv), various. 

De intellectu et intelligentia, and De nufrimento, which Charles considers 
genuine, are printed among the works of Albertus Magnus. 
MSS. Bodl.: Digby 67, f. 107 (sec. xiv), anon: and Digby 55, f. 193, 
anon: Alb. Magnus, Opera, V. p. 239 and 175 (Lugd. 1657). 

Tradatus de veritate theologiae in septem partes distributus, perhaps 
by Robert Bacon. Inc. ' Flecto genua mea ad patrem domini 
nostri Jesu Christi.' 
MS. Bodley 745 ( = 2764) (sec. xiv) pp. 1 1 3-188 :' Incipit tractatus 
fratris B.' Part i. de trinitate dei; ii. de creatura dei; iii. de 
corruptela peccati ; iv. de incarnacione verbi ; v. de gratia spiritus 
sancti ; vi. de medicina sacramentali ; vii. de statu finalis judicii. 

Tractatus super Psalterium, probably by Robert Bacon. 

MS. ibid. pp. 193-497. 'Incipit tractatus fratris R. Bacun, super 
psalterium. Beatus vir qui.' 

Excerptiones Rogeri Bacon ex auctorihus musicae artis ; or correctly, 
Excerptiones Hogeri abbatis, &c. 
MS. Cambridge :— Corp. Chr. Coll. 260 {olim 189). 
Cf. MS. I\Iilan : — Ambrosiana, Roger ii de Baccono de generatione et 
corruptione, de Musica, de prospecffva (Montfaucon, p. 523). Cf. 
Opera Inedita, 295 seq. 

De sacrae scripturae profundis misierns auihore Rogcro Bacon. 

MS. London : — Gray's Inn, 17 (sec. xv) ; the title is in a later hand. 
It is probably a version of the Expositiones Vocabulorum de sin- 
gulis libris Bibliae Rogeri compotistae monachi S. Eadmundi ; 

^ Cf. MSS. Sloane 284 (sec. xiv), 477 pauperum, libro sell, preceptorum medi- 
(a. D. 1309), and 241 1 ; Digby 150 (sec. cinalium.' 
xiii), f. 106, * Extracciones a Thezauro 


MSS. Oxford :—Bodl. Laud. Misc. 176 (sec. xiv) ; Magd. Coll. 
112 (sec. xv). 

John, Roger Bacon's favourite pupil, was certainly not John of 
London ^, or John Peckham ^. On the other hand it is impossible to 
identify him with any known scholastic doctor. It is not certain 
whether he was a friar or whether he was ever at Oxford. About 
1260 Roger Bacon found him probably at Paris, as a poor boy of 
fifteen eager to learn, but forced to beg his bread and to serve those 
who gave him the necessaries of life ^. 

* I caused him,' says Roger ' to be taken care of and instructed for the 
love of God.' 

The boy repaid his master s care. Wishing to send a fit inter- 
preter of his works to the Pope, Bacon writes ^, 

* I chose a youth whom for five or six years I have had instructed in 
languages and mathematics and optics, in which is all the difficulty of what 
I send ; and I instructed him gratis with my own mouth after I received 
your command, feeling that I could not at present have another messenger 
after my own heart.' 

There was no one at Paris who knew so much of the roots of 
philosophy as did juvenis Johannes ; he was ' a virgin, not knowing 
mortal sin,' and ' an excellent keeper of secrets John was sent to 
Clement with the Opus Majus and other treatises'^ in 1267, the other 
works, Opus Minus and Opus Tertium^ being sent later and probably 
by other messengers. From this time we have no authentic -informa- 
tion about him, and do not know whether he fulfilled Bacon's expecta- 
tions : 

' he has that which will enable him to surpass all the Latins, if he lives to 
old age and builds on the foundations which he has ^' 

Robert de "Ware, in Hertfordshire^, entered the Order at Oxford 
between 1265 and 1268, In the prologue of his only extant work, 

^ John of London was a master, and 
contemporary of Roger's ; Op. Ined. p. 
34. ' Juvenis Johannes ' was aged 20 or 
21 in 1267, and had no experience in 
teaching, ibid. 61. 

^ The dates are conclusive ; Peckham 
entered the Order as a young man, not 
as a boy, in the lifetime of Adam Marsh ; 
Mon, Franc. I, 256. * Juvenis Johannes' 
was about 12 years old when Adam 
died. ^ 

^ Op. Ined. 63. 

* Ibid. 61. 

^ Ibid. 

^ Ibid. 62. 
Namely, a treatise on rays, Op. Ined. 
p. 230, and an elaborate one on mathe- 
matics and judicial astrology, ibid. 270 ; 
John took also a concave lens, ibid, p 

« Ibid. 62. 

^ MS. Gray's Inn Libr. 7, f. 62, < a 
quadam villa proxima que dicitur 

P 2 


addressed to his younger brother John, he gives the following account 
of his conversion ^ : — 

1 was the eldest son of my father ; at a tender age, tenderly beloved, I 
was designed for a life of study. At length I came to Oxford, and then I 
entered the Order of Friars Minors. At this my father was exceedingly 
grieved, and did all in his power to force me to leave the Order, sending 
my mother and brother and relatives and other friends to me, with 
intreaties and promises ; and, I am told, with the help of some powerful 
persons, he made every exertion to secure my liberation in the court of 
Ottobon, who was then acting as legate in England^. At length finding 
himself thwarted because I would not give my consent, he became so 
embittered against me that he absolutely refused to see me or speak with 
me, nor could any of my friends pacify him. One day even, when I had 
come to his gates with my companion-friar, and wished to enter, he 
refused me admittance by his servants, drew his sword, and swore with a 
mighty oath that he would kill me if I presumed to enter. 

At length the father was stricken down by a mortal disease, and, 
warned in a vision, he relented towards his son. The latter was 
summoned hastily from London, and reconciled to his father, who 
before his death gave proof of his devotion to the Order of St. Francis. 

Twenty-five discourses on the Virgin Mary, by friar Robert de 
Ware. Inc. prol. " Aue rosarium scripturarum per areolas." 

MS. London: — Gray's Inn, 7, f. 62-138: (sec. xiii). No title; the 
name of the author is given in a hand of the fourteenth century. 

Walter de Landen, William Cornish, William de Wykham, 
Dyonisius, and Robert de Cap(e)ll. were Franciscans at Oxford, and 
took part in the controversy with the Dominicans in 1269. All that 
is known about them will be found in Appendix C. 

Nicholas de Gulac was at Oxford in 1269. Suffering from stone 
and despairing of life, he at length prayed the Lord 
* to cure him by the merits of his martyr Earl Simon de Montfort.' 
On the next morning as he rose from his bed ^ ut commingeret^ the 
stone fell at his feet, and he had no pain before or afterwards, being 
completely cured on Easter Tuesday, 1269; to this miracle witness 
was borne by the whole convent of Minorites at Oxford ^. 

Laurence of Cornwall, to whose miraculous recovery from fever, 
after prayer to Simon de Montfort, the same Friar N. de Gulac bore 
witness, was probably at Oxford about the same time ^ 

* MS. Gray's Inn Libr. 7, f. 62. ^ Miracula Syi}ionis de Montfort,^. ()6 

2 Ottobon came to England in (Camden Soc. 1840). 
November, 1265, and left in July, 1268. * Ibid. p. 95. 


Stephanus Hibernicus, called also Stephen of Exeter and 
Stephen of Oxford, was born in 1246, and became a Minorite at 
* Mutifernana ' in 1263. These facts are contained in the Annales 
Montis Fernandi {sive Minoritarum Multifernanae) ab 4^ usque ad 
an. 1274, the authorship of which is usually ascribed to Stephen^. It 
is very doubtful whether he was at Oxford. 

The Annales are extant in ' MS. Bibl. Arch. Armachani,' according to 
Hardy; formerly MS. Clarendon 19, f.32-44 (Bernard). 

William of Ware, or William Warre, Guaro, Varro, &c., born 
at Ware in Hertfordshire, entered the Order in his youth, according 
to William Woodford^. It is not improbable that he studied at 
Oxford, but there is no authority for the statement ^. He was S. T. P. 
of Paris, where most of his life was spent He is said to have been 
a pupil of Alexander of Hales ^ (d. 1245), and master of Duns Scotus ^, 
who went to Paris in 1304. He was called doctor fundatus by later 

His Commentaries on the Sentences were seen by Leland in the Fran- 
ciscan Library, London^ , and are now extant in the following MSS. : 
Oxford: — Merton Coll. 103, 104 (sec. xiv). Inc. 'Utrum finis per se 

et proprius theologie.' 
Toulouse, 242, § I (sec. xiv), anon. Inc. ut supra. 
Troyes, 661, § i (xiv). ' Questiones super I et III lib. Sentent.' 

ascribed to Duns Scotus. Inc. ut supra. 
Troyes, 661 § 2 (xiv). 'Questiones Wareti super tertium librum 

Sententiarum.' Inc. ' Queritur utrum incarnacio sit possibilis 

Quod non. Incarnacio est quedam.' 
Vienna : — Bibl. Palat. 1424, and 1438 (xiv). 

Florence : — Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Crucis, Plut. xxxiii, Dext. Cod. 1 
(sec. xiii). 

Padua, Bibl. S. Antonii, in Pluteis xxiv and xxii. (Tomasin, pp. 62% 60^.) 

* Hardy, Descript. Catal. Vol. Ill, p. 
207, No. 352. Wadding, Script. 218, 
Sup. ad Script, p. 667. 

2 Twyne MS. XXII, 103 c. (Defen- 
sorinm, cap. 62). Perhaps he is the 
*Frater G. de Ver' who was at the 
London convent, c. 1250, Mon. Franc. 
I, 328. 

3 Bale (I, 323) and Pits. 

* Pits calls him S.T.P. of Oxford ; 
his name does not occur in the list of 
Franciscan masters. Wadding (VI, 
48) says that Duns Scotus was made 
S.T.P. ^t Oxford when Ware was called 
to Pans. This is incorrect; Duns was 

never doctor of Oxford; see notice of 

5 Dugdale, Monast. Vol. VI, Part III, 
p. 1529 (from Fr. a S. Clara). 

« Barth. of Pisa, Liber Conform, f. 
81, ' Johannes Guarro Anglicus magister 
Scoti.' Duns Scotus mentions him twice 
in his works. Wadding, VI, 45. Cf. 
Bibl. S. Antonii, at Padua, MS. in 
Pluteo XXII, in cake : ' Varro pro- 
fessionis Minoritae Doctorum Jubar et 
praeceptor Divi Scoti famosus ' ; quoted 
by Tomasin, p. 60 b. 

' Willot, Athenae, p. 166. 

^ Collectanea, III, 51. 



[Ch. III. 

Richard Middleton is said by Bale, Wood, and others, to have 
studied at Oxford, but they produce no evidence for the statement ^ 
He was B.D. at Paris in 1283 ^ when with other doctors and bachelors 
he was appointed to examine the doctrines of Peter Johannis Olivi. 
He appears to have incepted as D.D. soon afterwards ^, and is reckoned 
among the masters of Duns Scotus. Like many other famous doctors 
of his Order, he is said by Wadding to have written on the Immaculate 
Conception According to Willot he was known at Paris as Doctor 
solidus et copiosus, fundatissimus et author atus ^ : at the Council of 
Basel he was referred to as Doctor profundus ^ 

Commentum super iv. Sententiarum. Inc. prologus, ' Abscondita 

MSS. Oxford:— Bodl. 2765 (now Bodley 744)— Balliol Coll. 198 (sec. 
xiv) — Merton Coll. 98, f. 118 (sec. xiv). 
Cambridge: — Caius Coll. 303 — Pembroke Coll. iii, 113. 
Canterbury : — Cathedral Lib. 4. 

Munich : — Bibl. Regia, 3549 (sec. xv) and 8078 (sec. xiii-xiv). 
Printed at Venice 1489, at Venice sine anno, and Venice 1507-9, &c. 

Quaestiones quodlihetales (two parts). Inc. Pars I. * Queritur utrum 
Deus sit summe simplex.' 
MSS. Oxford: — Merton Coll. 139, fol. 2 (sec. xiv). 
Troyes, 142 (xiv) ; Pars II incipit ut supra. 
Florence : — Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Crucis, Plut. xvii, Sin. Cod. 
vi (sec. xiv ineuntis). 

Quodlibeta tria. (The first contains 2 2 questions ; the second 3 1 ; 
the third 27.) Inc. * In nostra disputacione de quolibet.' 
MSS. Oxford :— Merton Coll. 139, f. 162 (sec. xiv). 

Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 14305 (sec. xiii) Questiones de quolihet; this 
may contain either the Quodl. tria or the Questiones Quodlib., 
or both. 

* A ' Richard Middleton ' was fellow 
of Merton sub Edw. Ill ; of course he is 
not to be confounded with the Minorite 

2 Wadding, IV, 54, 121. Archiv f. 
L. u. K. Gesch. Ill, 417. This date is 
sufficient to show that he cannot have 
finished the Sumnia of Alexander of 
Hales at the command of Pope Alex- 
ander IV, as Davenport (Francis a S. 
Clara) alleges, Opera, Tom, I, Hist. 
Minor, p. 1 2. The Summa was finished 
by Friar William of Middleton, D.D. of 
Paris (and probably fifth master of the 
Franciscans at Cambridge), who died 

1 261, Wadding, IV, 57; Lanerc. Chron. 
70 ; Mon. Franc. I, 555. 

^ Archiv, &c., II, 296 (from Angelus 
de Clarino, Hist. Tribulat.). 

* Wadding, VI, 13; and Willot, 

Athenae, 314-315 ; the two last 
epithets are applied to him in the edition 
of his Quodlibets printed at Venice in 

^ Wadding, Sup. ad. Script. 633 ; 
this is the earliest instance which I have 
found of the special application of any 
such title to Richard Middleton. 


Toulouse, 738 (sec. xiii). 
Florence : — Laurent, ut supra. 
Printed at Venice 1509, Paris 1519, and Brescia 1591. 

De gradibus formarum. 

MS. Munich 8723, fol. 175 (sec. xiv and xv). 
Quaestiones disputatae, by R. Middleton and others. 

MS. Assisi (see Fratini, p. 203). 
Sermo fratris Ricardi de dilatatione sermonum (?). Inc. ' Quoniam 
emulatores estis.' 

MS. Oxford : — Merton Coll. 249, f. 175 (sec. xiii). 

William de la Mare, de Mara, or Lamarensis, may have studied 
at Oxford ^ before he went to Paris, where he was a disciple of 
Bonaventura. In 1284 he published a criticism of Thomas Aquinas, 
called Correc/ormm operum fratris Thomae ^, which afterwards won for 
him the title of standard-bearer of the Anti-Thomists ^ This treatise, 
which may perhaps be still extant in an Italian library, is generally 
known only through the reply to it, attributed sometimes to Aegidius 
Romanus, but with more probability to Richard Clapwell ^. ' The 
serious part of the work of William de Lamarre,' says M. Charles, 

* seems directly inspired by Bacon He had no doubt come under 
Roger's influence either at Oxford or Paris. William de Mara appears 
also to have written in favour of a strict observance of the Rule of St. 
Francis. In a dispute on the interpretation of the Rule in 13 10, 
Friar Ubertino de Casali, one of the leaders of the ' Spiritual ' party, 
quoted, in support of his views, 

* the opinion of St. Francis expressed in his Rule, and of Pope Nicholas in 
his Declaration, of Friar Bonaventura in his Apologia, of Friars Alexander 
and Rigaldus . . . and of Friar John de Peckham in his book on Evangelical 

^ It is always assumed that he was an 
Englishman ; the available evidence on 
the point is slight. MS. Borghes. 322, 
f. 174 a (sec. xiv) has the note: 'Hie 
loquitur (Petrus J. Olivi) stulte contra 
fratrem G. de Mara et communem 
opinionem.' MS. Borghes. 358, f. 227 b 
(sec. xiv) : ' Magister Guillelmus de 
Anglia habet duas sententias in instru- 
mentis duobus datas contra doctrinam 
P(etri) J(oannis) . . ,' &c. The second 
William here is probably W, de Mara 
(Archiv f. L. u. K. Gesch. Ill, 472-3). 
B. of Pisa and, Tritheim say nothing 
about /his nationality. The name was 
not uncommon in England ; see e. g. 

Pat. Roll, 10 Edw. I, m. 7 dorse ; Le 
Neve, Fasti, vol. iii ; cf. forest of Mara, 
or Delamere in Cheshire. 

2 Charles, Roger Bacon, p. 240. Cf. 
B. of Pisa, Liber Conform, fol. 81 : 
'scripsit . . . contra fratrem Thomam 
de Aquino correctorium componendo.' 

^ Wadding, Sup. ad Script. 323. 

* This reply was printed at Cologne, 
1624 (Charles, ibid.), and at Cordova 
in 1 701. See Merton Coll. MS. 267; 
MS. in Bibl. S. Anton. Venet. in pluteo 
xviii ; Boston of Bury, in Tanner, 
Bibl. p. xxxviii. 

^ Charles, Roger Bacon, pp. 240-1. 



[Ch. hi. 

Perfection, and of Friar William de Mara, who were all solemn masters of 
our Order \' 

From this it is clear that William died before 1310. 
Some of his writings are extant in MS. 
Summa Frairis Gul. de Mara contra D. Thomam. 
MS. Venice : — Bibl. S. Anton, in Pluteo xix (Tomasin). 

Correctorium Fratris Gul. de Mera . . . secundum dicta D. Thomae 
de Aquino contra correctorium Fratris Joannis (?) de Crapuel 
Ordinis Praedicatorum — perhaps the printed Defensorium seu 
MS. ibid, in Pluteo xviii. 

Quaestiones de natura virtutis, by ' Gulielmus de le Maire, ordinis 

MS. Brit. Museum: — Burney 358 (sec. xiv) — mutilated at the be- 

Sermo Fratris Guillermi de la Mare regentis in Theologia. (On 
St. Peter.) Inc. * Precurrens ascendit in arborem sycomorum. 
. . . Fratres orate ut sermo Dei currat et clarificetur.' 
MS. Troyes, 1788 (sec. xiv). 

Expositio libri Physicorum Aristotelis\ and Comment, in libros i, 2, 
et 3, Sententiarum ^. 
MSS. StaCroce, Florence 380, 381, 382, 383 ; mentioned in Wadding, 
Sup. ad Script. These MSS. are now in the Laurentiana, ex Bibl. 
S. Crucis, Plut. xxxiv. Sin. Codd. iv, v, vi, vii, but they do not seem 
to contain the Physics. 

Quaestiones Ires philosophic ae per Gulielmum {de Mara?) de Anglia, 
fratrem ordinis Minorum. Inc. 'Est dubitacio utrum lineam 
componam ex punctis.' 
MS. Bodl. Canon. Misc. 226, f. 76 (sec. xv). There seems no reason 
for attributing these to W. de Mara rather than to William of 
Ockham, or any English Minorite named WiUiam ^. 

John of Oxford, Friar Minor, was ordained priest by Peckham in 

Richard de Slekeburne (co. Durham), confessor of Devorguila, 
played an important part in the foundation of Balhol College : this 

1 Anal. Franc. II, 115. 

^ ' Scripsit super sententias ad opus 
domini fratris lionaventure multa supcr- 
addcndo et multa quodlibcla faciendo.' 
B. of Pisa, Liber Conform, f. 81 : cf 
Tanner, Bibl. 223. 

^ Other works attributed to him by 
Sbaralea (Wadding, Sup. ad Script.), 
viz. Faraplirasis Musaei and Sylvarwii 
libri qzialzior, are by W. de Mara, Bishop 
of Constance in the fifteenth century. 

* Peckham's Reg. p. 1040. 


has already been referred to There is no direct proof that Friar 
Richard was himself at Oxford. Several documents relating to him 
are preserved in the Balliol College Archives, and described in the 
Reports of the Hist. MSS. Commission ^. 

(1) A letter of Devorguila to him, in which she speaks of 

*the alms of the poor scholars of our House of Balliol now studying at 

and urges Friar Richard by all means in his power to promote the 
perpetuation of the said house, a. d. 1284. 

(2) A grant by the executors of Sir John BalHol of sums to the 
scholars, with the consent of Devorguila and at the advice of Friar R. 
de Slekeburne (three deeds, 1 285-1 286). 

(3) A confirmation by Friar Richard of another grant by Sir 
J. Balliol's executors of debts due to Sir John : the confirmatory deed 
is dated Coventry, 1287. 

■William of Exeter was summoned in 1289 from Oxford by 
Deodatus, Warden of the Friars Minors of Exeter ^ to assist him in 
choosing a new site for the convent 

William of Leominster is placed among the Franciscans by 
Pits, but it is not certain that he belonged to this Order ^. He was a 
friar and master of Oxford in 1290 ; in this year his name appears as 
one of the masters who gave their consent on behalf of the University 
to the compromise, effected by the intervention of the King and his 
council, concerning the right of the bishop of Lincoln to confirm the 
Chancellor-elect ^. Bale states that he had seen this friar's Collationes 
Sententiarum and Quaesiiones Theologiae, at London, Hn quadam 
officina ' 

John Bekinkham appears to have been an Oxford Minorite ; he 
was one of the friars to whom the royal alms of 25 marks was paid by 
the exchequer in 1289 or 1290 ^ 

^ Part I, chapter i. of lectores, as it probably would have 

^ Report IV, pp. 442-4. done had he been a Franciscan ; this in- 

^ Oliver, Monasticon Diocesis Exon. ference however cannot be drawn with 

p. 331. He is not to be confused with any certainty. 

his namesake, the opponent of Ockham : ^ Rolls of Parliament, I, 16 a. Lyte, 

he may possibly be the author of the p. 127. The name of ' Frater Willelmus 

Tractatus de octo Beatitudinibus in MS. de Leominstre ' stands first in the list of 

Laud. Misc. 368, fol. 106 (sec. xiv). the five 7nagistri who represented the 

* Cf. Inquisitio ad quod damnum 20 University. 

Edw. I (Nov. 1 291), in Mon. Franc. II, Script. II, 98. Cf. MS. Seld. sup. 

289. 64, fol. 48, *ex officina Joannis Cocke.' 

^ His name does not occur in the list ^ Excheq. Q. R. Wardrobe, |, 17-18 


J ohn de Clara was executor of Hugh de Cantilupe, Archdeacon of 
Gloucester, in 1285; he was at this time at Oxford \ In 1289 or 
1290 he appears, in conjunction with John Bekinkham, as receiving 
the royal grant of 25 marks in the name of the Oxford Convent ^. In 
1299 he was entrusted with 10 marks out of the royal exchequer for 
the expenses of Hugh of Hertepol and William of Gainsborough, who 
were going to the General Chapter at Lyons ^ In 1301 he was sent 
with instructions to find the Provincial Minister with all speed, and 
received of the royal bounty 24^. -^d. for his expenses ^ 

John Russell was private chaplain to Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, 
in 1293. In a letter to Raymund, General Minister of the Friars 
Minors, dated Aug. 29, 1293 the Earl thanks the Minister 

'pro vestris muneribus preciosis, cultellis vestris videlicet nobilibus de 
corallo atque insigni vase tiriaco, que in octavis virginis gloriose per manus 
dilecti et domestici nostri fratris Johannis Rossel .... recepimus .... Dat' 
in manerio nostro de B. (Beckley ?) ^ prope Oxon',' &c. 

Russell wrote about the same time to dominus R. de M. (Roger de 
Merlawe) : 

* Veni ad capitulum fratrum nostrorum Oxon', proponens vos personaliter 
visitasse ; sed jam istud iter impedivit debilitas corporalis 

This John Russell was contemporary, and probably identical, with the 
twenty-second master of the Franciscans at Cambridge ^ 

Postilla in Cantica Canticorum. Inc. ' Cogitanti mihi Canticum 

MS. London: — Lambeth Palace, 180, f. i (sec. xv). 
Lectura super Apocalypsim. Inc. ' Statuit septem piramides. . . . Ac- 
cedens ad expositionem.' 
MS. Oxford: — Merton Coll. 172, fol. 106 (sec. xiv), manu Will, de 

De potestate hnperaioris et pape. 

Formerly in the King's Library, according to Bale (MS. Seld. supra 
64, fol. 163b, 193) : it is not mentioned in Casley's Catalogue. 

Edw. I (R.O.) : ' per manus fratrum ad consensum expedicioni negociorum 
Johannis de Bekinkham et Johannis de predictorum prestandum per manus pro- 

2 Excheq. Q. R. Wardrobe, ^ (R.O.). mentioned was connected with a bequest 
^ Excheq. Q. R. Wardrobe, |, m. i. to the Mendicant Orders by Edmund, 
* Ibid. -J-f (m. i) : ' ffratri Johanni de Earl of Cornwall. 

Clara xvi^'. xiii^ iiii^.' 

^ Pcckham, Regist. p. 895. 

prias apud Berkhamstede eodem die 
(March 29) xxiiij^ iij^.' The business 

Clare de ordine Minorum pro expensis 
suis et conductione equitature pro se et 
socio suo eundo cum magna festinacione 
ad di versa loca pro fratre Hugone de 
Ilcrtpoul ministro ordinis sui querendo 


MS. Digby 154, fol. 38. 
" Rennet's Parochial Antiquities, I, 

' MS. Digby 154, fol. 37 b. 
" Mon. Franc. I, 556. 


Henry de Sutton was warden of the Grey Friars, London, in 
1302 ^ and 1307, when the King (Edward I) gave him 40 marks 

* pro pitancia fratrum Minorum in capitulo suo generali celebrando apud 
Tolosam in festo Pentecost proximo ^. 

He procured a legacy of 2 marks annually from Henry Waleys, 
Mayor of London, for his convent ^. The evidence of his connexion 
with Oxford is very slight. His name occurs as the author of a 
sermon in a collection of sermons which were probably delivered at 
Oxford at the end of the thirteenth century 

William Mincy, William de Newport, Roger de Barton 
(Cheshire), Bobert de Gaddestyn or Gaddesby, John de West- 
burg, Robert de Mogynton (Derby), Franciscans at Oxford in 
1300, were on the 26th of July in that year presented at Dorchester 
by Hugh of Hertepol the Provincial, and licensed by Dalderby, Bishop 
of Lincoln, to hear confessions, grant absolution, and enjoin penances, 
in the Archdeaconry of Oxford. They were not at this time, and 
probably never became, doctors of divinity ®. 

John de Stapleton, a. d. 1300, was similarly presented by the 
Provincial, but rejected by the Bishop. The Register of the Friars 
Minors at London says : 

* Friar John de Stapilton, heir to great wealth and lordship, spurning wife 
and heritage, became a Friar Minor.' 

It is doubtful whether this refers to the same person 

Adam de Corf, Peter de Todworth, Walter Bosevile, and 
Roger de Alnewyek, were in like manner presented by the 
Provincial and rejected by the Bishop, a. d. i 300. They were not at 
this time D.D's. Nothing further is known of them, unless Roger 
de Alnewyek is to be identified with William of Alnwick, 42nd reader 
at Oxford^. 

John Duns Scotus^wasa Franciscan at Oxford in 1300. In 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 514. 

^ Exchequer, Q. R. Wardrobe, Accts. 
\% 35 Edw. I. (R.O.) 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 512-3. See ibid. 
518: ' Octavam fenestram vitrari fecit 
frater Henricus de Sutton, gardianus.' 

* MS. New Coll., Oxford, 92 ; among 
other preachers mentioned is Simon of 
Gaunt^ Chancellor of the University in 

5 Wood MS. F 29 a, f. 178 (i.e. 
Wood-Clark, II, 386). 

® Ibid., and Mon. Franc. I, 552. 
' Wood MS. ibid. 

^ There is no evidence as to the place 
of his birth (the note which Leland 
triumphantly quotes — Merton Coll. MS. 
59 — was written in 1455, and contains 
the baseless statement that he was 
fellow of Merton College) ; and the only 



[Ch. nr. 

the list of friars presented to the Bishop of Lincoln he appears as 
' Johannes Douns ' ^ ; the Bishop refused to grant him Hcense to hear 
confessions. Soon afterwards Duns lectured on the four books of the 
Sentences as B.D. at Oxford^. At the end of 1304 he was called to 
Paris to incept as D.D. The letter of the General Minister recom- 
mending this choice is given by Wadding ^, who however has 
misunderstood it. For this reason, and because it illustrates some 
points in the educational system of the Minorites, the letter may be 
quoted in full ^. 

In Christo sibi carissimis Patribus, Guillelmo Guardiano Parisiis, vel ejus 
Vicario et INIagistris, Frater Gondisalvus gaudens in Domino. 

Ad expeditionem dilecti in Christo Patris Aegidii de Legnaco, de quo per 
litteras vestras certificatus existo, cum de alio (ut moris est) eodem calculo 
praesentando providere oporteat, et cum, secundum statuta Ordinis, et 
secundum statuta vestri Conventus, Baccalaureus hujusmodi praesentandus 
ad praesens debeat esse de aliqua provincia aliarum a Provincia Franciae, 
dilectum in Christo Patrem Joannem Scotum, de cujus vita laudabili, 
scientia excellenti, ingenioque subtilissimo, aliisque insignibus conditionibus 
suis, partim experientia longa, partim fama, quae ubique divulgata est, 
informatus sum ad plenum, dilectioni vestrae assigno, post dictum patrem 
Aegidium, principaliter et ordinarie praesentandum. Injungo nihilominus 
vobis ad meritum salutaris obedientiae, quatenus praesentationem hujus- 
modi cum solemnitate solita sine multo dispendio facere debeatis ; si tamen 
constiterit vobis, quod dominus Cancellarius velit duos simul licentiare de 
nostris, volo et placet mihi, quod frater Albertus Methensis, si ad Con- 
ventum redire poterit, cum praefato fratre Joanne debeat expediri. In 
quo casu mando et ordino, quod dictus frater Albertus antiquitatis merito 
prius incipere debeat, dicto fratre Joanne sub eo postmodum incepturo. 
Valete in Domino et orate pro me. Datum in loco Esculi provinciae 
IMarchiae Anconitanae, xiv Kal. Dec. anno mccciv. 

Duns probably taught at Paris till 1307. Wadding, indeed, asserts 

evidence of his nationality is the name 
* Scotus,' and a note in the catalogue 
of the library at Assisi, written 1381: 
' Opus super quatuor libros sententiarum 
mag. fratris Johannis Scoti de Ordine 
Minorum qui et doctor subtilis nuncu- 
patur, de provincia Hiberniae.' 

1 Wood-Clark, II, 386. He must 
have attained the age of thirty by this 
time ; Archiv f. L. u. K. Gesch. VI, 
pp. 128-9. 

^ Wadding (VI, p. 48) cites some 
passages bearing on the date. Duns' 
great work on the Sentences is called 
Scriptum Oxoniense, but I do not know 

how far the name can be traced back ; 
Merton Coll. MSS. 60, 61, 62, date 
from the middle of the 15th century. 
Earth, of Pisa however says : ' Hie 
primo in Anglia Oxonie Sentencias legit. 
Deinde in studio Parisiensi.' 

^ He says, e. g. on the authority of 
the letter, that Duns was at Paris in 
1304 ; the letter implies exactly the 
opposite ; he was in ' some province 
other than the province of France.' 

^ Wadding, VI, 51, from Petrus 
Rodulphus, ' qui eas ex ipso exscripsit 


that he was sent to Cologne by the General Minister in 1305 ^ ; but 
this is almost impossible, and the description which Wadding gives of 
the scene is derived from later and unhistorical tradition. The state- 
ment, however, that he was appointed Regent by the friars in the 
General Chapter at Toulouse in 1307 sounds more plausible^; he 
may have been made the first Regent at Paris, or he may have been 
sent at this time as lector or Regent of the Franciscan schools at 
Cologne. At any rate there seems no reason to distrust the notice of 
his death which Wadding quotes from the list of friars who died at 
Cologne ^. 

* D.. P. frater Joannes Scotus, sacrae Theologiae Professor, Doctor 
Subtilis nominatus, quondam lector Coloniae, qui obiit anno MCCCViii, vi 
Idus Novembris.' 

This entry, though certainly not contemporary, was probably 
derived from some authentic record. Duns' title of Doctor SiibtiHs, 
though it does not seem to have been given him in his lifetime, is of 
considerable antiquity. It is mentioned by Bartholomew of Pisa at 
the end of the fourteenth century and by the MS. Catalogue at 
Assisi, written in 1381 ^ 

A collected edition of his works was printed at Lyons in 1639. 
Many of the works included in these twelve folio volumes are con- 
sidered doubtful by the editors ^. 

Some few treatises not included in this edition are assigned to him. 

Johannis Scoti super Apocalypsin noiulae. Inc. liber : ' Liber iste prin- 
cipaliter dividitur in tres partes.' (Doubtful.) 

MS. Bodl. :— Laud. Misc. 434, f. i (sec. xiv). 

[Ejusdem super S. Matthaei Evangelium notae. Inc. ' Liber gene- 
racionis,' &c. : ' Sicut fluvius de loco voluptatis egrediens.' 
MS. ibid. f. 75. 

1 Wadding, VI, 107. 

^ Ibid. 51. The passage is usually 
understood to refer to his regency at 
Paris. No record of the Chapter re- 

2 Ibid. 116. The statement that he 
died at the age of 34 or 43 is a pure 
guess. The tradition of his having been 
buried p,live when in a trance is found 
in St. Bernardin of Siena ; Wadding, VI, 


* Liber Conform, f. 81. 

5 Archiv f. L. u. K. Gesch. I, 368, 
n. I. Ehrle adds that the epithet occurs 
in some MSS. which he puts in the first 
half of the fourteenth century ; ibid. 

® See the critical notice prefixed to 
each work in the Lyons edition ; and 
Hist, Liu. Vol. XXV, pp. 426-446. 



[Ch. III. 

' Utrum pluralitas formalitatum possi't stare cum simpliciiate divine 

MS. Bodl. : Digby 54, f. 123 (sec. xv). 

De perfectio7ie statuum ^. Inc. ' Quod status prelatorum sc. pastorum 

MSS. Oxford :— Merton Coll. 65, f. 119 (a. d. 1456). 

Cambridge: — Public Library Dd. III. 47 (sec. xv) ; Corpus 

Christi Coll. 107, fol. 77-93a (sec. xv). 
Florence : — Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Crucis, Plut. xxxvi, Dext. 

Cod. xii, p. loi (sec. xiv exeuntis). 

OpusculumDoctoris Subtilis super aliquos canones Arzachel. (Doubtful.) 
MS. Cambridge : — Public Library 1017, f. 14-15 (sec. xv). Cf. Tanner, 
Bibl. p. 689, sub ' Stan tonus.' 

Tractatus Johannis Dons Scoti de lapide philosophorum. (Apocryphal.) 
MS. Paris:— Bibl. Nat. 14008, f. 156. 

Robert Cowton, or de Couton (co. York), according to W. 
Woodford, entered the Order when young ^. He was at Oxford 
in 1300, when the Provincial asked the Bishop of Lincoln to license 
him, among others, to hear confessions, but Robert was among the 
rejected ^ At this time he was not a doctor. According to Bale 
and Pits he studied philosophy at Oxford and theology at Paris: there 
can be Httle doubt that he obtained the degree of D.D. in the latter 
University. His title of ' the pleasant doctor * ' is not vouched for by 
any early authority. 

If we may draw any inference from the number of MSS. preserved, 
few works by any Franciscan were more in demand in England ^ in the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries than the Commentaries of Robert 
Cowton on the Sentences. The following MSS. contain them, or parts 
of them. 

London : — Brit. Mus. Royal 11 B. i, 11 B. iv. — Gray's Inn, 20. 

1 Rejected by Wadding without good 
reason : Hist. Liit. xxv, 447. 

2 Twyne MS. XXII, 103 c. 

3 Wood MS. F 29 a, 178 : ' Rob. de 
Couton ' is the eighteenth in the list of 
twenty-two names. 

* ^Doctor ainoenus vulgo vocatus est.' 
Pits, p. 443 (anno 1340). 

° I have not found any mention of 
Robert Cowton in any foreign library, 
unless * Cathon ' in Bibl. Nat. Paris 

MSS. 15886-7, be for Cowton. Valen- 
tinelli proposes to identify Cowton with 
'Frater ven. doctor Robertus Anglicus 
ordinis Minorum,' the author of a Dia- 
logus de formalitatibus inter OcJian- 
istam et Dumsistam (sic) : inc. ' quod 
verbis vituperii satis abundas ' ; MS. 
Venice; St. Mark, Vol. I. Class. V, 
Cod. 24 (sec. xv). The author was 
probably later than Cowton ; perhaps 
Robert Eliphat. 


Oxford: — Univ. Coll. 76, f. 455 — Balliol 192, 199, 200, 201 — Merton 
91, 92, 93 — New College 290 — Exeter 43 — Lincoln 36. 

Cambridge: — Caius Coll. 281, 324 — Peterhouse 73, 75 — Pembroke 

Malachias of Ireland is said by Wadding to have been a 
Franciscan and B.D. of Oxford, c. 1310. According to the same 
writer, he preached before Edward II, and was not afraid to rebuke 
the King to his face ^. 

Lihellus septem peccatorum morialtum, or, Tractatus de Veneno (often 
wrongly ascribed to Grostete.) 

MS. Brit. Mus. : Cott. Vitell. C. xiv, § 6. 
Printed at Paris 15 18. 

Walter Brinkley or Brinkel (co. Cambridge), called by Willot 
* the Good Doctor,' ' the ancient Doctor and Sophist is said by Bale 
to have been a doctor of Oxford and to have flourished a. d. 13 10. 
Bale and Pits give a Hst of his works, but nothing of a trustworthy 
nature appears to be known about him ^. 

John of Winchelsea, S.T.P. and Canon of Sahsbury, a fellow of 
Merton in the reigns of Henry III (?) and Edward I, entered the 
Minorite Order in his old age at Salisbury, and died during the year of 
his noviciate, a. d. 1326 

John Canon is said to have flourished c. 1320, and to have 
attended the lectures of Duns Scotus at Oxford and Paris ^. Wood, 
referring to the regestrum Oriell, says that his 

' philosophical! treatises were soe much esteemed among the students of this 
University that they were read to them by their tutors and by logick 
lecturers in each society 

^ Ann. Min. VI, 1 76 : Wadding re- 
fers vaguely to ' Irish MSS.' Cf. Bale, 
Script. II, 242-3. Diet, of Nat. 

2 Willot, Athenae, 83. Bale, Vol. 
II, p. 52 : 'Sophisticus doctor et scriptor 
antiquus.' William Woodford refers 
on several occasions to ' Doctor anti- 
quus' on the Sentences; Harl. MS. 31, 
f. 79, &c. 

^ Bale gives these notes in MS. Seld. 
sup. 64, fol. 16 b : Brynkcley . . . scrip- 
sit distinctiones theologicas, lib. I ; ' Ad 
sciendam primam originem et finalem ' ; 
ex Ratp,esiensi monasterio. Brenkyll 
Minorita scripsit lecturam sententia- 

rum, lib. IV ; ' Utrum per aliquam 
disciplinam vel scientiam ' ; ex Coll. 
Regine Oxon. Brinquilis Minorita 
anglus scripsit super sententias, lib. 
IV ; ' Sit aliqua conclusio theologica ' ; 
Ex bibl. Carmel. Parisiensium. 

* Mon. Franc. I, 543 ; Brodrick, Mem. 
of Merton Coll., 197-8 ; Bale, Script. I, 

5 Tanner, Bibl. 150. All Souls MS. 
87 (a.d. 1473), ' Joannis Scoti discipu- 
lus.' The note in Peterhouse MS. 2-4- 
2, ' studiit Oxon et Paris,' is in a late 
sixteenth-century hand. 

« Wood-Clark, II, 402. 



[Ch. III. 

Comment, in lihros octo Physicorum Aristotelis. Inc. prol. ' Venite 
ad me omnes qui laboratis.' Inc. opus. 'Utrum substancia 

Of the MSS. of the work, which are very numerous, the oldest appears 
to be Lambeth MS. loo, f. 103, which Todd refers to the 
thirteenth century. 

Printed at Padua 1475 \ St. Albans 1481, Venice 1481, 1487, 1492, &c. 

John Startle, friar, was appointed to receive at the Exchequer the 
royal grant of 25 marks payable at Easter 1323 to the Friars Minors 
at Oxford I 

' Philippus a Castellione Aretino ' (Castello near Arezzo) in the 
Tuscan province, is described by Wadding as, ' in theologia magister 
insignis apud Oxonienses! He flourished 13 16, and wrote treatises on 
the poverty of Christ^. 

William of Ockham, 'Auctor nominalium,' 'Doctor singularis,' 
' Doctor invincibihs ^' was born probably towards the end of the 
thirteenth century. Whether he was a pupil of Duns Scotus is 
doubtful. He studied at Oxford in the early years of the fourteenth 
century, and became B.D. there^. After this he was called to Paris, 
where he incepted as D.D. Here he became acquainted with 
Marsigho of Padua, over whom, according to Pope Clement VI, 
he exercised a powerful influenced It is probable that he was 
present at the famous Chapter of Perugia (1322), though he was not 
(as is usually asserted) Provincial of England'^. From the first he 
took a prominent part in the struggle against the Pope^. He was 

^ At the end of the work in this 
edition : ' Expliciunt questiones super 
octo libris phisicorum Aristotilis doc- 
toris profundissimi fratris Johannis 
canonici ordinis fratrum minorum Anno 
1475 . , . Padue impresse.' At the end 
of the volume : * . . . compilatum a do- 
mino iohanne marbres magistro in arti- 
bus tholose et canonico,' &c. The 
explicit of Book I and Book II attributes 
these quaestiones to * Doctor canonicus 
magister Petrus Casuelis ordinis mi- 

^ Record Off. Treasury of Receipt, 

^ Wadding, Ann. Min. VI, 246. 

* Wood says that Ockham received 

the last title from the Pope. Annals, 

I, 439- 

'•' Lambeth MS. 221 (sec. xiv), fol. 

308 b ; among ' modern Oxonians,* 
singled out for special praise, is ' Occam 
inceptor in theology.' Earth, of Pisa, 
Liber Conform, f. 81 b, calls him 
* Bacalarius formatus Oxonie.' Cf MS. 
Bibl. Mazarine, Paris, 894 (sec. xiv), 
' Questiones super primum librum Sen- 
tentiarum de ordinacione fratris Guillel- 
mi de Okham de ordine fratrum 
Minorum, Oxonie.' 

Riezler, Die literarischen Wider- 
sacher der Pdpste, &c. pp. 35, 241. 

Wadding, VI, 396; Riezler, p. 71, 
&c. The English Provincial was 
William of Nottingham. 

^ Wadding cites a letter of John 
XXII dated Kal. Dec. A^ viii (1323), 
ordering the Bishops of Ferrara and 
Bologna to inquire into a report that 


imprisoned at Avignon about the end of 1327, and a process 
was instituted against him in the Curia 

* because of many erroneous and heretical opinions which he had written 

He remained in custody for seventeen weeks, and refused to modify 
his opinions. It is said that a 'rich and noble lady/ in admiring 
recognition of his staunch defence of ' Evangelical Poverty,' gave him 
70 florins^. On May 25, 1328, he fled from Avignon with Cesena, 
the General Minister, and Bonagratia, joined the Emperor in Italy, 
and was excommunicated^. In Feb., 1330, he accompanied Louis 
to Bavaria, and lived henceforth for the most part in the Franciscan 
Convent at Munich ^ His literary activity was enormous, as may 
be seen from the list of his works. He took a direct part in the 
affairs of state, being present at the Councils of Reuse and Frankfurt 
in 1338^. From this time his writings, hitherto largely theological, 
became more distinctly political ^ In spite of excommunication, he 
continued to support the Emperors cause till Louis' death in 1347, 
and even later But now few only of the rebel friars were left: 
Cesena died in 1342, Bonagratia in 1347 ; and in 1349 Ockham sent 
back the seal of the Order to the orthodox General Minister, and 
professed his desire to be reconciled to the Church^. Clement VI 
authorized the General Minister to absolve Ockham and his associates 
on their confessing in set form their errors and heresies, and promising 
to obey the Pope and his successors. Whether Ockham subscribed 
the papal formula, nothing remains to show. The date of his 
death is uncertain; it may however be concluded that he died at 
Munich not before 1349^ 

Philosophical and Theological Works. 
Commentarii in Porphyrii lihrum : in Aristotelis Praedicamentorum 

Ockham had upheld the doctrine of 
Evangelical Poverty in a public sermon ; 
if so, he was to be sent to Avignon 
within a month. Ann. Min. VII, 7, 

^ Anal. Franc. II, 142. Among the 
writings must have been the treatise 
De paupertate Christi, which Leland 
and Wadding mention, but which has 
not been identified. Cf. also Wadding, 
VII, 81-2, who states a work written at 
Avignon in 1328 was afterwards inserted 
in the zfialogus. 

' Riezler, 71. 

3 Ibid. 68-71 ; Anal. Franc. II, 143. 
* Riezler, 76-7. 
^ Ibid. 95 seq. 
« Ibid. 82. 

' In his treatise on the election of 
Charles, the creature of the Pope. 

« Wadding, VIII, 12-13, where the 
letter of the Pope to the General Minister, 
with the form of absolution, is given. 

' Riezler; Wadding, VIII, pp. 10- 



[Ch. III. 

Uhrum (or De decern generibus) : iJi Aristotelis de Interpretatione 
libros duo : in libros Elenchorim. 
MSS. Oxford: — Bodl. Canonic. Misc. 558, fol. i, 24, 63^, 93 (sec. xiv). 
Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 1472 1. 
Bruges 499, olim 59 (sec. xiii ?). 
The first three of these works (and perhaps the last) were printed at 
Bologna in 1496, under the title Expositio aurea super totam 
art em Veterem. 

In his Catalogue of the Bruges MSS., Haenel reads ethicorum 
instead of elenchorum. Ockham seems to have written no distinct 
work on morals, though another is attributed to him by a careless 
blunder. Caius College MS. 200, § 3, contains, according to 
Smith's catalogue, Correcciones Occami {Occani in the old catalogue 
of 1697) in Oculum moralem. The MS. really reads: 
' Correcciones octaui capituli de Ira. nisi tibi iratus fuissem. Re- 

fert eciam Valerius. {Expl.) et ei reuelauit archana. Cum igitur 

In other words, it is merely a fragment of chapter viii. of the 
well-known Oculus moralis attributed to Grostete or Peter de 
Limoges. See e.g. MS. Bodl. Laud. Misc. 677, fol. 180 b, 2nd 

Summa logices {ad Adamuni) : 3 parts. Inc. ' Dudum me frater et 
amice. . . . Omnes logicae tractatores.' 
MSS. London: — Brit. Mus., Arundel 367 (sec. xiv). 

Cambridge :~Caius Coll. 464 ^ : ' Logica Gul. de Occham in sex 
tractatus divisa,' viz. (i) de terminis, (2) de propositioni- 
bus, (3) de Sillogismo simplici, (4) de S. demonstrative, 
(5) de S. topico, (6) de S. elenchorum, (written at Magde- 
burg, A. D. 1341): also Peterhouse 217. 
Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 6430, 6431, 6432 (sec. xiv); Bibl. Mazarine 

3521 (sec. xiv). 
Laon 431 (sec. xiv). 

Basel F ii. 25 (written at Oxford, A. D. 1342). 
Florence :— Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Crucis, Plut. xii. Sin. Cod. 
ii (sec. xiv), six books. 
Printed at Paris 1488, Venice 1522, Oxford 1675, &c. 

Quaes tiones in octo libros physicorum. Inc. ' Valde reprehensibilis.' 

MS. Oxford :— Merton Coll. 293 (sec. xiv). Cf. Vienna :— Bibl. Palat. 

5460 (sec. xv). 
Printed at Rome 1637 ^ 

* On the last fly-leaf is a rude por- 
trait of the author. 

^ According to Tanner, one of Ock- 

ham's works on the Physics was printed 
at Strasbiirg in 1491. 


In the Bibl. Nat. at Paris, MS. 17841 (sec. xv) contains Quest. Okam 
super lib. Physic, et quotlibeta. The first leaf seems to have been 
misplaced ; inc., ' (U)trum deus sit super omnia diligendus : 
quod non.' The second leaf begins : ' Circa materiam de conceptu 
questio (?) utrum conceptus sit aliquid fictum ' : the questions on 
the physics end on fol. 26. They appear to differ from the 
above ^ 

Questiones Ockam super phisicam et tractatus ejusdem de fuluris con- 
MS. Bruges 469 (sec. xiv). 
Summulae in libros physicorum (called by Leland, De introitu scienti- 
,arum)'. 4 parts. Inc. proL ' Studiosissime saepiusque rogatus.' 
Inc. Pars. I. ' Solent ante preambula indagare sapientes ante 
scientie ingressum de ipsis scientiis. . . . Primo de ejus 

MS. Rodez, 56, p. 107 (sec. xv), ' Philosophia naturalis.' 
Printed at Venice 1506, and elsewhere. 
Quaestiones (or Commentarii) in quatuor libros Senientiarum. Inc. 
' Circa prologum primi libri Sententiarum quero prinio utrum 
sit possibile intellectui viatoris.' 
MSS. Oxford :—Balliol Coll. 299, f. 7 (sec. xiv) ; Merton College 100 
(sec. xiv). 

Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 15561, f. 246 (sec. xv). 
Basel A vi. 12. 
Printed at Lyons 1495, &c. 

Ockham's commentary on the first book of the Sentences was 
probably composed when he was B.D. of Oxford; it is longer 
than his commentaries on the other three books together, and is 
often found separate. 

MSS. Oxford :— Merton Coll. 106 (sec. xiv). 
Cambridge: — Caius Coll. 335. 

Paris : — Bibl. Mazarine 894 (sec. xiv), ' de ordinacione fratris 

Guillelmi de Okham de ordine fratrum Minorum Oxonie.* 
Troyes 718 (sec. xiv). 
Printed separately (at Strasburg) in 1483. 

It is possible that the commentaries on the last three books 
exist in a fuller form in the following MSS. than in the printed 
editions : — 

MSS. Paris:— Bibl. Nat. 16398 (sec. xv), books 3 and 4; Cf. ibid. 

^ Another work on the Physics prol. ' Philosophos pluriraos ' : inc. opus. 

ascribed to Ockham was preserved at *Iste liber dividitur in duas partes.' 

Assisi, and perhaps is there still: inc. (Wadding, Sup. ad Script. 328.) 

Q 2 



[Ch. III. 

16708, f. 253^ (sec. xiv), 'Circa tertium Sententiarum 
secundum Okkam.' 
Munich : — Bibl. Reg. 8943 (sec. xv), books 2, 3, and 4. 
Quodliheta septem. Inc. quodl. i. qu. i. ' Utrum possit probari per 
rationem naturalem quod tantum unus sit deus : quod sic' 
MSS. Paris :— Bibl. Nat. 16398, f. 173 (sec. xv), and 17841, fol. 28 (sec. 

xv) : the latter ends abruptly near the beginning of the 
fourth quodlibet. 
Venice : — Bibl. S. Anton. (Tomasin, p. 11 b). 
Printed at Paris 1487, Argentina 1491. 
At the end of the edition of 149 1 : ' Expliciunt quotlibeta septem 
venerabilis inceptoris magistri Wilhelmi de Ockam anglici, veritatum 
speculatoris acerrimi, fratris ordinis minorum, post ejus lecturam Oxoni- 
ensem (super sententias) edita.' 

De moiu, loco, tempore, relatione, praedestinatione ei praescientia Dei\ 
et quodlihetum. 
MS. Basel F ii. 24. 

Cf. MS. Paris:— Bibl. Nat. 14715, f. 82^ (sec. xiv); 14909, f. 102^; 
14579? f. 345 ; 14580, f. iio'^. Incip'mnt: ' Quia circa materiam de 
predestinatione et prescientia sunt opiniones diverse.' 

De successivis. Inc. ' Videndum est de locis.' 

MS. Paris :— Bibl. Nat. 16130, f. 121 (sec. xiv). Cf. MS. Bruges, 500. 
Propositio an sit concedenda ; essentia divina est quaternitas. 

MS. Basel A vii. 13. 
De Sacramento altaris, and De corpore Christi: 2 treatises \ Inc. i. 
' Circa conversionem panis.' Inc. ii. ' Stupenda super munera 

MSS. Oxford :—Balliol Coll. 299, f. 196 (sec. xiv); Merton College 

137 (sec. xiv). 
Rouen, 561 (sec. xv). 
Printed at Argentina 1491, at the end of the Quodliheta; at Paris 

(1490 ?), and Venice 1516. 

Centiloquium theologicum. Inc. prol. ' Anima nobis innata eo potius 
naturaliter appetit cognoscere suum finem, quo pre ceteris 
appetentibus omnibus corruptibiHbus creatis ratione ditata ad 
ymaginem et similitudinem dei Celsius eminentiusque figuratur.' 
Printed at Lyons 1495, at the end of the Sentences. 

^ The first, consisting of three qtiaes- 
iiones, is called : ' Tractatus quam glori- 
osus de Sacramento altaris, et in primis 
de puncti, linee, supcrficiei, corporis, 
quantitatis, qualitatis et substantie dis- 
tinctione,' The second contains 

forty-one chapters : 'Tncipit accessus ad 
tractatum de corpore Christi.' Explicit : 
' hec tamen simpliciter falsa est, corpus 
Christi est quantitas in sacramento 


Quaesiiones Ocham in ierminahiles Alherti de Saxonia. 

MS. Padua: — Bibl. S. Joannis in Viridario (Tomasin, p. 37). 
Sermones Occham, by William or Nicholas of Ockham ? 

MS. Worcester :— Cathedral Library 74 quarto ( = Bernard, Tom. 
II. 918). 

Notes or disputations on theology and philosophy^ to which the name 
' Okam ' is appended. 
MS. Paris:— Bibl. Nat. 15888, f. 163, 174, 181. 

Gul. Ocham quedam scripta. 

MS. Venice: — Bibl. SS. Joannis et Pauli (Tomasin, p. 25^). 

Political Works. 
The dates are taken for the most part from Riezler. 
Opus nonaginta dierum (written between 1330 and 1333). Inc.proL 
' Doctoris gentium et Magistri Beati Pauli.' 
MS. Paris :— Bibl. Nat. 3387, fol. 1-163 b (sec. xv). 
Printed at Louvain 1481, Lyons 1495, and in Goldast's Monarchia, II. 

This treatise corresponds to Dialogus, Part III, Tract vi. de gestis 
fratris Michaelis de Cesena (see below). 

Epistola ad Fr aires Minor es in Capitulo apud Assisium congregatos, 
A.D. 1334. Inc. 'Religiosis viris fratribus minoribus universis 
A. D. Millesimo cccxxxiiii. in festo Petri apud Assisium congre- 
gatis frater Guilhelmus de Ocham fidem defensare.' 
MS. Paris : — Bibl. Nat. 3387, fol. 262 b-265 a (sec. xv). 
This has not been printed and is not mentioned by Riezler ; it is 
distinct from the letter of Cesena to the Friars Minors about to 
assemble in Chapter at Perpignan or Avignon, dated April 25, 
1 33 1 (printed Lyons 1495), and the letter of Cesena to all the 
Friars Minors, dated Jan. 24, 1331 (printed ibid.; Goldast, II. 
1238, and Riezler, 248, give 1333 as the date of this last letter). 

Dialogus ^ inter magistrum et discipulum de Imperatorum et Pontificum 
Potestate ; 3 parts : 

i. De fautorihus haereticorum lihri sepiem (written a. d. 1342 or 
1343). Inc. * In omnibus rebus curiosus existis.' 

ii. De dogmatihus Johannis XXII, tractatus duo (a. d. 1333 or 
1334). Inc. 'Verba oris ejus iniquitas et dolus.' 

Ocl^ham did not write the Disptitatio inter militem et clericutn. See 
Riezler, 144-8. 


iii. De gesiis circa fidem altercantium (a. d. 1342-3). (i) De 
potestate papae et cleri; 4 books. (2) De potestate et juribus 
Romani imperii; 3 books. Inc, 'Discip. Salomonis utcumque 
sequendo vestigia.' 

MSS. London : — Brit. Mus. Royal 7 F xii, §§ i and 2 (sec. xv), Parts 
I and II ; Harleian, 33 (sec. xv), Parts I and II ; Addit. 
33243 (sec. xv), Parts I and II; also Lambeth Palace 
Library 168 (sec. xv), Parts II and III. 

Oxford : — St. John's College, 69 (sec. xv), Part I. 

Paris:— Bibl. Nat. 3657 (sec. xiv) Part I, fol. 1-208 ; Part II, 
fol. 289-321 ; Part III, Tractatus ii, fol. 210-287, break- 
ing off with the vi^ords nec antedkte sedis scil. Romane 
antistitem in Lib. 3, cap. 16 of Tract, ii ; also 143 13 (a. d. 
1389), Parts I and II ; 14619, fol. 121-166 (sec. xv). Part 
III, Tractatus ii, breaking off in Lib. 3, cap. 16 of Tract, 
ii, as above; 15881 (sec. xiv), Parts I, II; and Part III, 
Tractatus ii, breaking off in Lib. 3, cap. 16, as above. — 
Bibl. de I'Arsenal 517, fol. 17-303, Parts I, II, and III, 
ending with the words ' Magister Hoc multis racionibiis im- 
probatur. Prima . . .', in Chapter 17 of the 3rd book of 
Tractatus ii of Part IIP, — Bibl. Mazarine 3522 (sec. xiv), 
fol. 149-198, Part III, Tract, ii, ending in Cap. 16 of 
Lib. 3 ; fol. 200-246, Part III, Tract, i ; fol. 246-297, Part 
III, Tract, ii, ending with Cap. 23 of Lib. i, passibilis et 

Rome: — Vatican, Bibl. Regin. Sueciae, 90 ; cf. 79,' de potestate 

papae.' (Montfaucon.) 
Dijon 340 (sec. xv), Parts I, II, and III, ending with the words 

^ pro nunc tibi sufficiant^ as in the printed editions. 
Auxerre 252, f. 88 (sec. xiv), containing Part III, Tract, ii 

(3 books). 
Avignon 185, containing Part I. 

Toulouse 221 (sec. xiv), Parts I, II, and Part III, Tractatus ii, 

which is called Tractatus iii in ihe MS. 
Basel A vi. 5, Parts I, II, and III. 

Florence :—Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Crucis, Plut. xxxvi. Dext. 

Cod. ,xi (sec. xiv), Parts I and II. 
Venice :— St. Mark, Vol. I, CI. viii. Cod. 7 (sec. xv). Part I, 

book 6. 

Printed at Lyons 1495 ; reprinted in Goldast's Monarchia II, 398-957. 

Part III, according to the scheme drawn up in the Prologue 
was to consist of nine treatises : 

i. De potestate papae et cleri ; ii. De potestate et juribus Romani 

* I do not know whether this MS. bably, like most of the MSS., it omits it. 
contains Tractatus i of Part III; pro- ^ Goldast, Monarchia, II, 771. 


Imperii; iii. De gestis Johannis XXII; iv. De gestis Domini 
Ludovici de Bavaria ; v. De gestis Benedicti XII ; vi. De gestis 
fratris Michaelis de Cesena ; vii. De gestis et doctrina fratris 
Geraldi Odonis ; viii. De gestis fratris Guilhelmi de Ockham ; ix. 
De gestis aliorum Christianorum, regum, &c. 

The edition of 1495, of which Goldast's is a reprint, ends at the 
23rd chapter of the 3rd book of Treatise II, with the words : 

*passibilis et mortalis. Et haec de tertia parte Dialogorum pro nunc tibi 

The last sentence Goldast surmises to be an addition of the 
editor; Ascensius; but it occurs at the end of the Dijon MS., and 
both Goldast and Riezler are probably mistaken in thinking that 
Ascensius had the whole work before him and arbitrarily omitted 
Treatises III-IX\ These were probably never written. The Lambeth 
MS. (the only MS. in England which contains Part III) and one 
version in the Mazarine MS. end with the words * passibilis et 
mortalis,' like the printed editions, with the colophon (in Lambeth 
MS.) : ' Dyalogorum venerabilis Guillermi Okam finis.' The five 
other MSS. in Paris, which contain Part III, leave out the last seven 
chapters of the printed edition, and the Auxerre and Toulouse MSS. 
likewise do not go beyond the third book of Treatise II. It is possible 
that the Vatican and Basel MSS. may supply the remaining treatises; 
but this is unlikely. About the year 1400, Peter d'Ailly, who must 
have had exceptionally good opportunities for getting information ^, 
wrote a summary of the Dialogus ^. In this he omits Treatise I of 
Part III, and concludes with the i6th chapter of the third book of 
Treatise II (like the Parisian MSS.), adding : 

* et non plus de hoc notabili opere potui reperire ' 

^ Goldast, Monarchia, II, 957 ; Riez- 
ler, 263. Goldast speaks of six treatises 
only as missing, being apparenty under 
the impression that he has printed 
three. The subdivisions are very con- 
fusing, and lead to many mistakes. 

^ He was B.D. of Paris in 1373 ; 
D.D. in 1380; Chancellor in 1389; 
Bishop of Cambrai in 1396; Cardinal 
in 141 1 ; he died in 1425. Oudin, 
Scriptores, III, p. 2293. 

3 MS. Paris, Bibl. Nat. 14579, fol. 
88 — fol. loib: 'Explicit abbreviatio 
Dyalo^ Okan quam fecit magister 

Petrus de Alliaco Episcopus Camera- 
censis et postea cardinalis.' 

* Ibid. f. I Gib. His nomenclature 
differs from that used here and (generally 
though not consistently) in the printed 
editions : thus he calls ' Pars I ' Trac- 
iatus pri77ius ; ' Pars II/ Tractatus 
secundus ; ' Pars III, Tract ii ' (the only 
portion of Part III known to him), 
Tractatus tertius. Thus fol. 98 b : 
' Tractatus tertius est de viribus Ro- 
mani imperii et habet 5 libros.' Books 
1,2, and 3, correspond to those printed 
in Goldast (Pars III, Tract, ii, Libri i, 


Several of Ockham's other works correspond in substance to the 
projected treatises of Part III ; these will be noted in due course. 

Defcnsorium {de paupertate Christi) contra Johannem XXII (written 
between 1335 and 1349). Inc. ' Universis Christi fidelibus. . . . 
Primus error est quod Dominus noster.' 
Printed at Venice 15 13, and by Edw. Brown, Fascic. Rerum expetend. 
II, 439-464. 

De imperaiorum et pontifictim pofestafe ] 27 chapters or paragraphs. 
Inc. prol. ' Universis Christi fidelibus presentem tractatulum 
inspecturis, fraler Willelmus de Okkham.' Inc. cap. i. ' Si 
reges et principes ecclesiarum.' 
MS. Brit. Museum: Royal 10 A, xv (sec. xiv). 
Tractaius adversus errores Johannis XXII, or Compendium errorum 
papae (written between 1335 and 1338). Inc. * Secundum 
Bokkyg (?) super sacram scripturam.' 
MSS. London: — Lambeth 168, fol. 289-314 (sec. xv). 

Paris : — Bibl. Mazarine 3522, fol. 298-310 (sec. xiv). 
Printed at Louvain 148 1, Lyons 1495, and in Goldast II, 957-976. 
Cf. Dialogus, Part III, Tract, iii. 

Opusciilum adversus errores Johannis XXII. Inc. ' Non invenit 
locum penitencie Johannes XXIL . . . Ut pateat evidenter, 
quod retractatio quam Johannes XXII fecisse refertur, ipsum 
ab hereticorum numero non excludit.' 

MS. Paris:— Bibl. Nat. 3387, fol. 175-213^ (sec. xv). 
Tractatus ostendens quod Benedictus Papa XII nonnullas Johannis 
XXII haereses amplexus est et defendit; 7 books (written 
c. 1338). Inc. prol. 'Ambulavit et ambulat insensanter non 
re sed nomine Benedictus XII in viis patris sui Johannis vidz. 
XXIL' Inc. lib. i, ' Dogmatum perversorum que Johannes 
XXII pertinaciier tenuit.' 

MS. Paris :— Bibl. Nat. 3387, fol. 2i4''-262a (sec. xv). 

Cf. Dialogus, Pars III, Tract, v. 

Tractatus oqud (sic) de potestate impcriali. Inc. ' Inferius describuntur 
allegaciones per plures magistros in sacra pagina approbate 
per quas ostenditur evidenter quod processus factus et sentencia 
lata in frankfort per dominum lodowicum quartum dei gracia 

2, 3) : Book 4 discussed whether the 
emperor should defend the rights of the 
Roman Empire by arms ' etiam contra 
papam caidinalcs et clerum'j Book 5 

treated * de rebellibus, proditoribus, . . . 
Romani imperii.' These two books 
were not known to Peter d'Ailly, and 
arc not now to be found. 


Romanorum imperatorem.' The decree of Louis referred to 
is dated Aug. 6, 1338^. 

MS. Rome:— Bibl. Apostol. Vaticana, Codd. Palat. Latin. No. 679. 

Pars I, fol. 117 (sec. xv). 
Cf. Boehmer, Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, p. 592, * ex libro 

Nicolai Minoritae de controversia paupertatis Christi 1324-1338.' 

Inc. ' Subsequenter ponuntur articuli et describunter de juribus 


Octo questiones super potestate ac dignitate papali, or De potestate 
poniificum et imperatorum (written between 1339 and 1342). 
Inc. ' Sanctum canibus nullatenus.' Inc. quest, i . ' Primo igitur 
. queritur utrum potestas spiritualis et laicalis suprema.' 

MSS. Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 14603, fol. 147-216 (sec. xiv): 'Explicit 
tractatus venerabilis, theologi Guillelmi Okam de potestate pape.' 
• — Bibl. Mazarine, 3522, f. 104-148 (sec. xiv). 

Cf. MS. Rome, Vatican, Bibl. Reg. Sueciae, 79, De potestate Papae ; 
and 375, De potestate utriusque jurisdictionis. 

De juris die ti'one Imperatoris in causis matrimonialibus , a. d. 1342, 
Inc. ' Divina providentia disponente.' 
Printed at Heidelberg 1598; and in Goldast I, 21. It is of doubtful 
authenticity ; see Riezler, 254. 

De electione Caroli IV (written 1347-9). Inc. 'Quia sepe viri 

See Riezler, p. 271, 303, who refers to Hofler, Aus Avignon, 13. 

The following treatises by Ockham are mentioned by Leland, 
Wadding, and others, but have not been identified. 

I. Philosophical. 
De pluralitate formae, contra Sutton (Leland, Tanner). 
De invisihilibus (Leland). 

Tractatus incip. : ' Dominus potest facere omne quod fieri vult non 
includit contradictionem ' : — 

seen by Leland in the Franciscan Library, London (Collect. Ill, 49): 
Tanner identifies it with Defensorium Logices. Perhaps it is the same as 
Dialectica No'va : inc. ' Gontradictio in Deo non est.' (Bale, Pits). 

Comment, in Metaphysicam. 

Tanner refers to MSS. Peterhouse 217 (where however no mention of 
it occurs), and Caius Coll. K. 5 (?), perhaps a mistake for H. 5 = 464, 
which contains Ockham's logic. 

/ ^ Analecta Franciscana II, 169 sqq. 



[Ch. III. 

Leland adds : 

Vidi etiam tres libros Ochami, quorum primus Be pri'vatione, de materia 
prima^ de forma quae est principium, et De forma artific'iali ; secundus vero 
De causis materially formali, efficiente, jinali ; tertius De mutatione subita 

[Cf. Quaestiones in lib. Physic f\ 
De perfectione specieriim (Wadding). Inc. ' Quia Magister.' 
II. Political 

De pauper tate Christi ei Apostolorum (Tritheim, Wadding). 

This is probably incorporated in the Dialogus (see Wadding, Ann. 
Min. VIII, 81-2). Cf. MS. Florence :—Laurentiana, ex Bill S, 
Crucis, Plut. xxxi. Sin. Cod. iii (sec. xiv). 

De actibiis hierarchicis, lib. i (Wadding). 

Wadding, Sup.: 'citat Joan. Picus Mirandulanus in sua Apologia 
quaest. i.' 

Errorum quos affinxit papae Johanni, lib. i (Wadding). Ltc. ' Locuti 
adversum me lingua.' 
(Probably identical with one of the extant treatises.) 
Defensoriuin (against the pope); mentioned by Leland, Bale, &c. 
Inc. ' Omni quippe regno desiderabilis.' 
This is the Defensor pads of Marsilius of Padua. 

Note. — In his catalogue of Vatican MSB., Montfaucon mentions, 
2imoT\^ Praecipui codices MSS. Bihlioihecae Vaticanae, ' 947, ad 956 
Guill. Occhami opera.' See Montfaucon, Bibl. Bibliothecarum MSS. 
p. 100. 

Henry de Costesey or Cossey (Norfolk) is reckoned among 
the Oxford Franciscans by Bale and others, but without evidence. 
He was forty-sixth Master of the Minorites at Cambridge (c. i336)\ 
and is said to have died at Bab well 
Commentarius super Apocalypsim. Inc. ' Apocalypsis Jhesu Christi 
quam. . . . Dividitur enim iste liber sicut ahi libri in prohemium 
et tractatum.' 

MSS. Bodl.: 2004= ^E. B. 3. 18, now Bodlcy 57. Laud. Misc. 85, 
fol. 67 b (sec. xiv). 
Cambridge: — Pembroke Coll. 175. 

Comment, super Psalterium. Inc. ' Apei iam in psalterio.' 

MS. formerly in the Franciscan library, London^: quoted in MS. 
Bodl. Laud. Misc. 213, f. 192 (sec. xv). 

' Mon. Franc. I, 556. Tanner (Bibl. * Bale, T, 409. 
202) confounds him with another H. do ^ Leland, Collect. Ill, 49. 
Costesey in the fifteenth century. 


John de Hentham was a Minorite in the Oxford Convent in 
1340, when he acted as attorney for the warden \ 

Hugh de Willoughby or Wylluby, S.T.P., was the Chaneellor 
of the University in 1334. He held the prebend of Barnbyy in the 
diocese of York, in 1338. It is not known when he became 
a Franciscan ; but it was no doubt in his declining years ^. 

Peter de Gaieta was elected in the General Chapter at Assisi, 
c. 1340, to take the degree of B.D. and lecture on the Sentences at 
Oxford. When the appointment of a friar to read the Sentences- 
at Paris was discussed in the General Chapter at Marseilles in 13:43, 
Peter obtained many votes. In the same year the degree of Master 
in the University of Naples was conferred on him by the command of 
Pope Clement VI. He had previously lectured on the Sentences 
there, and been Minister of the Provinces of Apulia and Terra 
Laboris ^ 

John Lathbury (Bucks), said to have been a native of the 
Reading friary*, was D.D. of Oxford and flourished about the middle 
of the fourteenth century^ The evidence for the date is found in 
his own most famous work^; the passage may be quoted as an 
authentic specimen of a subject of conversation between two Oxford 
Franciscans : 

* Item anno domini 1343 in capitulo provinciali Londoniis celebrato, et 
in Oxonia plurimis vicibus prius et post in studio seciim commoranti, frater 
Hermanus de Colonia fratri Johanni de Latthebury retulit viva voce, quod 
in patria sua est quedam villa que vulgariter dicatur Enger, de qua Anglia 
vocaliter derivatur, et prope illam villam ad distanciam unius miliarii est 
quedam quercus, arbor ingens et antiqua, ad quam ipse cum esset puerulus 
ex more patrie cum reliquis concurrebat. Nam omni nocte nativitatis 
Christi, quasi nocte media, quercus ilia glandes grandes et perfectas subita 
apparicione ex se profert et producit coplose. Unde et incole illius patrie 
annuatim ilia nocte ad ilium locum turmatim ex consuetudine concurrunt, 
et ibi cum luminibus et lanternis vigilantes, horam solitam expectant et 

1 Twyne MS. XXIII, 266 ; cp. Part I, 
Chapter VIL 

2 Wood, Hist, et Antiq. II, 398 ; Le 
Neve, Fasti III, 465, 170; Men. Franc. 
I, 542. 

Wadding, VII, 291. 
* According to Bale he left several of 
his works to the convent at Reading ; 
I have not found the authority for this 
statement. See Tanner, Bibl. 469. 
Adam de Lathbury was Abbat of 
Reading^monastery in 1233. Dugdale, 

Vol. VI, Part III, p. 1509. 

5 The assertion that he flourished in 
1406 rests on a misunderstanding of the 
explicit in MS. Merton Coll. 1 89 : 
' explicit secundum alphabetum et sic 
totum opus est completum A. D. 1406.' 
This of course only refers to the writing 
of the MS. 

^ Liber moralium in Threnos, cap^ 
106; Merton Coll. MS. 189, fol. 17.J 


[Ch. III. 

€xplorant, bibentes, edentes, ludentes et noctem insompnem ducentes, 
habentes secum lapides, baculos et saculos pro fructu arboris excuciendo 
et asportando.' 

There appear to have been two contemporary Minorites of the 
same name and family. Bale, after mentioning the commentaries 
of John Ridevaus on the letter of Valerius to Rufinus and the mytho- 
logies of Fulgentius, adds ^ : 

* Hos libros cum multis aliis Joannes Lathbury senior contulit juniori 
Joanni Lathbury a.d. 1348. Ex cenobio Minorum Radinge.' 

The elder died at Reading at an advanced age in 1362, the younger 
at Northampton in 1375^. It is not clear which of the two was the 

The best known work of John Lathbury is his Commentary on 
Lamentations^ or Liber moralium in Threnos Hieremiae, or Ledura 
super lihrum Threnorum. Inc. ' Juxta mores modernorum.' 

MSS. Oxford :—Merton Coll. 189— Exeter Coll. 27, &c. 

Printed at Oxford in 1482, being one of the first books issued by the 
Oxford press. 

Distindionum liber iheologicarufn, or Alphabetum morale. Inc. 
' Abstinendum est a carnalibus delitiis.' 
MSS. Brit. Mus. : Royal 11 A xiii (sec. xv). 

Oxford: — Exeter Coll. 26 (sec. xv), with the note 'Johannes 
Latbury, doctor de ordine fratrum minorum, qui fecit lec- 
turam super librum Trenorum, compilavit istum tractatum. 
Cambridge : — Peterhouse 96. 

De luxuria cleric or U7n. 

Extracts from this treatise of Lathbury's are in MS. Bodl. James 19 
(Gf. Bernard's Catal. I, 260 b), from MSS. in Exeter College: the 
treatise itself seems to be extracted from the Distinctiones. 

De iimore et amore Domini^ &c., secundum Johanne?n Lathbury^ 
Thomam de Alquino . . . aliosque. 
MS. Oxford: — Magd. Coll. 93 (a.d. 1438); perhaps merely excerpts 
from some other work. 

Super Acta Apostoloru?n. Inc. * Superedificati estis supra funda- 
mentum apostolorum.' 
Mentioned by Bale (MS. Scld. sup. 64, fol. 89) 'ex musaeo Rob. 

Hermann of Cologne was a contemporary and friend of John 
Lalhbury at Oxford, c. 1343"^ It is impossible to identify him wiih 

^ MS. Selden, supra 64, fol. 75. «juodam Minoritaium registro." 

' MS. ScMcDj sui)ra 64, fol. 89, 'ex Sec notice of Lathbury. 


any of the other Hermanns who belonged to the Minorite Order at 
this time: e.g. Hermann of Saxony, the lawyer (fl. 1337), or Hermann 
Gygas, the historian ^. 

Robert (or John?) Lamborne, 
* the son of a baron, and the last heir of that barony, entered the Order in 
London 2.' 

He became confessor to Queen Isabella in 1327^, and he still oc- 
cupied this office, ' though he was so attenuated that he was almost 
or quite blind,' in 1343, when Clement VI granted him certain 
privileges ^ It is however very doubtful whether he was ever at Oxford. 
The name occurs in the Old Catalogue of Fellows of Merton College, 
under 'the reign of Edward III. If the two are identical, Lamborne 
ought to be placed in the Catalogue under Edward II, as he was 
clearly a friar in 1327; but there is no good reason for assuming their 
identity : Robert Lamborn of Merton may be a mistake for Reginald 
Lamborn^. Friar John (?) Lamborne, confessor to Queen Isabella, 
was buried in the choir of the Grey Friars Church, London®. 

Reginald Lambourne was B.D. of Merton College (c. 1350- 
1360), where he was a pupil of the famous mathematicians, William 
Rede and John Ashendon ^. He then entered the Benedictine Order, 
was at Eynsham Abbey in 136I and 1367, and incepted D.D. as 
a monk ^ He afterwards took the Franciscan habit at Oxford, and 
died at Northampton ^. 
Epistola a Reginaldo Lambourne, monacho simplici Eynshamensi, ad 
quendam Johannem London, de signijicaiione ecUpsium lunae 
' hoc anno instante, 1363/ 

^ Wadding, Script. 116; Sup. ad 
Script. 341. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 541. 

^ Record Office, Roman Transcripts, 
Regesta, Vol. V, f. 80-81, i Clement 
VI ; ' per sexdecim annorum spatium 
continue institit.' 

* Record Office, Roman Transcripts, 
ibid. He has permission to con- 
tinue to reside in the London convent, 
to have a decent chamber, one friar as 
socius, one clerk, two servants, and to 
dispose of his books and other pro- 

^ Mem. of Merton, p. 208. 

* ' Item versus finem chori ex parte 
Boriali a stallis sub fune lampadis jacet 
sub lon^o lapide ffrater Johannes Lam- 

born confessor Regine Isabelle et filius 
Baronis et ultimus heres illius baronis.' 
MS. Cott. Vitell. F XII, fol. 276. 

Mon. Franc. I, 543 ; Mem. of Mer- 
ton, 208. 

* Mon. Franc, ibid. ; MS. Digby 176, 
fol. 50, 40. 

^ Mon. Franc, ibid. He may be the 
same as Langberg or Langborow, fellow 
of Merton in 1357, and S.T.P., who is 
said to have become a Minorite. Simon 
Lamborn, fellow of Merton in 1347, 
Proctor in 1361, and S.T.P., is also said 
to have entered the Order, but Wood 
reasonably supposes this incident to 
have been borrowed from the life of 
Reginald Lambourne. Memorials of 
Merton, 208-9. 


[Ch. IIT. 

Epistola a Reginaldo Lamhourne monacho Eynshamensi [ad. Gul. 
Rede ut videtur] 1367, de conjunctionihus Saturni Jovis et 
Mariis cuvi prognostic atione malorum inde in annis 136 8- 1374 
prohahiliter occurrentium. 
MS. Bodl. : — Digby 176, fol. 50, and 40 (sec. xiv). 
Robert Eliphat flourished in the middle of the fourteenth century; 
he is placed among the Masters of the English Province by Bartho- 
lomew of Pisa^ Pits states that he was famous at Oxford and Paris^. 
There can be little doubt that he is identical with Robert Alifax or 
Halifax, the fifty-sixth Master of the Franciscans at Cambridge ^ 

Rohertus Haliphax de senteniiarum libris I et II. 

MS. Assist 161 (sec. xiv). 
Primus Eliphat super senientias. 

MSS. Paris:— Bibl. Nat. 14514 (sec. xiv). 

Vienna : — Bibl. Palat. 151 1, f. 1 10-120 (sec. xiv). 
Quaestiones Rob. Eliphat, 

MSS. Paris:— Bibl. Nat. 14576 (xiv), 15561, f. 243 (xv), 15880 (xiv), 
15888, f. 181, (xiv) ^ 

Gilbert Peekham, fellow of Merton in 1324 and 1339, may be 
identical with the fifty-ninth Master of the Minorites at Cambridge 

William Tithemersch (co. Northampton), 'of the custody of 
Oxford,' was sixty-first Master of the Minorites at Cambridge, and 
twenty-first Provincial, about 1350; he was succeeded by Roger 
Conway, and was buried at Bedford ^. 

William Scharshille (co. Staff"ord), 
* formerly a justiciary under Edward III, gave away all his temporal goods 
and entered the Order, with great honour, at Oxford 

The date is not specified. A William de Shareshull, who is no doubt 
the same person, was ordered to attend a parliament in Scodand 
for the confirmation of a treaty between Edward III and Edward 
Balliol, in 1333; he is mentioned as a justice of assize in 1337, and 
he was appointed one of the examiners of some ecclesiastical petitions 
to Parliament in I35I^ In 1356 ' Dominus Willhelmus de Schars- 

* Liber Conform, f. 81 b. * Cf. also p. 222, note 5, above. 

^ Pits, p. 443. Bale is less definite, * Mon. Franc. I, 557; Mem. of 

' Anglorum gymnasia . . . pctiit.' I, 416. Merton Coll., 195, 346. 

€f. Wadding, VII, 170 (a. D. 1334). ® Mon. Franc. I, 557, 560, 538. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 557. Tanner men- Mon. P>anc. I, 541. 

tions him as Robert Eliphat, and " Rymer s Foed. Vol. 11, Part. II, pp. 

' Aliphat Anglus, Gregorii Ariminensis 870, 991 ; Vol. Ill, Part. I, p. 230. 
auditor'; Bibl. pp. 259, 36. 


huir appears among the witnesses to an indenture between the 
University of Oxford and Richard d'Amory ^. 

Richard Lymynster and Giuliortus de Limosano are men- 
tioned in a University decree as 'wax-doctors' of the Mendicant 
Orders at Oxford in 1358. It is uncertain to which Order the former 
belonged. The latter was a Minorite from Sicily, who tried to obtain 
the degree of B.D. by means of letters from the king of England^. 

Jerome of St. Mark is said to have been a Minorite and Bache- 
lor of Oxford, and author of a treatise on logic. His date — or even 
the century in which he lived — is unknown ^. 

John of Nottingham was a member of the Oxford Convent in 
the middle of the fourteenth century : he was one of the witnesses to 
the will of Robert de Trenge, Warden of Merton, and perhaps his 
confessor; the will was executed 1351, and proved 1357*. 

Roger Conway, of the convent of Worcester and D.D. of Oxford, 
in 1355 obtained papal Hcense to live in the Franciscan Convent 
of London 

* for the spiritual recreation of himself and of the nobles of England,' 

who were said to flock in great numbers to this friary ; Roger was to 
be subject to the rules of the house like any other friar^ In 1357 
he came forward as the champion of the Mendicant Orders against 
the Archbishop of Armagh, and wrote and preached in London 

* on the poverty of Christ ' and the right of the friars to hear con- 
fessions ^. According to one account 

* he strenuously defended his Order in the Curia against Armachanus 

In 1359 Innocent VI issued a bull confirming the decree Vas 
eleciionis of John XXII, 

* at the instance of Roger Coneway of the Order of Friars Minors, who 
asserts that he needs these letters on behalf of the said Order 

He was twenty-second Provincial Minister of England ^, and 

^ Mun. Acad. pp. 173-180. 

^ Ibid. 208. See pp. 43-3 above. 

^ Tanner, Bibl. 509. 

* Oxf. City Records, Old White 
Book, foL 55 b. 

^ Wadding, VIII, 106, 457 ; the papal 
letter is dated, iv Idus Feb. A" III; 
Mon. Franc. I, 561. 

^ WaddingjVIII, 127; Wood, Annals, 
sub anno 1360. 

' MoH'. Franc. I, 538. 

® Copy in Lambeth MS. 1208, f. 
99 b-ioo : * Copia buUe quam frater 
Rogerus Coneway optinuit in Romana 
curia anno Christi 1359; Non. 
April, A» VII.' The date in Todd's 
Catalogue is wrong. For the papal 
decree referred to, see Co7'pus Juris 
Canon., Extravag. Communium Liber 
V, Tit. Ill, cap. 2. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 538, 561. 


perhaps held the office at the time of the controversy with Richard 
Fitzralph^ Bale and Pits state that he died in 1360; it is not 
improbable that he lived several years longer. He was buried in the 
choir of the Grey Friars Church, London ^. 

A book formerly belonging to Roger Conway is preserved among 
the MSS. of Gray's Inn; Codex i, formerly 17 (=1584 in Bernard) — 

* Joannes Cassianus de Institutis Egyptiorum Coenobiorum, Cui haec notula 
apponitur : " Iste est liber Fratris Rogeri de Coneway ^ 

De/ensio Religionis Mendicantium, against Armachanus, or De con- 
fessionihus per regular es audiendis contra informationes Arma- 
chani] known also by the opening words of the treatise 
(preface) : * Confessio et pulchritude' 

MSS. Oxford : — Bodl. sup. A I, art. 95 ; also Corpus Christi Coll. 
182, fol. 37 (sec. xv). 

Cambridge:— Public Library li. iv. 5. fol. 15 (sec. xv) ; also 
Corpus Christi Coll. 333 (sec. xv). 

Paris: — Bibl. Nationale 3221, fol. 206-46 (see. xv) ; and 3222, 
fol. 117, under the title: ' Quedam informacio contra in- 
tentionem domini Ricardi Archiepiscopi Armachani super 
decretal i Fas electionis, edita a ffratre Rogero Conewey 
magistro in Theologia de ordine fratrum minorum.' 

Vienna : — Bibl. Palat. 4127, f. 221 (sec. xv). 
Printed at Lyons 1496; Paris 151 1 (among the works of Armachanus) ; 

and in Goldast, Motiarcbia II, p. 1410, (under the name 
' Chonoe '). 

Intellectus fratrum de constitutione Vas electionis quo ad Negativam 
ibidem definitam. Inc. ' Verumptamen quia iste dominus 
Reverendus dicit quod intellectus fratrum est erroneus.' 

MS. Paris: — Bibl. Nat. 3222, fol. i33''-i58^: it is anonymous in this 
MS,, but is attributed to Roger Conway by Bale, MS. Seld. sup. 
64, fol. 157^, and Tanner, Bibl. 197. The same MS. contains the 
Replicationes of Armachanus against this work, ff. 159 sqq. 

Quaestiones tres de Christi paupertate et dominio temporali. Inc. 
* Questio est hie de mendicitate ; or ' Utrum Christus hominum 
MS. Vienna: — Bibl. Palat. 4127, f. 249-269 (sec. xv). 

' His Defensio Mendicantium was 
written at the command of some superior ; 
see cap. Ill (Goldast, Monarchia, Tom. 
II) : ' Ad quem (Armachanum) dignatus 
est me rogare quidam venerabilis pater 
ac magister, qui me pctuit obligare 
mandato, quod eiusdem Domini dictis 

et calumniis pro viribus obviarem.' 

2 MS. Cott. Vitell. F XII, f 274 b. 

^ This volume, and MS. 12 in the 
same library (containing the 'Moralities' 
of Nicholas Bozon), were given by Con- 
way when Minister to the Franciscans 
of Chester. 


Wadding [Script, p. 212) gives the second incipit and says: ' Habeo 
MSS.' These may be now in some Italian library ; perhaps in 
the Franciscan Convent at Rome, or MS. Vatican 3740, *Trac- 
tatus diversorum super quaestione de paupertate Christi et 
Apostolorum ' (Montfaucon, p. no). 
Simon Tunstede, de Tunstude, or Donstede, is said by Bale 
to have entered the Order at Norwich, where, according to Blomefield, 
he afterwards became Warden of the Franciscan Convent ^. He was 
Regent Master of the Friars Minors at Oxford in 1351 ^ and according 
to contemporary evidence was ' skilled in music and in the seven 
liberal arts^' He wrote on the Meteorics of Aristotle*, and made 
some alterations in the horologe called Albion, invented in 1326 by 
Richard of Wallingford, Abbat of St. Albans, and in the book which 
the Abbat wrote about his invention ^ He became twenty-third 
Provincial Minister in succession to Roger Conway about 1360 ^ 
He was buried among the Poor Clares of Brusyard in Suffolk ; Bale 
and Pits mention 1369 as the year of his death. 

A work on music, Quatuor principalia musicae, or De musica 
continua et discreta, cum Diagrammatibus, has been erroneously 
ascribed to Tunstede ^ ; it was composed by a Minorite during 
Tunstede's regency at Oxford, and perhaps under his supervision. 

MSS. London :— Brit. Mus. Addit. 8866 (sec. xiv). 

Oxford: — Bodleian; Digby 90 (sec. xiv); Bodley 515 (=2185) 
(sec. xv). 

Printed in E. de Coussemaker's Auctores de Musica^ &c. Paris 1876. 

Robert de Wysete, Wyshed, or de Wyeett, D.D. of Oxford, 
succeeded Tunstede as twenty-fourth Provincial (c. 1370.?) ^ He 
was buried in the choir of the Grey Friars' Church in London 

MS. Worcester Cathed. Library, fol. No. 35 : ' Wyneshed de motu 
de locali et aliis Physicis ' (?) ; but the name here is probably an 
error for Sivynshed ; see MS. Cambridge, Caius Coll. 499. 

^ Hist, of Norf. IV, p. 131. * Mon. Franc. I, 538, 561. 

2 Digby MS. 90, in cake. ^ Ibid. 

^ Ibid. ^ See Part I, chapter iv : the treatise 

* Leland, Script. ; the vi^ork does not is printed tinder the name of Simon 

appear to be extant Wadding suggests Tunstede in E. de Coussemaker's Auc- 

that the commentary printed among the tores de Musica med. Aevi, Nova Series, 

works of Duns Scotus (Vol. II) may be Vol. IV, pp. 220-298. Paris, 1876. 

by Tunstede. The treatise, according to the editor, is 

^ Laud. Misc. MS. 657 (sec. xv) ; cf. very important, and forms in some sort 

Pub. Libr. Cambr. MS. Mm III, 11. the transition between the thirteenth and 

For representations of Wallingford and fourteenth centuries, 

the clock, see MSS. Cott. Claud. E IV, ^ Mon. Franc. I, 538, 561. 

f. 201 ; Nero D VII, &c. 1° MS. Cott. Vitell. F XII, f. 274 b. 


John Mardeslay or Mardisle', probably a Yorkshireman, in- 
cepted as D.D. at Oxford before 1355. Early in this year he disputed 
with the Dominican, William Jordan, in the Chapter-house and 
Chancellor s schools at York, de conceptione B. Mariae Virginis, 
upholding the Immaculate Conception ^. His manner of disputation 
gave offence, and the Chapter of York issued letters testifying to his 
good conduct (April 10, 1355)^: 

'in putting forward his opinion he behaved amicably, modestly and 
courteously, without introducing any abuse or improprieties whatsoever.' 

He was certainly an able debater. In 1374 he was summoned with 
three other Doctors of Divinity to a council at Westminster, over 
which the Black Prince and the Archbishop of Canterbury presided 
The subject of discussion was the right of England to refuse the 
papal tribute. The Archbishop and bishops said : ' The pope is lord 
of all, we cannot refuse him this tribute." A monk of Durham brought 
forward the old argument about the two swords. Mardeslay at once 
replied with the text * Put up again thy sword into his place,' 

' showing that the two swords did not mean temporal and spiritual power, 
and that Christ had not temporal diminion ; which he proved by the 
scriptures and gospels, by quotations from the doctors, by the example of 
the religious who leave worldly goods, and by the decretals ; and he related 
how Boniface VIII claimed to be lord of all kingdoms, and how he was 
repulsed in France and England.' 

At the end of the day's sitting, the Archbishop said, ' There were 
good counsels in England without the friars.' The prince answered, 
'We have had to call them because of your fatuity; your counsel 
would have lost us our kingdom.' The next day the papal party 
yielded. Between this date and 1380 Mardeslay was twenty-fifth 
Provincial Minister^. The date of his death is uncertain; he was 
buried at York ®. 

Thomas of Portugal studied at Oxford and Paris, c- 1360, and 
lectured at Lisbon and Salamanca. He was elected in the General 
Chapter to lecture on the Sentences at Cambridge, and was promoted 
to the degree of D.D. in the University of Toulouse by Pope Gregory 
XI in 1 37 1 ^. 

' The forms Mardiston (Brewer) and Tanner, ibid ; in Registro capituli 

Marchelcy (Lcland, Bale, Pits) are S. Petri Ehor. 
wrong ; they are derived from MS. Cott. ^ Eulog. Hist. Ill, 337-8. 
Nero A IX, f. 103, where the name, Mon. Franc. I, 538, 561 : cf. notice 

though indistinct, is certainly Mardisley. of Th. Kyngesbury. 

^ Tanner, Bibl. 509; Wadding, Script. " Mon. Franc, ibid. 
14O ; Bale, Pits. ' Wadding, VIII, pp. 239, 249. 


Philip Zoriton (?), according to Wadding ' professor in the Uni- 
versities of Oxford and Cambridge,' received the insignia of the 
magisterium at the hands of Friar Francis de Cardaillac S.T.P. in 
1364 ^. Zoriton appears to be a mistake for Torinton or Torrington. 
Philip Torrington S.T.P. was made Archbishop of Cashel in 1373^. 
He was sent by Richard II as ambassador to Urban VI, and, on his 
return in 1379, urged the English king to invade France in support 
of the Pope, against the Antipope Clement VII. Philip died in 

Dalmaeus de Raxach and Franciscus de Graynoylles of the 

kingdom of Aragon, friars Minors residing at Oxford for the purposes 
of study, obtained royal letters of protection on Feb. 22nd, 1378*. 

Francis de S. Simone de Pisis, called ' of Empoli,' is mentioned 
by Bartholomew of Pisa as having studied at Oxford^, where he perhaps 
became D.D. He flourished in the fourteenth century; according 
to Wadding, 1376. 

Determinatio Magistri Francisci de Empoli de materia montis (?) 

MS. Florence : — Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Cruets, Plut. xxxi, Dext. Cod. 
xi (sec. xiv or xv). 

John Hilton, D.D. of Oxford, ' determined ' in the schools against 
Ughtred Bolton monk of Durham, in defence of his Order. Bale 
and Pits state that he died at Norwich, 1376^. 

Determinaiiones de paupertate fratrum, et de statu Mmorum, lib. ii. 
Inc. ' Articulus pertractandus sit.' 
Mentioned by Bale, * Ex bibliotheca Nordovicensi ' ^. 


One or both of these works may be the Opera Joannts Hilton in Bihl. 
Eccles. Cat bed. Saris bur. MS. 94 (Bernard). 

Hubert of Halvesnahen (?) Bachelor of Paris, Oxford and 
Cambridge, and ' destinatus Lector Oxoniae^ received the degree of 

1 Wadding, Vol. VIII, p. 178. of H. of Halvesnahen). Chronicon 

2 Rymer's Foed. Vol. Ill, pt. II, p. Angliae 1328-1388 (R. S.), p. 222. 
995. In a papal letter of 1376 he is * Rymer's Foed. IV, 30. 
described as ' conservator privilegiorum ^ B. of Pisa, Liber Conf. fol. 81 b : 
Fratribus Ordinis Minorum in Hibernia ' suis determinationibus Oxonie factis.' 
a Sede Apostolica concessorum speciali- Wadding, VIII, 333. 

ter depntatus,' Wadding, VIII, p. 592. ^ Bale, Pits; Willott, Athenae, 229. 
Cotton, Fasti Eccles. Hibern. I, 89. ' MS. Seld. sup. 64, fol. 80. 

^ Wadding, VIII, 298 (see notice 

R 2 


Master in 1376 by papal commission at the hands of Friar Philip 
(Torrington), Archbishop of Cashel, who was then staying at Avignon^. 

William de Prato, of the Order of Minorites, a native of Paris, 
was in 1363 raised to the degree of Master in the University of Paris 
by the Pope. In the papal letter ^ to the ' Chancellor of the Church 
of Paris,' it is stated that he had 

* studied many years at Oxford and lectured in the theological faculty, and 
obtained the license of teaching in the said faculty and the honour of 
Master ; he desired to lecture in the same faculty at Paris, and to give to 
his country what he had acquired elsewhere by studious labours.' 

The Pope bids the chancellor admit him freely on the papal 

*ad legendum determinandum disputandum et ceteros actus Magistrales 

just as though he were D.D. of Paris. The letter is dated XV Kal. 
Dec. Ao II. In 1370 he was sent to the Tartars by the pope, as 
bishop of Pekin and head of the Franciscan mission in Asia^. The 
papal letter * constituted him ruler of the Friars Minors in the lands 

' Saracenorum, Alanorum, Gazarorum, Gothorum, Schytarum, Ruthe- 
norum, Jacobitarum, Nubianorum, Nestorianorum, Georgianorum, Arme- 
norum, Indorum, Mochitarum.' 

De erudiiione Principum^ by William de Prato, ordinis Praedica- 
torum (?)^. 

MS. Vatican, Bibl. Reginae Sueciae, cod. i960 (Montfaucon). 

John Somer, of the Convent of Bridgwater ^ was at Oxford in 
1380''. It does not appear whether he was a doctor either at this 
time or afterwards. He enjoyed a great reputation as an astronomer, 
and is said to have made use of the astronomical researches of Roger 
Bacon ^ Chaucer refers to him in his treatise on the Astrolabe ^ 

^ Wadding, Vol. VIII, p. 332. The do not assign this treatise to him. 

original document from which these ^ MS. Cott. Domit. A II, f. i. 

facts are derived is not given in the ' MS. Cott. Faust, A II, f. 1. 

Regestrum at the end of the volume: ^ Bale, Script. I, 513; he is said to 

the date w^ould be, Greg. XI, A* 6. have written Calendarii castigationes 

Wadding, VIII, 166, 500. {inc.: 'Corruptio calendarii horribilis 

' Ibid. 221, seq. est'), which I have not found, MS. 

* Dated, vil Kal. April, A" VIII formerly in Caius College (perhaps now 

(Urban V). No. 141 ?). Cf. R. Bacon, Op. Ined. p. 

» Quetif and Echard (II, 136 b), 272. 

mention a Dominican writer, William * Edit. Skeat, p. 3. 
Piati or Prati, who flourished 1540, but 


Somer is often coupled with the contemporary astronomer Nicholas 
of Lynn ^, and it is possible that the following passage in Mercator s 
A//as, which is supposed by Hakluyt and others to refer to Nicholas, 
relates to John Somer ^. 

* That which you see described in this table of those foure lies is taken 
from the journal of James Knox of Bolduc or the Basse ^, who reporteth * 
that a certaine English Friar, minorite of Oxford, a Mathematician, hath 
seene and composed the lands lying about the Pole, and measured them 
with an astrolabe, and described them by a Geometrical instrument.' 

To this account John Dee^ adds the date 1360, and calls the friar 
a ' Franciscan of Lynn ' ; Hakluyt (among other details) gives the 
name as ' Nicholas de Lynna a Franciscan Friar.' Nicholas of Lynn 
was a Carmelite ^. On the other hand, supposing that the story has 
a good foundation, it is more likely that the adventurous Friar was 
a native of some seaport on the East coast than of a Western town 
like Bridgwater. 

Tertium opusculum Kakndarn {k.h. i 387-1 462), composed 

*ad instantiam nobilissime Domine, Domine Johanne Principisse Wallie, 
. . . ac matris . . . Ricardi secundi . . . , ad meridiem tamen Universitatis 
Oxonie, ex precepto reverendi Patris, fratris Thome Kyngesburi, Ministri 
Anglie, ... a fratre Johanne Somur (or Semour) ordinis minorum, A. D. 

MSS. Brit. Mus.: Royal 2 B viii. (sec. xiv). Cotton Faustina A II, 
f. 1-12 ; and Cotton Vesp. E VII. f. 4-22. 
Bodl. : Digby 5, f. 73 (sec. xiv). 

Cronica quaedam brevis fratris Johannis Somour or dints sancH 
Francisci de conveniu ville Briggewater. 
MS. British Museum ; Cott. Domit. A II, f. 1-6^. 
The framework of the annals may be by John Somer : the entries 
are short and scattered — some being later than the middle of the 
15*^ century — and in different hands. Several refer to Bridg- 
water, e.g. ad annos 1241, 1411. Ad. an. 1433 is the entry: 
*E(clipsis) solis universalis 17 die Junii in festo S. Botulphi 
secundum fratrem som." 

* E. g. by Chaucer {ut supra). 
2 Mercator's Atlas, translated by 
Hexham, Vol, I, p. 44; Hakluyt, I, 


^ Elsewhere called ' Jacobus Cnoyen 
Buscoducensis,' or 'of Hartzeuan Buske' 
(i.e. Bois-le-Duc, Mr. R. L. Poole 
informs me) : I can find nothing about 
him. / 

* The Latin edition of Mercator, A. D. 
1606, adds ' (quod tamen ab alio prius 
accepit) '. 

^ Quoted, without a reference, in 
Hakluyt, I, 135. 

^ MS. Arundel 207, ad calcem : 'ego 
frater Nicholaus de Linea, ord. beate 
Dei genetricis Marie de Monte Car- 



[Ch. III. 

His astronomical and astrological writings are frequently quoted : 

Bodl. Laud. Misc. 674 (sec. xv), fol. 24 ; Regulae ad sciendum nati 'vitam 
secundum Jo. Somer, Ord. Minorum; fol. 24^: * Hoc receptum 
inveni scriptum de propria manu J. Somour de ordine Minorum.' 

See also fol, 42^, . . . and fol. 99^ of the same MS. 

Bodl. Digby 88 (sec. xv), *An extracte of freer John Somerys 
Kalender, of ille days in the yere/ fol. 62^. 

Cf. Digby 119, fol. 25^ 

Hugh Karlelle (Carlisle) and Thomas Bernewell, Oxford 
Minorites, were among the Doctors of Theology who condemned 
Wiclif s twenty-four conclusions at the council held at Blackfriars, 
London, on May 21st, 1382 ^ 

William Woodford or Widford was one of the most determined 
opponents of the WicUffites. Wadding's desire ^ to claim this ' extirpator 
of heretics ' as a fellow-countryman has led him to identify William 
Woodford with the comparatively unknown Friar WilHam of Water- 
ford. There is no ground for this identification, and dates make it 
almost impossible ^ In his earlier days at Oxford, probably when he 
was B.D., Woodford was on friendly or even intimate terms with 
Wiclif. When the two were lecturing on the Sentences, they carried 
on a courteous interchange of arguments and opinions on Tran- 

Woodford's earliest extant work, of which the date is known, was 
composed in 138 1 ; it consists of theological lectures under the title, 
'72 questmies de Sacramento Altar is ^ in answer to Wiclif s 'Con- 
fession,' and was written in great haste ; these lectures were delivered, 
perhaps at the Grey Friars London, within five weeks of the publication 
of the ' Confession He does not seem to have been D.D. at this 
time. On the subject of his inception, a curious piece of information 
has been preserved in a MS. of the 15th century; 

< when he was going from London to Oxford to incept in theology he fell 
among robbers, who took from him £40 ^' 

In 1389 he was regent master in theology among the Minorites at 
Oxford, and as such lectured in the schools of the Minorites against the 
adherents of Wiclif^. In 1390 when he also lectured at Oxford on the 

^ Fascic. Zizan. p. 287. 
Ann. Min. IX, 129, &c. 

^ Watcrfoid wrote a treatise in 1433 ; 
AVaddinj,', IX, 129; Woodfuid lectured 
at Oxford before 1381. 

^ 'I'vvync MS. XXI, 502. Sec above, 

p. 81. 

•'' Fascic. Zizan. 517, 523. 
« MS. Exeter Coll. 7, f. 4. 
^ MS. Digby, 170; at the end of the 
third determinaiio. 


same subject, he was vicar of the Provincial Minister ^. Among his 
pupils was Thomas Netter of Walden, afterwards Provincial of the 
Carmelites and reputed author of the Fasciculi Zizaniorum ^. Wood- 
ford appears now to have resided mainly at the Grey Friars, London : 
in 1396 he obtained from Boniface IX a papal sanction of the special 
privileges and graces which he enjoyed in this convent ; the chief of 
them was the right to a private chamber or house ^. According to 
Bale and Pits he died, and was buried at Colchester in 1397*. His 
name however appears among those buried in the choir of the Grey 
Friars Church, London. 

* Et ad ejus (sc. Willelmi Goddard) dexteram sub lapide cruce exarato 
Jacet bone memorie et hereticorum extirpator Acerimus frater Willelmus 
Wydford doctor Egregius et minister 

The date of his death is uncertain ; but one of his works seems to 
have been written in the reign of Henry IV ^. 

Woodford's writings, dealing as they did for the most part with the 
question of the hour, were very popular and often copied. 

Commentaries on Fsech'el, Ecclesiasies, S. Luke (cap. 6-9), ^S. Paul's 
Epistle to the Romans. 
British Museum MS. Royal 4 A xiii (sec. xiv) ^. 

De Sacramento Eucharistiae^ or, 72 quaestiones. Inc. * Ratione 
solemnitatis jam instantis.' 
MSS. Brit. Museum: Royal 7 B iii. § 2, (sec. xiv): Had. 31, fol. 
1-94 (sec. xv), and 42 fol. i (sec. xv). 
Oxford: — Exeter Coll. 7, fol. 4 (sec. xv) ; St. John's Coll. 144 
(sec. xv). 

Determinaiiones quatuor ; lectures at Oxford 1 389-1 390. Inc. ' Utrum 

MSS. Brit. Mus. : — Harl. 31 (sec. xv. ineuntis) : i^t lecture fol. 124- 
132; 2^^ 132-163^; 3i'd 163^-170; 4*^^170-181: Harl. 42, 
f. 1-124. 

Oxford: — Bodleian 2766, f. 69; 2224, p. 33 (=Bodley 393); 
3340 ; Digby 170, f. 1-33 (sec. xiv. exeuntis) : this last MS. 

1 MS. Digby, fol. 33. 

^ Fascic. Zizan. 525, n. 2. 

3 MS. New Coll. 156, fly-leaf; printed 
in App. B. 

* See Tanner, Bibl. 785. 

5 MS. Cott. Vitell. F, XII, f. 274 b. 

® Namely, Be catisis condemnationis 
articulofum 1 8, &g. : see below. 

^ This MS. (f. 112) contains also 
Philosophia naturalis {inc. ' Queris, 
venerande dux Normannorum '), erro- 
neously ascribed to Woodford, really 
composed by William de Conchis : cf. 
MS. Bodl. Digby 107 ; Tanner, Bibl. 
p. 194. 


[Ch. III. 

begins in the second determination with the words: ' et 
nullum predictorum est impedimentum legitimi matrimonii.' 

De causis condempnacionis articulorum i8 dampnatorum Johannis 
Wyclif, 1396. Probably written later; Henry is mentioned as 
King of England {Fasc. rer. p. 264). 
MSS. British Museum :— Royal, 8 F xi. (sec. xv); Harl. 31, f. 95: 
Harl. 42, f. 125. 

Oxford:— Bodl. 2766, § i. [and Bodl. 3629,p.2i6 ?]— Merton Coll. 
198 § 3 (sec. xv) and 318, f. 84 (xv)— G. C. C. 183, f. 23 (xv). 
Printed, Brown, Fascic. rerum expetendarum, I, 190-265. 

De sacerdoHo novi tesiamenti. Inc. ' Utrum sacerdotium Novi.' 
MSS. British Museum :— Royal 7 B. III. § i. 

Oxford: — Merton Coll. 198 fol. 14 (xv ineuntis). 

Defensorium mendicitatis contra Armachanum, or, Defensorium contra 
Armachanum, in Octavo lihello de mendicitate Christi. Inc. 
' Postquam dominus Armachanus.' 
MSS. Oxford :— Magdalen Coll. 75 (sec. xv). 

Cambridge: — Publ. Library, Ff. I. 21, f. 1-257. 

De errorihus Armachani, or, Excerptiones xlii. errorum Armachani. 
Inc. ' Quoad errores domini Armachani contentos.' 
MSS. Cambridge :— Publ. Libr. Ff. I. 21, f. 258-265. 
Oxford: — New Coll. 290 fol. 258. 

Responsiones contra Wiclevum et Dollar dos, or, ad Ixv. quaes tiones 
Wiclevi contra fratres. Inc. ' Primo quaeritur quot sunt or dines.' 
MS. Oxford :— Bodl. 2766, p. 41. ( = T. Bodl. super O. I. Art. 9). 

De veneratione imaginum. 

MS. Brit. Mus. : — Harl. 31, f, 182-205; anon, and imperfect at the 
beginning, but probably by Woodford ; 8 chapters. Inc. cap. 2. 
* Aliter tamen senciunt doctissimi Christiani, oppositum osten- 
dentes per naturam, per artem, per historiam, per scripturam.' 

Epistola Episcopo Hereford, de decimis et ohlacionihus contra Gualteruvi 
Britte : 

referred to by Woodford in De causis condempnacionis etc., but no 
longer extant ; Fasc. Per. Expetend. I. 220, 222. 

Super quinque capiiula Evangelii S. Matthaei: 

mentioned by John Wheathamstede among the books which he had 
transcribed, but not now to be found : (Tanner, from MS. Cott. 
Otho, B. IV ; this MS. was burnt in the Cotton library fire). 

Questions on God and angels, ' fratris Willelmi ex Wodeford junioris.' 
MS. Oxford :— Ball. Coll. 63, f. 100 (sec. xiv). 


Other works attributed to him : 

De oblationihus fiendis in locis sanctorum, and De peregrinattonibus ad 
loca sancta, mentioned by Tanner [Bibl. 785), appear to be the 
same as Determinatio, An sancti sint orandi, 'vel oracio Jienda sH 
Sanctis, an anonymous treatise in Had. MS. 31, § 7. 

Summa de Firtutibus is identical with the Summa by William de Wode- 
ford, Abbat, in Caius Coll. Cambridge, MS. 454. 

Tractatus de Religione, 3.ddressed to Cardinal Julian Caesarinus in 1433, 
was the work of William of Waterford (Tanner Bibl. p. 364, 
Wadding ix, 129). 

Peter Philargi or Philargus de Candia (afterwards Pope Alex. 
V) is s^id to have been of very humble origin, and to have begged his 
bread of necessity ^ Early in life he joined the Franciscans, who soon 
recognised his ability. He was sent to England in his youth and 
studied first at Norwich, and then at Oxford, where he became 
Bachelor of Theology^ (c. 1370?). He lectured on the Sentences at 
Paris in 1378 ^ and obtained the degree of D.D. in that University*. 
In 1402 he became Archbishop of Milan, in 1405 Cardinal, and in 
1409 he was elected Pope at the Council of Pisa, being then more 
than seventy years old and famous for learning and piety ^. His brief 
pontificate was chiefly remarkable for the favours and privileges 
which he lavished on the Mendicant Friars. He died on May 3rd, 
1 4 10, it was believed of poison administered by order of his successor 
John XXin ^ He is described by an EngKsh chronicler as 

* jocundus vir et eloquens in Latina lingua et Graeca, solemnis et nomina- 
tissimus Doctor in Theologia 

Lectures on the Sentences. 

MSS. Basel A II. 22. * Conclusiones textuales super Magist. Sentent.' 
Paris: — Bibl. Nat. Fonds de Cluni 54, =1467 of the Latin 
Addit. MSS. (sec. xiv) fol. 8. ' Expl. coUectiva pro primo 
principio fratris Petri de Candia, quam compilavit Parisius, 
zP mo ccco lxxviiio xxiiiia die mensis Septembris, et xxvm 
die ejusdem mensis in scolis legit, etc' 
Venice:— St. Mark, Vol. I, CI. Ill, Cod. no (a,.d. 1382), 
Questiones in lib. i Sentent., being lectures at Paris in 1379. — 

^ Wood, Hist, et Antiq. Milman, 
Lat. Christ. VIII, 121. 

2 Eulog. Hist. Ill, 415 (R.S.). Gas- 
coigne, Lib. Veritatum, 161 : Cotton 
MS. Cleop. E II, fol. 262 b, a letter of 
Henry IV to Alexander V : the king 
reminds him, * qualiter a juventute ves- 
tra fnistis' in regno Anglie, ac eciam in 
preclaro Universitatis Oxonie studio 

conversatis, quodque multos honores et 
bona quamplurima suscepistis ibidem.' 

^ Bibl. Nationale (Paris), Fonds de 
Cluni, Cod. 54, fol. 8. 

* Gascoigne, ibid. 

^ Milman, ut supra. 

^ Eulog. Hist. Ill, 415. Gascoigne, 

' Eulog. Hist. Ill, 414, 415. 


Ibid. Cod. Ill (a.D. 1394), Questiones in lib. 2 et i Sentent. 
* Explicit lectura super sententias ven. mag. fratris Petri de 
Candia ordinis Minorum a.d. 1390 compilata tempore quo 
Parisiis legebat sententias, quas de verbo ad verbum ut jacet 
suis scolaribus in scolis antedicti ordinis prolegebat. 

Officium Visitaiionis B. V. Man'ae, compiled by Peter when Bishop 
of Novara. 

MS. Florence : — Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Crucis, Plut. xxv. Sin. God. ix. 

Prosae vel Sequentiae quinque, by Peter then Archbishop of Milan. 
MS. Ibid. 

Praefationes Ambrosianae. 

MS. Rome: — Archiv. Basilicae S. Petri (Montfaucon, p. 158). 

Conclusiones Petri de Candida Cardinalis Mediolanensis , S. T. P., 
pro moderno schismate auferendo (urging that a general Council 
should be called). 
MS. Brit. Mus. :— Harl. 431, fol. 3o^\ Cf. ibid. fol. 33b, 34^, 35 ; and 
Cambridge : — Emmanuel Coll. I. § 29, Conclusiones P. de Candia 
positae in Concilia. 

De obligationibus Episiola. 

Oxford : — Bodl. Canonic. 278, fol. 65. 

Florence: — Bibl. Leopoldina (Laurentiana), Cod. Gaddian. 188 
(sec. xv). 

Thomas Kyngesbery, Kynbury, de Kyngusbury, D.D. of 

Oxford, was twenty-sixth Provincial Minister from 1379 or 1380 to 1390 
or 1392 ^ At the beginning of his ministry, which coincided with the 
beginning of the great Schism, he obtained from the Minorites, both 
in Provincial Chapter and in the separate convents, an oath of 
obedience to Urban VI ^. He appears to have been on terms of 
some intimacy with the royal family and about 1390 or 1392* 
Richard II urged Boniface IX to appoint him by provision to the next 
vacant bishopric : the king describes him as 

* virum, prout experiencia certa et ejusdem fama prcclaris diffusa virtutibus 
nobis constat, sciencie, vite, ac morum honestatc perspicuum, et per omnia 
graciosum, ncdum in sciencia spcculativa, sed in vcrbi dei predicacione 
multiplicitcr precxpertum.' 

This recommendation appears to have had no result: perhaps 
Kyngesbery died about this time. He was buried at Nottingham^. 

' Mon*. Franc. T, 538, 561 ; Cott. MS. ^ Ibid. Cf. notice of John Somer. 

Vesp. Y. VII, f. 7 ; Digby MS. 90, f. ^ Eodl. MS. tU supra. As to the 

6b; Ijodl. MS. 692, f. 33. date, see English Hist. Review, Oct. 1891. 

* Bodl. MS. ul supra. Mon. Franc. I, 538. 


Though none of his writings remain, it may perhaps be inferred, from 
the fact that he is twice mentioned in connexion with scientific works 
by Minorites, that he was a patron of science in the Order ^. 

John Tewkesbury, Minorite, gave a treatise called ' Quatuor 
principalia musicae ' 

* to the Community of the Friars Minors at Oxford, with the authority and 
consent of Friar Thomas de Kyngusbury, Master, Minister of England, 
A.D. 1388 V 

John Tyssyngton subscribed the decree of the Chancellor Berton, 
condemning Wiclifs twelve 'conclusions' on the sacraments, in 
1 381 ^; he is the only Franciscan among the ten doctors whose names 
appear, and was regent master of the Friars Minors at this time*. 
Soon afterwards Tyssyngton made an elaborate reply to Wiclifs 
Confessio on Transubstantiation in the Franciscan Schools at Oxford, 
and issued the lecture as a treatise ^ ; though this composition bears 
marks of undue haste, it was considered to be of great value and was 
ordered to be kept in the University Archives ^ In 1392 Tyssyngton 
was at the Council of Stamford where the heresies of Henry Crompe, 
consisting chiefly of conclusions against the friars, were condemned 
He succeeded Thomas Kyngesbery as twenty- seventh Provincial ^. Bale 
and Pits give 1395 as the year of his death : he was buried at London ^ 

The only work of his extant is the Confessio contra confessionem 
Johannis Wiclifs above referred to. 

John Schankton, of the Order of Minors, appears to have been 
confessor of John Okele, skinner of Oxford. The latter, in his will 
dated October 20th, 1390, left Schankton 20^ a year for three years, 

*■ to celebrate masses for my soul and the souls of all those to whom I am 
in any manner bound, and the souls of all the faithful dead, in the con- 
ventual church of the Minorites at Oxford : ' 

^ See notices of John Somer and 
John Tewkesbury. 

2 Digby MS. 90, f. 6 b. A writer of 
the same name is mentioned by Bale 
and Pits, sub anno 1350. One was 
Fellow of Merton, c. 1340: see Tanner, 
Bibl. 706. 

2 Fascic. Zizan. 113 (R.S.). 

* Eulog. Hist, Contin. Ill, 351 

5 Fascic. Zizan. 133-180. That the 
work was originally a lecture is proved 
by MS. in Corp. Chr. Coll. Cambr. No. 
33ij Vf- 583 (sec. xv), 'Explicit con- 
fessio magistri et fratris Johannis Tas- 

syngton {sic) de ordine Minonim et 
S.T. doctoris, quam edidit, et in scholis 
fratrum minorum Oxoniis determinando 
promulgavit . . . A.D. 1381.' 

® Fasc. Zizan. p. 133, note 2, &c., and 
Eulog. Hist, ut supra. Mr. Shirley 
says, ' Tyssyngton has evidently never 
seen most of the books he quotes ; and 
the references are often false.' He 
attempts to give the general sense of 
the passages he refers to, apparently 
from memory. 

Fascic. Zizan. 357. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 538, 561. 

» Ibid. 538. 


[Ch. in. 

if Schankton died in the course of those three years, he was, before 
his death, to appoint another friar to fulfil the wishes of the testator ^. 

John Romseye, D.D., succeeded W. Woodford as regent master 
of the Friars Minors in 1389 2. He was buried in the Chapel of All 
Saints in the Grey Friars' Church, London ^ 

John Wastenays, Inceptor in theology at Oxford, and possibly 
one of the * wax-doctors,' is mentioned in the following letter given 
under the privy seal, temp. Richard II * : 

* Tres cher et bien ame. Nous vous prions, que, en ce que notre cher en 
dieu frere Johan Wastenays de lordre dez Menours, Commenceour en 
theologie, ad affaire deuers vous touchant son commencement en la 
Vniuersitee doxon, lui veullez faire la grace et le fauour que bonement 
purrey, sauuant lez estatutz et lez priuileges de la vniuersitee auantdicte. 
Donne souz, etc. (i.e. souz notre priue seal).' 

Jacob Fey of Florence studied at Oxford in 1393, when he trans- 
cribed a manuscript formerly kept in the library of Santa Croce, 
Florence, now in the Laurentian library ^. The colophon runs : — 

' Explicit compilatio quaedam diversorum argumentorum recollectorum 
a diversis doctoribus in Vniversitate Oxonise ordinata satis pulchre per 
Reverendum Fratrem . . . ^ S.T. Mag. ejusdem Vniversitatis de Ordine 
Carmelitarum, scripta per me Fratrem J. Fey de Florentia Ordinis 
Minorum in Conventu Oxoniae anno Domini MCCGXCIII die sequenti 
festum 40 Martyrum ad laudem Domini nostri Jesu Ghristi. Amen.' 

Fey was inquisitor in his native land in 1402 

Nicholas Fakenham (Norfolk) enjoyed the favour and patronage 
of Richard II. He was doctor of Oxford and twenty-eighth Pro- 
vincial Minister of the Order in 1395. On the 5th of November in 
that year, on the occasion apparently of his inception, he * determined ' 
at Oxford on the papal schism by command of the king. This lecture 
has been preserved ^ ; the introduction may be given here, somewhat 

» Oxf. City Rec. Old White Bk. fol. 

2 MS. Digby 170: 'Explicit 3* de- 
terminatio sive lectio magistri et fratris 
W. Woodford contra Wyclcvystas Oxon. 
A.D. 1389 in scolis Minorum, et die 
vesperiarum fratris Johannis Romseye 
proximi magistri regentis.' MS. Bodl. 
393, fol. 58 b reads, ' anno domini 


3 MS. Cott. Vitell. F XII, f. 277 b. 

* MS. Dd. Ill, 53, p. 101, in the 
Public Library at Cambridge j Richard 

occurs as king in the two succeeding 
entries and in several on the preceding 
page. That this is Richard II is clear, 
(i) from the writing; (2) from the 
mention on p. 97, of the Statute of 

■'' Laurentiana, ex Bibl. S. Crucis, 
Plut. XVII, Sin. Cod. X. 

® Name erased in MS. 
Bandini's Catal. Cod. lat. Medicece 
Laurentiancc. , tome IV, pref. p. xlii. 

« Harl. MSS. No. 3768, fol. 188. 
Transcript in Twyne MSS. XXII, 223. 


' Our mother, the Roman Church, is full of troubles and calamities. Yet 
her daughter, the University of Paris, alone has tried to comfort her: 
Paris has borne the burden and heat of the day, and may well upbraid us. 
We too must work for the union of the Church and the reformation of 
peace. I therefore, promoted to the degree of Master though unworthily, 
through zeal for the religion of Christ and for the Church of God, and by 
reason of the command of our lord the King, propose to move some 
matters pertaining to the proposition, in the form of a question, not as 
a formal determinator, but rather as a friendly speaker {famitiaris con- 
cionator), now on one side, now on the other, now as an impartial person. 
In these writings I wish to say nothing against the Catholic Church or 
good morals or Pope Boniface ; if I do so inadvertently I submit to the 
Chancellor and others in authority. — Touching the reformation of the 
desolate Church, I ask whether there is any reasonable way of restoring it 
to its original unity.' 

Then he treats learnedly about the schismatical churches and shows 
that the Church can be reformed only by the punishment of those who 
have disturbed its peace — namely, the Cardinals. 

He ceased to be Minister some years before his death. In 1405 he 
was with Friar J. Mallaert appointed papal commissary to examine 
into the charges made by the English Minorites against John Zouche, 
then Provincial Minister. The commissaries deposed Zouche; and 
on the latter's reappointment by papal authority, refused to obey him \ 
According to Bale he died 1407 ^ ; he was buried at Colchester ^ 

At the end of the ' deter minatio' in Harl. MS., 3768 (fol. 196) is the 
note : 

*et incipiunt alie conclusiones ejusdem de eodem scismate cum epistola 
directa domino Karolo Regi Francorum pro reformacione scismatis pre- 

Some ' conclusions ' then follow. 

(Richard) Tryvytlam or Trevytham seems to have flourished 
about 1400; Hearne suggests that he was the same as Robert 
Finingham, a Franciscan who lived about 1460^, but this is a quite 
unwarranted assumption. Tryvytlam is only known from his rhymed 
Latin poem, ' De laude Universitaiis Oxoniae,' a defence of the friars 
and attack on the monks. From the poem it is clear that he was an 
Oxford friar, and one line points to his having been a Franciscan : 
* Minorum ordinem proclamat impium,' etc. ^. 

^ Wadding, IX, 499 ; Eulog. Hist. * Hearne's edition of Tryvytlam's 

Contin. Ill, p. 403, seq. poem in App. Vitae Ric. II (Oxen. 

^ MS. Seld. sup. 64, fol. 134 b, * ex 1729), p. 344, note 2. 

quodam Minoritarum registrc' ^ j^i^. p. 358 (speaking of 'Owtrede' 

^ Men. Franc. I, 538. of Durham). 



[Ch. III. 

Among the assailants of the mendicants he mentions by name 
Ughtred of Durham, who flourished in the reign of Richard II. His 
poem has been edited by Hearne (Oxon. 1729), from a fifteenth 
century MS. then in the possession of Roger Gale, Esq. 

MS. Paris: — Bibl. Nationale, MS. 1201 (sec. xv) contains: Rkardi 
Tre'vithelani Supplicationes ad beatam Mariam Virginem. 

William Auger or Anger, according to Leland ^, studied in the 
Franciscan convent at Oxford, and was afterwards made Warden of 
the Grey Friars at Bridgwater, where he died and was buried, a.d. 1404^ 

John Edes, Edaeus, or of Hereford, is said to have been a 
Minorite of Oxford, and to have written commentaries on many of 
Aristotle's works, as well as on the Sentences and Apocalypse ^. He 
afterwards retired to Hereford, where he was elected warden, and 
where he died in 1406 ^ 

Quedam constituta (.?) ^ Johannis Ede de or dine minorum. Inc. ' Triplex 
fuit beneficium abrahe, viz. preeleccio, conversacio, propagacio 
. . . Questio utrum personarum accepcio sit peccatum.' 

MS. Oxford: — Bodley 815 ( = 2684 in Bernard) f. 1-8, a fragment 
(sec. xv). The MS. (fol. i) contains the note: ' Habetur liber 
complete inter fratres minores Hefordie ' {sic) ^. 

William Butler or Botellere was regent master of the Minorites 
at Oxford in 1401, when he lectured against the translation of the 
Bible into English He occurs as the thirtieth Provincial Minister and 
successor to John Zouche I He was probably the person elected by 
the Chapter at Oxford on the 3rd of May, 1406, on the deposition of 
Zouche^. Though the latter was afterwards restored, he does not 

* Script. 401. 

2 Bale, Script. II, 57. A 'Hugo 
Angerius ' flourished in 1338, but he 
was probably not a friar nor an English- 
man ; MS. Bibl. Nat. Paris, No. 5155, 

^ ' Dr. J. Ede Herfordensis Minorita 
scripsit inter cetera opus egregium, sc. 
Iccturam in apocalypsim lib. i. Ex 
scriptis Th. Gascoigne.' Bale in MS. 
Sdd. sup. 64, fol. 36 b. 

* Leland and Bale, who refer to the 
Catalogus eruditorum Franciscanorum. 

' Opuscula quaedam Thcologica,' in 
Bernard's Catalogue. 

In MSS. Paris, Bibi. Mazarine, 287 
and 288 (sec. XIV) is a Tabula origin- 

alium . . . compilata a fratre Johanne 
Lcctore Herfordensi ordinis fratrum 
Minorum. This work, though ascribed 
by Possevin and Tanner to J. of Here- 
ford, is by John Lector of Erfurt. 
Wadding, Script. 139, Sup. ad Script. 

' Merton Coll. MSS. No. 67, f. 202 
seq. : at the end, ' Explicit determinacio 
fratris et magistri Will. Buttiler ordinis 
minorum regentis Oxonic, A.D. 1401.' 

* Mon. Franc. I, 538, 561. 

^ Eulog. Hist. Contin. ITT, 405. The 
year is fixed by the words, 'Nuntius 
missus invcniens gcncralem mortuum.' 
Henry of Ast died in 1405. Wadding, 
IX, 267. 


seem to have been generally recognised in England, and was in 1408 
made Bishop of Llandaff \ Butler's tenure of office seems to have 
been reckoned from 1408. A new ordinance was made at this time 
that no Provincial of the Minorites should remain in office more 
than six years ^. William Butler resigned in 141 3 or 141 4, but was 
reinstated by Pope John XXIII ^. Whether he actually entered on 
his duties again does not appear. The date of his death is unknown. 
Bale and Pits state that he was buried at Reading ^ The Catalogue 
of Illustrious Franciscans, as quoted by Leland, calls him ' Flos 
universitatis temporibus suis.' 

Besides the treatise against the English translation of the Bible 
(Merton Coll. MS. 67) he is said to have written De indulgentiis 
papalibus. Inc. ' Articulus pro finali cessatione lecture sentenciarum'^. 

Vincent Boys, D.D. of Oxford, was elected thirty-first Provincial 
on the voluntary retirement of W. Butler in 141 3. Butler was 
reinstated by the Pope and the election of Boys quashed; but no 
stigma was to attach to the latter ^. Tanner mentions a David Boys, 
Carmelite, c. 1450''. 

Peter Russel was D.D. of Oxford ^ and taught also in Spain. On 
November 25th, 1399, Martin, king of Aragon, gave him power 

' legendi docendi et dogmatizandi ubique locorum sui regni Artem generalem 
ceterosque libros Raymundi Lulli.' ^ 

He was the thirty- second Provincial of England, and retired from 
the office in 1420, having presumably held it for six years 

He wrote or lectured in defence of Mendicancy. MS. Bodleian, 
Digby, 90, f. 200, contains a reply to him : 

' Determinacio magistri Johannis Whytheed de Hibernia in materia de 
mendicitate contra fratres ; in quo respondet pro Radulpho Archiepiscopo 
Armachano contra fratrem Petrum Russel' 

Robert Wellys or Wallys, D.D. of Oxford, was elected thirty-third 
Minister on Russel's retirement in 1420. Martin V empowered the 

^ Le Neve. Wadding, IX, 320, 499. 

2 Wadding, IX, 493-4. Cf. Eulog. 
Hist. Cont. Ill, 409. 

2 Wadding, IX, 356, 529 : the papal 
letter is dated xvi Kal. Jun. A'^ IV 
(May 17, 1414). 

* The list of Provincials in the Reg. 
Fratrum Minornm, London, has ' Frater 
Willielmus Butler, doctor Oxoniae, 
jacet . 

5 Bale, in MS. Seld. sup. 64, fol. 215, 
from MSS. in the Franciscan Friary at 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 539, 561 ; Wadding, 
IX. 356, 529; Wadding calls him *Bors.' 

^ Bibl. p. 118. 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 538. 

^ Wadding, Sup, ad Script. 608. 

10 Wadding, X, 53 ; Mon. Franc. I, 
538, 561. 


Minister of the Roman province to confirm the election, but Welly s 
died in France before he had assumed the duties of his new office ^ 

Thomas Chayne, Minorite D.D., was one of the five friars 
appointed by Congregation in 142 1 to decide what should be done 
with the pledges placed in the chests ' before the first pestilence'^.' He 
was buried in the chapel of All Saints in the Church of the Grey 
Friars, London^. 

Hugo David was D.D. and regent master of the Oxford Francis- 
cans about 1420 ^ On the deposition of Roger Dewe or Days, 
Provincial Minister, in 1430, Hugo David and John (?) Wynchelse 
were appointed vicars of the province ^. 

Deterviinacio Fratris et Magistri Hugonis Davidi's, ordinis Fratrum 
Minorum, in Universitate Oxoniensi Regentis, uirum penitens^ 
peccata sua confessus Fratri Licentiato, teneaiur eadem rursus 
confiteri proprio Sacerdoti. 
MS. Paris: — Bibl. Nationale, 3221, § 5 (sec. xv). 
Robert Colman is said to have been a Minorite of Norwich ^ 
He was S.T.P. and Chancellor of the University in 1419 In 1428 
he attended as Minorite D.D. the diocesan synod at Norwich, where 
inquisition was made into the heresies of William Whyte ^. He is 
said to have induced Walter Clopton, Knight, chief justice of England, 
to enter the Order in his old age ^. Leland says : 
' Illud non est silentio praetereundum, catalogum illustrium Franciscanorum 
accurate Colemannum laudare, ac peritissimum carminis pronunciare ' 

Matthias Doring studied at Oxford in his youth and perhaps 
entered the Franciscan Order there. He was certainly a Minorite in 

^ Mon. Franc. Mt supra. Wadding, 

X, 53. 

2 Mun. Acad. 274-5 (R.S.). 

3 MS. Cott. Vitell. F XII, fol. 277 
*. . . jacet in piano frater Thomas 
Cheyny, doctor theologie.' 

* MS. Bibl. Nat. Paris, 3221, § 5. 
Wadding, X, 169 : perhaps Thomas 
Wynchelse, who in 1427, ' famosissimus 
doctor illius ordinis reputabatur ; ' the 
only John Wynchelse, Minorite, men- 
tioned elsewhere, died a novice about 
1326. See notice of him. 

« Bale, I, 563. Blomfield, Norfolk, 
IV, 115. 

' Le Neve, Fasii, Vol. III. Wood, 
Hist, et Antiq. Oxon, II, 404. 
' Fascic, Zizan. p. 417. 

^ Bale, Pits, &c. Clopton was chief 
justice under Richard II ; see e. g. Close 
Roll, 13 Ric. II, part 2, m. 4, in dorso. 
^° Leland, Script. 433. 
" His epitaph contains the lines : 
'Anglia gaudet eum doctum fecisse 
magi strum. 

Inhibit Oxonie musis nova pocula 

See B. Gebhardt, Matthias Doring der 
Minorit, Sybel's Hist. Ztschr. for 1888, 
pp. 251, 293-4. Most of the statements 
here are derived from Gebhardt's article, 
a general reference to which will suffice. 
Cf. Wadding, Annales, XI, 49, 180; 
XII, 276, &c. 


1422, when he matriculated at Erfurt as Mector Minorum'^ He 
seems to have been lecturing in the Franciscan Convent at Erfurt 
some time before this event ; his lectures on the first book of the 
Sentences were finished on April 21st, 1422. He may have been at 
Oxford about 141 5 and perhaps took the degree of B.D. there. In 

1423, at any rate, he appears as B.D., and became Provincial Minister 
of Saxony in 1427''^. He was one of the representatives of the 
University of Erfurt at the Council of Basel in 1432, where he played 
a leading part^ In 1433 he was sent by the Council as ambassador 
to Eric, king of Denmark. Soon after this he returned to Erfurt. In 
1438 he wrote a pamphlet entitled ' Confutatio primatus papae,' with 
the dbject of enlisting the support of the secular princes on the side of 
the Council against the pope. He seems himself to have been a 
trusted friend of his Margraf, Frederic of Thiiringen. 

In his relations to his Order he appears as a consistent champion 
of the Conventuals against the stricter Observants. In 1443 he was 
elected General Minister of the former, and held the office till 1449. 
In 1455 his name occurs among the Conventual Provincial Ministers ; 
after a struggle with the Archbishop of Magdeburg on behalf of the 
Conventuals he resigned the Provincialate in 1461, and retired to 
Kyritz, leaving the Archbishop in possession of the field. Doring 
hovvever seems to have been left in peace till his death, July 24th, 1469. 
His chief works besides the treatise already mentioned were a defence 
of Nicholas de Lyra against Paul Burgos, written between 1434 and 
1440 (printed several times; e.g. at Basel, 1507); a defence of the 
miraculous blood of Wilsnach ; and his Chronicle ; the latter was 
compiled from notes taken at different times from the end of the 
thirties onwards; and embraces the period from 1420 to 1464. It 
has been twice edited, by Mencken and by Riedel ; both editions are 
said to be inaccurate. 

William Russell, ' of the Convent of Stamford in the diocese of 
Lincoln,' argued that a religious might lie with a woman without 
mortal sin; this thesis was discussed and condemned in the Con- 
vocation of Canterbury at St. Paul's on October 12th, 1424, and 

^ Ibid. p. 251. Weissenborn, Aden temporalia quae Sylvestri a Constantino 

der Erfurter Univ. part I, p. 122. sint collata, in concilio Basiliensi 1432 

^ Anal. Franc. II, 287. ad disputandum proposita.' Gebhardt, 

^ He brought forward a 'propositi© 257. Several of his discourses at the 

circa Hussitarum articulum ; de Dona- Council are preserved in Balliol Coll. 

tione Constantini, num justo titulo MSS. 164, 165. 

clerici/ possideant bona Ecclesiarum 



Russell submitted to the decision of the clergy \ On May 15th, 1425, 
he again appeared before Convocation to answer the charge of 
having publicly held and preached on Jan. 28th, 1425, that tithes need 
not be paid to the parish priest, but might be applied by the tithe- 
payer ' in pios usus pauperum ' At this time Russell was warden of 
Friars Minors of London ^ At first he tried to defend his doctrine, 
then submitted. The Archbishop enjoined on him, as a penance, 
that he should next Sunday after service solemnly renounce his error 
in set form ^ at Paul's Cross. At the time appointed Russell did not 
appear and was in consequence excommunicated. The proceedings 
against him dragged on for some time. On July nth, a letter of the 
University of Oxford in condemnation of his doctrines was exhibited, 
and later a similar letter from Cambridge; and on the 13th it was 

* that he should be judged and condemned as a heretic and schismatic' 

IMeanwhile, Russell, now no longer warden, fled to Rome ' to defende 
the forsaide erronye doctrine On August 12th, 1425, he Avas im- 
prisoned by order of the Pope, first in the Pope's, then in the ' Soldan's' 
prison. The following January he escaped from prison and fled to 
England, where he was received for one night by the Friars Minors of 
London. He seems to have remained at large for more than a year. 
He surrendered or was captured in March, 1427, and on the 21st of 
that month, in accordance with the papal decision, he read in English 
a complete recantation of his doctrine on tithes at Paul's Cross ^, and 
was then handed over to the Bishop of London to be imprisoned 
during the Pope's pleasure. He was at liberty again in 1429 when he 
incepted as D.D. at Oxford, and paid £10 to the University instead 
of giving a feast to the Regents^. The University showed its 
hatred of his teaching by adding to the oaths which had to be 

1 Twyne MS. XXIV, p. 129 (from 
Reg. Chichele, part II, fol. 35). 

' Into pitous use of pore men.' 
Wilkins, Cone. Ill, 456. The whole 
process against Russell will be found in 
Wilkins, Cone. Ill, 438-462. 

^ Ibid. 434. Cf. Mon. Franc, I, 520 : 
' ad has expensas (i. e. for the tiling of 
a roof in the London convent) dedit 
gardianus Russell iii libras.' 

* Given in English, Wilkins, Cone. 
Ill, 438. 

Ibid. 456. Russell says himself, 
* Y . . . went to the court of Rome 

supposyng ther to have be socured.' 
Ibid. 457. 

' Ibid. 457-8. 
If it be the same, but he is here 
described as an Austin Friar. See the 
receipt for the £10, executed in the 
names of the proctors, and dated Feb. 
I, 14!^, in Oxf. Univ. Archives, F 4, 
f. 15. ' Noverint universi per presentes 
nos . . . recepisse . . . de Fratre Willelmo 
Russell ordinis Augustinencium decern 
iibras sterlingorura virtute cujusdam 
gracie sibi concesse de commutacione 
convivii debiti in die incepcionis sue.' 


taken by every inceptor in every faculty \ a disavowal of Russell's 
teaching on tithes ^. The oath has already been quoted at length 
in Chapter VI. 

Super Porphyrii Universalia compendium^ by William Russell, Friar 

Comment, in Aristotelis Praedic amenta, anonymous, but probably by 
the same author. 
MS. Oxford : — Corpus Christi Coll. 126, fol. i, and fol. 4. 

William de Melton in 1427 went about the country preaching 
against tithes, 

* and 'teaching seditious doctrines among the common people in many places 
by uncircumcised words.' 

He had probably taken a degree at Oxford, as the University 
was appealed to to stop his preaching. The University wrote to 
the Duke of Gloucester and the King's Council, and secured his 
arrest. Melton was brought back to Oxford, and is said to have 
recanted over and over again on his knees ^. He is probably the 
same as WiUiam Melton of the Friars Minors, S.T.P.'*, who was 
preaching at York in 1426, on the subject of the mystery plays. 

* He commended the play to the people, affirming that it was good in 
itself and very laudable ; but for several reasons he induced the people to 
have the play on one day and the Corpus Christi procession on the second, 
so that the people might be able to come to the churches on the festival'^. 

Roger Donwe or Days, D.D. of Oxford, became thirty-fifth 
Provincial Minister in succession to John David between 1426 
and 1430; in the latter year he was 'for just causes deposed by 
the Minister General.' He was buried at Ware ^. 

Richard Leke or Leech, D.D. of Oxford, was thirty-sixth Pro- 
vincial Minister between 1430 and 1438. He was buried at Lichfield ^ 

^ Mun. Acad. 376. 

^ Ibid. 270, note i. Wood, Annals, 

PP- 569-570- 

^ Wood, Annals, sttb anno 1427. 
Correspondence of Bekynton (R. S.), 
Vol. II, pp. 248-250. 

* ' Sacre pagine professor.' Drake, 
Eboracum, App. 29, translates this, 
' professor of holy pageantry.' This 
curious mistake is repeated by the 
editor of Mon. Franc. Vol. II, preface, 
p. xxviii. 

^ York Mystery Plays, by Lucy 

Toulmin Smith, p. xxxiv (the extract is 
from the York City Records, Book A, 
fol. 269). 

^ Mon. Franc. I, 539, 561. Wadding, 
X, 169, 'Friar Roger Dewe.' Wilkins 
(Cone. Ill, 458) prints a letter from 
Archbishop Chichele to ' fratri Johanni 
David ordinis fratrum Minorum 
in Anglia ministro generali,' dated 
March 2, 1425, 'et nostrae translationis 
anno xii ' — i. e. 1426, new style. 

^ Mon. Franc, ibid. Wadding, XI, 49. 


Thomas Radner or Radnor, of the custody of Bristol and the 
Convent of Hereford, D.D. of Oxford, was Provincial in 1438, being 
the thirty-seventh in order. He was buried at Reading ^ 

John Feckyngtone, ' of the Order of Minors in Oxford,' was one 
of the two Rectors of Balliol College in 1433, his colleague being 
Richard Roderham, S.T.P. The Rectors, having, at the instance of 
the College, inquired into the working of the statutes, recommended a 
change in the clause of the first statute which provided that the Master 
of the College, if he received a benefice of the clear annual value of 
£10, was thereby incapacitated from holding his office. 

* In witness whereof, because our seals are known to few, we have procured 
that the seal of the Chancellor of the University of Oxford should be 
appended to these presents. Given at Merton College, April 19, 1433 

The matter was submitted to the Bishop of London, who cancelled 
the objectionable clause ^. 

John Whytwell, Minorite, on February 7th, 144I5 was allowed 
to count twenty oppositions pro completa oppositione ^. On January 25th, 
i4ff, it was decided in solemn congregation, that one-half of the 
£10 paid by this friar at his inception as D.D. should be placed in the 
Rothbury Chest to be used for the partial redemption of the University 
jewels, and that the other half should be given to the proctors in pay- 
ment of certain sums owed to them by the University ^. 

John Argentine supphcated for B.D. on October 20th, 1449, on 
the ground that he had studied philosophy for nine years, theology 
for seven, and had opposed and responded formally four times. The 
grace was conceded ^ In 1470 a John Argentine challenged and 
disputed against all the Regents of Cambridge ; he does not appear 
to have been a friar : he was probably the John Argentine, M.D. 
and D.D., who was physician to the princes Edward and Arthur, and 
held several prebends and livings in the dioceses of Ely, Lichfield, 

^ Mon. Franc, ibid. Wadding, XI, 
49, in Registro Ordiitis (says the latter) 
is a list of the ' Rectors of the Pro- 
vinces,' A. D. 1438 : in England ' Ma- 
gi ster Thomas Roidnor. 

^ Original in Ball. Coll. Archives 
(described in liist. MSS. Com. Report, 
IV, p. 443). 

■'• Statutes of the Oxford Colleges, 
Vol. I, Balliol, p. XX. 

* Register, A a, fol. 23 b. 

•■^ Ibid. f. 7. (Boase, p. 287.) 

^ Reg. A a, fol. 36. 

^ MS. Cott. Julius F VII, f. 165 : 
* Actus magistri Jo. Argentyn publico 
tentus in Univ. Cantebrigie,' &c. in 
verse. Above, some notes are written : 
' natus de Kyrkeby,' < de collegio Regis 
in (Cantebrigia ?).' 


Wells, and London, between 1487 and 1508 ^. One of the same name, 
with the degree of B.D. was Provost of King's College, Cambridge, 
from 1 50 1 to 1507 I 

Antony de Valle or Vallibns was admitted B.D., February 6th, 
14^^^. He incepted as D.D. before March 22nd, 145I, when he was 

* to absent himself from every scholastic act for a fortnight, that he might 
be able to visit his friends who were sick ' 

John David, on March 4th, 145^, was allowed to curtail his 
period of opponency and take the B.D. degree, on condition that 
he would lecture on the first book of Isaiah in the public schools ^ 
He became D.D. before June 5th, 1454, when he received permission 

* to resume his ordinary lectures after the feast of St. Thomas next ensuing 
(July 3rd), and to resume the acts of a Regent, except entry into the house 
of Congregation ' ^ 

Another of the same name was lecturer to the Franciscans of Here- 
ford before 141 6, D.D. of Cambridge, and thirty-fourth Provincial 
Minister in 1426 I 

David Carrewe, S.T.P., in 1452 received 6s. Sd. under the will of 
Richard Browne, alias Cordon, LL.D., Archdeacon of Rochester, &c., 
and benefactor of the friars of Oxford and elsewhere ^. This Carrewe 
is probably identical with the Friar David Carron, S.T.P., who, in 
1448, was with Friar Nicholas Walshe, S.T.B., appointed commissioner 
to elect a Provincial of the Minorites in Ireland on the deposition of 
William O' Really : their choice fell on Gilbert Walshe, a relative of 
Nicholas, but O'Really was afterwards reinstated by the Pope ^ 

John Foxholes (co. York) on April 14th, 1451, was allowed to 
count opponency from Michaelmas term to Easter as his complete 
opposition, on condition that he should preach one Latin sermon in 
addition to those which he was bound to deliver by the University 
statutes ; this was equivalent to a supplication for B.D. 

1 Tanner, Bibl. 48 ; Le Neve, Fasti, 
I, 597, 587. 620. 

2 Le Neve, III, 683. 

3 Reg. A a, fol. 2. 
* Ibid. fol. 62 b. 

5 Reg. A a, fol. 51 b. 

6 Ibid. fol. 83. 

' H^rl. MS. 431, fol. 100 b; Mon. 

Franc, I, 539, 551 ; Wilkins, Concil. 

Ill, 4S9- 

^ Mun. Acad. p. 649. In the will of 
R. Mertherderwa (a. d. 1447) mention 
is made of a friar David Cam Domini- 
can, ST.P. of Oxford ; Ibid. p. 558. 

9 Wadding, Ann. Min. XII, lo-ii, 
who adds, ' I have these from certain 
Vatican records.' 

i« Reg. A a, fol. 53. 



[Ch. III. 

We venture to identify John Foxholes with John Foxalls or 
Foxal, Llinorite, who lectured at Bologna and some other Uni- 
versity ^ In 1475 he was appointed Archbishop of Armagh by the 
Pope, but died in England within a year or two, probably without 
having visited his diocese ^. 

He was the author of several works ^ — 

Expositio Universalium Scoti. Inc. ' Creberrime instantiusque 

Printed at Venice, 1508 and 1512, under the name Joannes Anglicus. 
Opusculum super lihros Postertorum. 

MS. Paris :— Bibl. Nationale, 6667 (a.d. 1501). 
Printed at Venice, 1509 (?). 

Opusculum de priinis et secundis intentionihus, juxta mentem Scoti, 
Mayronis, Aweoli, Boneti^ et Antonii Andreae. Inc. ' Quoniam 
materia de primis.' 
MS. Florence, dim Bibl. S. Crucis {nunc Bibl. Laurent. ?). 
Expositio super metaphysicam Antonii Andreae. 
MS. olim penes Waddingum 

Jolin Sunday, on May 17th, 1453, was allowed to count 'opposi- 
tion in each of the schools ' for about seven months, together with 
eighteen additional oppositions, as equivalent to the statutable opposi- 
tion of one year^ On June loth, he was admitted B.D.*^ On 
February 5th, 145I, after finishing his lectures on the Sentences, he 
supplicated for D.D., and grace to incept was conceded under certain 
conditions ^. 

Richard Treners, S.T.B., obtained a grace on December 2nd, 1454, 
to substitute one additional Latin sermon after taking his degree (of 
D.D.) for two responsions before the degree ^ 

"William Goddard the elder, ' Doctor Oxoniae Disertissimus/ 
succeeded Thomas Radnor, according to the Register of the Grey 
Friars of London, as thirty-eighth Provincial Minister ^. Radnor was 

^ * Dum Bononiae legebam,' quoted 
by Sbaralca ; Wadding, Sup. ad Script. 

^ Cotton, Fasti Eccles. Hibem. Ill, 

^ Sbaralca has collected from his 
extant works references to works not as 
yet discovered ; Wadding, Sup. ad 
Script,, 420. 

* Wadding, Script. 20; Sup. ad 
Script. 68, 420. 

Reg. A a, fol. 74 b. 
« Ibid. fol. 75. 

Ibid. fol. 79 b, printed in Appendix. 
8 Ibid. fol. 86 b. 

° Mon. Franc. I, 539. English Hist. 
Review, Oct. 1891. 


minister in 1438, and it is probable that Goddard was not his 
immediate successor. At any rate, the latter was a leading man among 
the friars, and probably provincial minister between 1450 and 1460. 
Bishop Reginald Pecock wrote a letter addressed Doctori ordinis 
fratrum minorum Godard, in which 

* he calls the modern preachers pulpit-bawlers [clamatores in pulpitis) ' ^. 

A little later, the friar had his revenge. On November 27th, 1457, 
Pecock, being convicted of heretical opinions, abjured at Paul's Cross. 

* And doctor William Gooddard the elder, that was provinciall of the Grey- 
freeres, apechyd hym of hys erysys ' ^. 

He was living in London many years after this event. In the will, 
dated March 6th, 147 J, of John Crosby, 'citezein and grocer and 
alderman of London,' is the clause : 

' Item, I bequeth to maister Godard thelder doctoure of dyvynyte to pray 
for my soule ' ^. 

Similar bequests follow to the prior of the Austin Friars of London 
and to the provincial of the same Order. From this entry it would 
appear that Goddard was not provincial of the Minorites in 1472. 
From the distinguished position which he evidently occupied in 1457, 
and from the passage in the Grey Friars' Chronicle quoted above, it 
might be assumed that he had already held the office and retired. But 
William Goddard is mentioned as provincial in a record dated Dor- 
chester, October 4th, 1485 ^ Was this Goddard j'(?;2z'cr or junior} 
For there were two Franciscans of this name in the fifteenth century. 
There is nothing to show that the younger Goddard was ever provin- 
cial minister ; he was warden of the London convent, but was not 
buried in the choir, where all the ministers mentioned in the Register 
were buried ^. Further, the Register of the Grey Friars states that the 
younger Goddard died on September 26th, 1485, i.e. before the record 
was drawn up. The Register is, however, in the matter of dates 
absolutely untrustworthy. Without further evidence it seems impossible 

^ Gascoigne, Loci e libra veritatum, * Francis a S, Clara, Hist. Minor, pp. 

p. 100. Tanner (Bibl. p. 584) gives a 37-8. 

reference to this letter : ' MS. in Bibl. ' MS. Cott. Vitell. F XII, f. 282 b. 
Gualteri Copi.' It is probably still ' In capella Apostolonim ... in medio 
among the MSS. at Bramshill House, sub lapide jacet ffrater Willelmus Good- 
Hants. The date of the letter is not ard sacre theologie doctor gardianus loci 
given. et precipuus benefactor ejusdem qui 

^ Chronicle of the Grey Friars of obiit 26° die mensis Septembris, A. d. 

London (Camden Soc), p. 20. 1485.' On fol. 310 he is called ' frater 

3 P.C.C. Wattys, fol. 180 a. Willelmus Goddard junior.' 



[Ch. III. 

to decide with certainty which of the two was provincial in 1485 ; and, 
if it was the elder, whether he held office twice. William Goddard the 
elder was buried in the choir of the Franciscan Church in London. 

' Ad cujus (Johannis Hastyng', comitis Pembrochie) dexteram in piano sub 
lapide jacet venerabilis pater et frater Willelmus Goddard doctor egregius 
et ordinis fratrum minorum in anglia Minister benemeritus. Qui obiit 300 
die Mensis Octobris a^ domini 1437 ' ^. 

Aqua vite secundum doctrinam magistri Godard per Johannem Grene 
medicum scriptum ; a short receipt in English. 
MS. Brit. Mus. :— Sloane 4, p. 77 (c. a.d. 1468). 

Richard Ednam supplicated on January 27th, 145I, that eight 
oppositions should stand for the complete opposition required by the 
statutes ; the grace was conceded without conditions, and Ednam was 
admitted B.D., November 28th, 1455^. On April 2nd, 1462, he 
supplicated for D.D., promising to pay £10 on the day of his incep- 
tion ; the grace to incept was granted on condition 

*that he should incept within a year and give the Regents the usual 
livery ' 

He did not take advantage of this grace, and on May 24th, 1463, he 
again supplicated for D.D. ; the grace was conceded on condition 

' that he should incept before the feast of St. Thomas (July 3rd), pay ;!^i5 
on the day of his inception, and give a separate livery to the Regents at his 
own expense ' ^ 

He was at this time clearly not in the position of a simple mendicant. 
In March, 14 6| he was made Bishop of Bangor ^ The next year 
he was allowed to appropriate a benefice * owing to the smallness of 
the income of the episcopal table.' He died in 1496 ^. 

Gundesalvus (Gonsalvo) of Portugal was admitted to oppose 
in theology in April, 1456 ^ In February, 145^, he supplicated 
that he might reckon the two terms, during which he had been 
opponent, as a year, and proceed to the bachelor's degree^". On May 
29th, 1459, having performed the exercises required for the doctor's 

1 MS. Cott. Vitell. F XIT, fol. 274 b. 
The date is obviously wrong. In the 
margin 1497 is written in a later hand, 
but crossed out. 

Reg. A a, fol. 87 b. 
. ' Boase, Reg. p. 24. 

* Reg. A a, fol. 122; see App. 

^ Reg. A a fol. 128 ; see App. 

* Le Neve, Fasii, I, 103. 

' * XIX Kal. Feb. anno 1466.' Wad- 
ding, Vol. XIII, p. 356. 

* Le Neve, supra. 
9 Reg. A a, fol. 14 b. 
1° Ibid. fol. loi b. 


degree, he supplicated for grace to incept in theology, 'notwithstanding 
that he had not ruled in Arts/ The grace was conceded on condition 
that he should incept in the first week of the next term, and 

*give a livery, i.e. cultellos^ according to the ancient custom, to all the 
Regents ' ^. 

Among the Observant friars of Portugal who died in 1504 to 1505 

' venerandus pater frater Gundisalvus, qui bis Vicarius Provincialis fuit ' ^. 

Gundessal'vi Lihri de Di'vtsione Philosophiae, Bodl. MS. 2596 (Bernard) 
are probably not by this friar: cf. Cambridge MSS. No. 1025 
(in Bernard) : and Bibl. Nat. Paris, 16613 ' Gumdissalvi Liber de 
anima ' (sec. xiii). 

John Alien, B.D. of Cambridge, was on December ist, 1459, in- 
corporated as B.D. at Oxford under the following conditions: (i) he 
was to respond twice in the first year of his incorporation, and (2) to 
preach once to the University in the same period; (3) he was to pay 
40J". to the building of the schools, and (4) oppose twice before his in- 
corporation. The last two conditions were on the same day withdrawn 
at Alien s request ^. He may be the same as Friar John Alen, S.T.P., 
sometime warden of the convent at London, where he was buried, in 
the Chapel of All Saints ^ 

Richard Rodnore and Roby,' friars of the Order of St. Fran- 
cis,' at Oxford, had a quarrel in 1461, in consequence of which Roby 
procured from the Archbishop of Canterbury an inhibition to prevent 
Rodnore being admitted to the degree of D.D. At the inception on 
June 27th, 1 46 1, the Commissary refused to recognise the inhibition, 
Rodnore took his degree, and three persons who had been employed 
in presenting the Archbishop's command were imprisoned by the Con- 
gregadon of Regents as ' disturbers of peace and violators of privileges,' 
and suspended from their office in the University^. 

Laurentins Gulielmi^ de Savona, a man of noble birth, and friar 
of the Province of Genoa, was for five years a pupil of Friar Francis 

^ Reg. A a, fol. 117; printed in Mun. 
Acad. 755. 

2 Anal. Franc. 11, 536. 

^ Reg. A a, fol. 119. 

* MS. Cott. Vitell. F XII, fol. 277. 
* Sub secunda parte tercie fenestre jacet 
Johannc^ Alen pater Magistri quondam 

de capella Johannes (sic) ducis Bed- 
fordie et in eodem loco jacent frater 
Johannes Alen S.T.P. quondam gar- 
dianus loci filius Johannis Alen,' &c. 
^ Mun. Acad. 683. 

^ Wadding adds * de Traversagnis ; ' 
Script. 160 ; Ann. Vol. XIV, p. 232. 



[Ch. III. 

of Savona(\vho in 1471 became PopeSixtus IV), at Padua and Bologna ^ 
After this Laurentius lectured at Paris and Oxford ^ In 1478 he was 
at Cambridge, writing on rhetoric ^. In April, 1485, he dates a letter 
to William Waynflete, in praise of his foundation of Magdalen College, 
* in almo Conventu S. Francisci Londonii,' where also he seems to have 
written his Triumphus Amor is Domini nostri Jesu Christi^. He 
subsequently returned to Savona, where he died in 1495 at the age of 
eighty-one ^. 

His treatise Nova Rhetorica or Margarita eloquentice, &c., was 
printed at St. Albans in 1480 ^ 

Arenga fratris Gwilhelmi Sauonensis de epistolis faciendis. Inc. 
' Conquestus mecum es.' 
MS. Munich :—Bibl. Regia, 5238 (sec. xv). 

Fratris Laurentii Gulelmi de Traversagnis de Saona, ord. Min., S. 
Pag. Fro/., in libros septem dialogorum^ sive director ium vitae 
humanae, seu directorium mentis in Deum. Inc. prol. ' Quum 
plures nationes:' written at Savona, 1492 
MS. Venice :— St. Mark, Vol IV, CI. x. Cod. 2^6. 

Isaac Cusack, or Cusag, in 1473, obtained letters from the 
University testifying to his learning and good conduct, and certifying 
that he had incepted as D.D., and 

' laudably fulfilled his regency and all that pertains to the solemnity of such 
a degree.' 

Armed with this testimonial, he went over to Ireland with a Dominican 
named Dionisius TuUy ; and the two friars 

' preached publickly that Christ preached from door to door, that Pope 
John was a Heretic, and such like, telling the People withal, that they in 
their proceedings had been encouraged by the University of Oxford.' 

In 1 482 the University, hearing of their doings, had them arrested with 

^ Wadding, ibid, and Sup. ad Script. 

^ Ibid. His connexion with Oxford 
may be inferred from his Epistola mm- 
citpaioria to Waynflete, in which he 
speaks of the site, building, library, &c., 
of Magdalen College, Lambeth MS. 
450; Wharton, Anglia Sacra, I, 326. 

See explicit of his Rhetorica (ed. 
1 4S0) : ' compilatum autem fuit hoc 
opus in Alma univcrsitate Cantabrigie, 

A.D. 1478, die et 6 Julii.' 

* Lambeth MS. ut stcpra. 

^ Wadding, Script. 161. 

^ Macray, Annals of the Bodleian, 
2nd edition, p. 376, says 1489. 

^ See also Wadding, Script, 160, 
161. ' Habentur ejus monumenta Saonae 
apud Minores MSS. . . . Magnam lib- 
rorum^ copiam eo in conventu coacer- 


the co-operation of the Archbishop of Dublin, and sent back to Oxford. 

Being convicted of heresy, they were (according to Wood) 

* after recantation degraded and rejected the University as vagabonds.' 

There seems to be no authority for Wood's surmise, that they were 
afterwards reconciled to the University ' by their complaints to great 
persons ' ^ 

William Dysse in 1477 represented the Friars Minors of Oxford 
in the Court of Chancery. He may have been warden, more proba- 
bly permanent or temporary ' syndicus ' of the house ^ 

Menelaus (Menma) McCormic or McCarmaean is said to have 
studied at Oxford. He was promoted to the see of Raphoe in 1484, 
died on May 9, 151 5 or 151 6, and was buried in the Minorite Convent 
of Donegal ^ 

— "Wy5ht. The proctors in their accounts for the year ending 
April 17, 1482, 

'reddunt compotum de compositionibus 4 Doctorum Theologie, viz. 
Morgan, Browne, et Richeford, fratrum ordinis predicatorum, et Wy^ht 
ordinis minorum, 26^^ 13^ 4<i.' * 

Mauritius de Portu, or OTihely, a native of County Cork, 
studied first at Oxford, then became regent of the Franciscan Schools 
at Milan in 1488, and regent doctor in theology at Padua in 1491, 
where he was honoured with the title of ^ Flos Mundi' He was 
minister of Ireland in 1506 and took a prominent part in deposing 
the General, ^gidius Delphinus, in the first capitulum generalissimum 
at Rome in that year. In 1506 also, he was made Archbishop of 
Tuam by Julius 11. He was present at the Lateran Council in 151 2, 
and died the next year; he was buried among the Grey Friars of 
Galway ^. - 

1 Wood, Annals, Vol. L p. 638. 
Oxf. Univ. Archives, F 4, f. 123 b, 
145 a (Letter 313). 

2 Pat. 17 Edw. IV, Part II, m. 28. 
His business related to the royal grant 
of 50 marks a year. * Nos autem, pro 
eo quod littere predicte casualiter sunt 
amisse, sicut ffrater Willelmus Dysse 
coram nobis in Cancellaria nostra per- 
sonaliter constitutus sacramentum pres- 
titit corporale, et quod idem frater 
Willelmus litteras illas si eas imposterum 
reperiri/contigerit nobis in eandem Can- 
cellariarn nostram restituet ibidem can- 

celland' tenorem irrotulamenti litterarum 
predictarum ad requisicionem prefati 
Willelmi duximus exemplificand' per 
presentes. In cujus, &c. T. R. apud 
Westmonasterium XIIIJ die Novembris.' 

^ Cotton, Fasti Eccles. Hibern. Ill, 

* Wood MS. D 2, p. 340. 

^ Wood, Athenae, I, 16-18 ; Wad- 
ding, Ann. Vol. XV, pp. 312, 422. He 
is said also to have superintended for 
some years the press which Ottaviano 
Scotto opened at Venice in 1480; Cotton, 
Fasti Eccles. Hibern. IV, p. 11. 


For his writings, most of which have been printed, see Tanner, B'lhl. 
p. 605, Wood, Athenae I, 16-18. They relate for the most part to works 
of Duns Scotus, ' whom (Wood remarks) he had in so great veneration that 
he was in a manner besotted with his subtilties.' The Distinctiones or dine 
alphabetico by ' Frater Mauricius Anglus' cannot be by Mauritius de Portu; 
they exist e. g. in a fourteenth-century MS. in the British Museum (Royal 
10 B. xvi), and in a thirteenth-century MS. at Paris ^. 

Petrus Pauli de Nycopia, friar, who transcribed a work of Duns 
Scotus at Oxford, c. 1491, was probably a Minorite^. 

John Pereevall, D.D. of Oxford, was Provincial Minister about 
1500^. There appears to have been a contemporary writer of the 
same name, a Carthusian, who studied at Oxford and Cambridge. 
Among those buried in the choir of the Grey Friars, London, 
' in piano sub lapide jacet venerabihs pater et frater Johannes Persevall 
doctor egregius et ordinis minorum in anglia minister qui obiit 16 die 
Mensis Decembris, Domini iso^^ ' ^. 

Thomas Roger, warden of the Grey Friars of Gloucester, is 
mentioned in the following record of the Chancellor's Court ; it is to 
be regretted that no explanation of the circumstances is forthcoming. 

'Ultimo Februarii 1499 ( = Feb. 29th, 1500) W. Botehill de Gloucestre, 
scitatus coram nobis ad instanciam fratris Thome Roger gardiani fratrum 
minorum Gloucestrie, prestitit juramentum corporale quod ipse in persona 
sua propria comparebit Gloucestrie responsurus obiciendis sibi pro parte 
dicti Gardiani et hoc citra ffestum Pasche proximum ' ^. 

John Kynton is once only described as a Minorite in the records. 
' Eodem die (October 24th, 1507) Thomas Clarke executor testamenti 
Joannis Falley promisit se soluturum domino doctori Kynton ordinis 
Minorum xxvi^ wm^ 

He was senior theologus in 1503, and acted as commissary or 
Vice-Chancellor in 1503, 1504, 1507, 1510, 1512, 1513; 'Dr. 
Kyngton, senior theologus' was commissary in 1532'^. Kynton 
preached the University sermon on Easter Sunday in 1515^. He 

^ MS. Bibl. Mazarine, 1019 ; the 
author is here called ' Frater Mauricius 
lielvacensis ordinis fratrum Minorum.' 

MS.C.C.C. Oxford, 227, f . i : ' Ex- 
pliciunt questiones doctoris subtilis super 
secundo et tertio de anima Oxonie scrii)te 
per fratrem Petrum Pauli de Nycopia. 
Lord Jhesu mercy.' Cf. notice of 
W illiam Vavasour. 

^ According to Wood he became 
D.D. abuut 1500, Fasli, 6. 

* Wood, Athenae Oxon. I, 5-6. 
Cooper, Athenae Cantab. I, pp. 6, 521. 
MS. Cott. Vitell. F XII, fol. 275. 
Mon. Franc. I, 539. 

^ Acta Cur. Cancell. Q, f. 30. 

^ Acta Cur. Cancell. Q, f. 28. 

^ Ibid. f. 27, 49 b, 54, 78 : U, f. 106 b ; 
FEE f. 159. Boase, Register, p. 161 ; 
cf. 296. 

^ Acta Cur. Cancell. >I, f. 263. 


was Divinity reader to Magdalen College, and afterwards third 
Margaret Professor of Divinity : the latter post he resigned on October 
5th, 1530 ^. He was one of the theologians deputed by the University 
to confer with Wolsey on the condemnation of Luther's books in 
152 1 ; he was further one of the committee appointed by the king's 
command to examine more thoroughly the Lutheran doctrines at 
Oxford in the same year^. He also took a prominent official, though 
not very decisive, part in the proceedings at Oxford in connexion with 
the king's divorce He was buried in Durham College Chapel; 

' for,' writes "Wood, ' on a little gravestone there, yet remaining, is written 
this : " Obiit Johannes Kynton, Frater Minor, sacrae Theologiae professor, 
20 Januar. 1535 " V 

John Smyth, B.D., on June 30th, 1506, obtained grace to incept 
with the condition 

* that he shall say the mass Salus populi thrice for the good estate of the 

In January, i5of, he supplicated for the same grace, which was 

* conditionata quod habet studium 4°^' annorum in sacra theologia post 
gradum bacallariatus.' 

He was Hcensed on January 22nd, and incepted on January 26th, 
under Richard Kidderminster, Abbat of Winchcombe, paying £ 5 for 
his composition. In July 1507, he was dispensed from the duty of 
' deponing ' for that term, and in June 1508 he was allowed to post- 
pone a sermon till the next term ^. 

John Hadley was B.D. in June, 1506 ^ 

Christopher Studeley supplicated for B.D. on November i8th, 
1506, after studying for ten years. He was buried at the Grey Friars, 
London, ' between the choir and the altars.' 

* Et ad capud ejus (i. e. J. Seller, D.D. warden of London) sub lapide jacet 
frater Xpoforus Studley electus [gardianus ?] qui obiit 10 die mensis 
Marcii a.d. 1570 {sic) 

Wood, Athenae, 94. B ; see also EEE, fol. 265 a. 

2 Wood, ibid. Lyte, 456. ^ Reg. G 6, fol. 22 b, 27 b, 29 b, 30, 

^Lyte, 475. 31b, 43, 58 b. 

* Wood, ibid. Several other refer- « Reg. G 6, fol. 18. R. Hadley was 

ences to him are found in the records of one of the Observants qui fugam 

the Chancellor's Court: his servant, petierunt in 1534; Cal. of State 

William Cooper, was convicted of an Papers, Hen. VIII, Vol. VII, No. 

assault on a scholar in 1509, Acta Cur. 1607. 

Cancelly '5, f. 94b; in 1513 he took ^ Reg. G 6, f. 26 b. MS. Cott. 

Richard Leke into his service. See App. Vitell. F, XII, fol. 288. 



[Ch. III. 

Ambrose Kell, Friar Minor, and scholar of theology, in March, 
150S-, obtained from Congregation the right of free entry into the 
University library on taking an oath not to injure the books ^. 

Gerard Smyth, on May 4th, 1507, obtained grace to oppose and 
proceed to the B.D. degree, after fifteen years' study, on condition 

* quod legal tres primas questiones Scoti ' ^. 

He was admitted B.D. on February 6th, i5o|^. He was still B.D. 
in 1 5 10, when he was appointed to preach the University sermon on 
Ash Wednesday 

Brian Sandon, Sandey, or Sanden was Syndicus, legal advocate 
and bursar of the Franciscan Convent at Oxford from 1507 or before 
till the dissolution. A sketch of his career has already been given ^. 

Peter Lusetanus, or de Campo Portugaliensis, supplicated for 
B.D. on June 15th, 1506, after studying for eight years. He was 
admitted to oppose on May loth, 1507, and appears as B.D. in the 
following March. He supplicated for D.D. in June 1509^. 

Jolm Banester supplicated for B.D. on October 24th, 1508, after 
studying for sixteen years ' in universitate et extra! 

* Hec est concessa conditionata, una quod habet studium 6 annorum in 
universitate ; alia quod predicet semel preter formam in ecclesia b. 

Thomas Rose, scholar of theology, was admitted to oppose on 
March igofl 

Thomas Anyden as B.D. suppHcated for D.D. on November 20th, 
1507 : the grace was conceded on condidon that he would proceed 
before next Easter. On the same day, at his request, the condition 
was graciously cancelled. He was still B.D. in December, 151 2. He 
is probably identical with ' Thomas Anneday, frater ordinis minorum 
et Inceptor in s. theologia,' who supplicated on April 12th, 15 13, 

* quatinus graciose secum dispensetur sic quod solvat tantum septem marcas 
dc compositione sua, causa est quia est pauper et habet paucos amicos.' 

^ Reg. G 6, f. 35 a. Boase, p. 46. 

2 Ibid. fol. 39. ^ Reg. G 6, fol. 61 b. 

3 Ibid. fol. 51b. ^ Reg. G 6, fol. 72 (two entries about 
* Acta Cur. Cane. '5, fol. 264 b; the him). Another Thomas Rose, born c. 

entry is crossed out. 1488, is mentioned by Foxe (Acts and 

° See Part I, chapter VII, where refer- Monuments, VIII, 581-590); he was 

ences will be found. a priest but not a friar (ibid. 585). 
« Reg. G 6, fol. 18 b, 39 h, 55- 


' Friar Thomas Any day' incepted July 4th, with three other Minorites, 
and paid the above sum ^. 

Boduricus admitted to oppose in theology, June 12th, 1509 ; he 
is perhaps the same as Roderic Witton, Franciscan, mentioned by Pits 
and Tanner ^. 

Walter Goldsmyth was appointed to preach on Ash Wednesday, 

John Tinmouth, or Maynelyn, Franciscan of Lynn, was educated 
at Oxford and Cambridge. He was warden of the Grey Friars of 
Colchester in 1493. 151 1 he resigned the rectory of Ludgershall, 
Bucks. In 1 510 he had been made suffragan bishop of Lincoln with 
the title bishop of Argos ; he held this office till his death. He was 
vicar of Boston in Lincolnshire in 1518. In the same year he became 
a brother, and in 1579 Alderman, of the Gild of Corpus Christi in 
Boston. He died in 1524, desiring in his will to be buried at Boston, 

* to the end that his loving parishioners, when they should happen to see 
his grave and tomb, might be sooner moved to pray for his soul.' 

He left £5 to each of the Franciscan houses at Lynn, Oxford, and 
Cambridge. He is said to have written a life of St. Botolph 

Alexander Barclay, D.D. of Oxford, the translator and part- 
author of the Ship of Fools ^ entered the Franciscan Order after 15 14. 
He died in 1552 ^ 

Henry Standish, of Standish in Lancashire, was D.D. of Oxford, 
and appears to have studied also at Cambridge ^ He was one of the 
court preachers at the beginning of Henry VIII's reign, and frequently 
received payments for his services : the earliest grant to him in the 
State Papers was a sum of 20J. for preaching in 1511 ^. In 15 14 the 
King gave £10 to Dr. Standisshe and the Friars Minors for charges 
at the general chapter to be holden at Bridgwater ^. The next year 

1 Reg. G 6, fol. 47 b, 161, 169, 187 b. 
^ Boase, Reg. p. 66. Tanner, Bibl. 

^ Acta Cur. Cancell, 'I, fol. 266 b; 
perhaps a mistake for Walter Good- 

* Cooper, Athen. Cantab. I, 31. 
Notes and Queries, ist Series, Vol. XII, 
p. 430.^ MS. Wood, B. 13, p. 14. 
Thompson's Boston (ed. 1856). Stubbs, 

Regist. Sacrum Anglic, p, 143. Dug- 
dale, Monasticon, Vol. VI, p. 151 1. 

^ Wood, Athenae^ 205. Diet, of 
National Biography. 

^ Wood, Athen. Oxon. I, 92-4. 
Cooper, Athen. Cantab. I, 55. 

^ Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, 
Vol. II, pp. 1450, 1467, 1470, 1474, 
1477 ; Vol. Ill, p. 1555. 

« Ibid. Vol. II, p. 1465. 



the friar was in debt to the extent of loo marcs ^. Standish was 
probably at this time warden of the Grey Friars of London ^. The 
time during which he was Provincial Minister cannot be determined ^. 
In 1 515 he attended a council of divines and temporal lords summoned 
by the King to consider a sermon preached by Richard Kidderminster, 
Abbat of Winchcombe, on benefit of clergy. The Abbat maintained 
that a recent act which deprived ' murderers, robbers of churches, and 
housebreakers ' of their clergy if they were not in holy orders, was 
contrary to the law of God and the liberties of the Church. The 
Franciscan doctor defended the act, arguing that 

* it was not against the liberty of the Church, because it was for the weal 
of the whole realm.' 

Soon afterwards he was summoned to answer for his opinion before 
Convocation. He appealed to the King, and Henry quickly brought 
the bishops to submission by an assertion of the royal supremacy and 
a threat of praeinunire Standish thus won the goodwill of the court; 
he possessed the confidence of the people. The feeling against foreign 
traders was now very bitter in London, and in 15 17 one John Lincoln, 
acting as spokesman of the citizens, urged the warden of the 

' to take part with the commonalty against the strangers ' 

in a sermon he was to deliver on Easter Monday ^ Standish refused, 
wisely, as the event showed ; for an inflammatory sermon the next day 
resulted in a serious riot. In 1 5 1 8 Standish obtained the bishopric of St. 
Asaph by royal influence, in spite of the opposition of Wolsey ^ In 
1524 he was sent as royal ambassador to Denmark^. In 1528 he 
was one of the ' counsellors appointed for the hearing of poor men's 
causes in the King's Court of Requests ' ^. 

His administration of his diocese was not altogether blameless. His 
Vicar-General, Sir Robert ap Rice, was indicted for extortions on the 
King's tenants in 1533, and relatives of Sir Robert had, three years 

1 Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, 
Vol. 11, No. 1370. 

^ He was certainly warden in 1.S15. 
Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, Vol. 
II, No. 1 31 3. 

2 Mon. Franc. I, 539. 

♦ Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, 
Vol. II, Nos. 13T3, 1314; Brewer, 

Hen. VIII, I, 250-253. 

° Brewer, I, 245-250. 

^ Le Neve, Fasti, I, 73. Cal. of 
State Papers, II, Nos. 4074, 4083, 4089. 

Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials, 
I, i. 90. Rymer, XIV, 12. 

^ Eighth Report of the Deputy 
Keeper, App. 2, No. 5, p. 167. 


previously, been indicted for maintaining thieves and had not yet been 
punished \ 

But Standish is best known as a champion, probably the foremost 
champion, of the ' Old Learning ' in England. He was, there can be 
little doubt, the Franciscan theologian who in 151 6 tried to organize 
a combined critical attack on the waitings of Erasmus It was some 
years later — in 1520 — that he preached at Paul's Cross against 
Erasmus' edition of the New Testament, and inveighed against his 
writings in conversation at courts He consequently became the 
object of the famous scholar's satire and invective, and his memory 
has suffered accordingly. 

In 1528, when the royal divorce suit was proceeding, he 
became Katharine's chief counsellor, being apparently chosen by 
the queen herself*. During the long trial, however, he showed 
little of the boldness which characterised Fisher's conduct, and 
Katharine seems not unreasonably to have entertained some suspicion 
of his sincerity ^. He was present at the coronation of Anne Boleyn, 
June 1533 ®. That he was willing to admit the royal supremacy^ is 
not surprising. He proposed to add to the King's Articles (which 
required the surrender, by Convocation, of the legislative powers of the 
clergy), the words : 

* Provided that the King allow those constitutions which are not contrary 
to the law of God or of the realm to be put in execution as before 

He died on July 9th, 1535 ^. His will is dated July 3rd, 1535^^. He 
desired to be buried ' inter fratres Minores ' (London ?). 

* Item pro sepultura mea quadraginta libras. Item pro Tumba erigenda 
xiijii. \'f viij<i in ecclesia fratrum minorum ubi contigerit corpus meum 
quiescere. Item pro exhibicione scolarium in Universitate Oxonie qua- 
draginta libras. Item pro edificatione Insule ecclesie fratrum Minorum 
Oxonie quadraginta libras.' 

His bequest of £5 to buy books for the Oxford Franciscans, and his 
appointment of two executors to distribute his own library should 
make us hesitate to accept unreservedly the charge of 'gross ignorance ' 
which Erasmus brings against him Among other legacies may be 

1 Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, 661. 

Vol. VI, Nos. 62, 1379. 7 ibid. Vol. V, App. 9. 

2 Seebohm, Oxford Reformers, 326-7. « Dixon, Church of England, I, 106. 

3 Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, ^ Le Neve, Fasti, I, 73. 
Vol. Ill, 929, 965. 10 P.C.C. Hogen, qu. 26. 

* Brewer, II, 304, 306. " Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, 

5 Ibid.^339, 346. Vol. Ill, No. 929. Cf. Seebohm, Ox- 

« Cal. of State Papers, Vol. VI, No. ford Reformers, 383-4. 



noticed £40 to the Church of St. Asaph ^pro pavimento chorij 20 
marcs to the Carmelites of Denbigh ' to build their cloister/ £10 to 
the Minorites of London for thirty trentals, £40 to the parish church 
of ' Standisshe/ and a messuage in ' Wrixham ' to Nicholas Rygbye. 
The will was not allowed to pass uncontested; 'for the law is plain, 
that when a religious man is made a bishop, he cannot make a will ' ^. 
Cromwell seems to have exacted heavy fines from the executors and 
legatees ^. 

Robert Sanderson supplicated for B.D. on Jan. 22, 15 if, after 
studying twelve years. On May 30, 151 1, he petitioned 

* quatenus gratiose secum dispensetur ut respondeat sine aliqua oppositione 
propter defectum schole. Hec est concessa et conditionata quod replicet 
in scholis post responsionem.' 

In April 15 13, as B.D., he obtained grace to proceed to D.D., 
stating that he had studied for eighteen years. In June his composi- 
tion was reduced by four nobles (=2 6j>. ^d), on condition 
' that he will tell no one except those whom it concerns.* 

He incepted on July 4, 15 13, paying £5 8^. 8^^ At the time of 
the dissolution he was warden of the Grey Friars at Richmond in 

John Brakell obtained grace to oppose and proceed to the B.D. 
degree on Jan. 27, 15 if, after studying for fourteen years ^ 

J ohn Brown, having studied for twelve years, supplicated for B.D. 
on Jan. 22, 151^; he obtained the Chancellor's license Nov. 19, 151 2. 
In June 15 13, he supplicated as B.D. for D.D., after eighteen years' 
study. The grace was conceded 

'sic quod semel predicet in ecclesia B. M. V. infra annum, et non utatur 
aliqua gratia general! vel speciali pro sua necessaria regentia infra annum.' 

The second condition was afterwards deleted. Brown incepted on 
Feb. 20, i5if, his composition being reduced by five marcs ^ On 
July 6, 151 3, he appeared in the Chancellor's Court as witness of the 
indenture between Dr. Goodfield, ex-warden, and Richard Leke 

John Smyth was admitted to oppose in June 151 1, after studying 

* Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, Keeper, App. II. 

Vol. IX, 34. 5 Reg. G 6, fol. 107 b. 

2 Ibid. 34, 35, 607, 771 ; X, 522. « Reg. G 6, fol. 107, 168 b, 185, 200, 

3 Reg. G 6, fol. 107, 122 b, 171, 205 b, 206, 207, 215. 

182 b, 1 68 b, 187 b (and 213 b). ' Acta Cur. Cane. '5, fol. 194. See 

* Eighth Report of the Deputy Tart I, chapter VII. 


for fourteen years, and to the degree of B.D. in Dec. 151 2. Six 
months later he was licensed in theology, and allowed to incept as 
having studied for eighteen years, with one responsion in the new 
schools and two sermons in diebus Parasceues at the Friars Minors. 
At his inception he paid £6 13^. ^d. He was dispensed from his 
necessarj^ regency 

* quia est gardianus alicujus loci et sunt ei magna negotia ' ^. 

Harmon, friar, who was admitted to oppose on Jan. 26, 15 li, is 
perhaps identical with ' Friar Simondez Harm,' lector of the Grey 
Friars of Leicester in 1538 ^ 

Gilbert Sawnders, after sixteen years' study, was admitted to 
oppose in Nov. 151 1, provided 

' he said the mass de Spiritu Sancto five times for the good estate of the 
regents, and preached in propria persona at St. Mary's before Easter.' 

In 1 51 2 he was appointed to preach the sermon on Ash Wednes- 
day^. On April 13, 151 3, he supplicated for D.D. In May he asked 
that 40s. might be deducted from his composition ; he was allowed to 
deduct 20s. ; this was afterwards increased to four nobles, 

' et nemini revelabit nisi quarum interest.' 

He incepted on July 4, and paid £4 6s. Sd. In the following 
November he was dispensed from his necessary regency, and in Feb., 
1 514, from a sermon*. He died on July 16, 1533, and was buried 
in the Chapel of All Saints at the Grey Friars, London ^ 

John Sanderson, B.D., suppHcated for D.D. on Dec. 14, 151 2, 

having studied for sixteen years, 

* cum oppositione et responsione (?) in novis scolis et responsione in capi- 
tulo (?) generali cum introitu biblie ' ^. 

William German, or Germyn, or Germen, in Nov. 151 1 ob- 
tained leave from the Chancellor to enter the University Hbrary \ He 
supplicated for B.D. on July 3, 15 13, after studying ' logic, philosophy, 

1 Reg. G 6, fol. 127 a, b, 160, 168 b, * Reg. G 6, fol. 133 b, 171 b, 177, 
185 a-b, 187 b, 194 b. 168 b, 187 b, 199 b, 214. 

2 Boase, Reg. p. 79 ; 8th Report ^ mS. Cott. Vitell. F. XII, fol. 277. 
of the Deputy Keeper, App. 2, p. 27. ^ Reg. G 6, fol. 160. 

3 Act^ Cur. Cane. fob 264. ' Acta Cur. Cane. % fol. 156 b. 

T 2 



[Ch. III. 

and theology' for twelve years ^ He was still only scolaris sacre 
theologie in June, 151 5, when he asked 

* quatenus ilia particula olim posita in sua gratia, viz. quod sit medietas anni 
inter oppositionem et responsionem possit deleri. Hec est concessa, sic 
quod dicat unam missam de spiritu sancto pro bono statu regentium, et 
aliam de trinitate, et aliam de recordare ^' 

In Nov. 1 516, he obtained grace to incept, and asked for a reduc- 
tion of his composition by one-half, which was probably granted'. 
He did not, however, become D.D. till June, 15 18*. He was one of 
the executors of Henry Standish, Bishop of St. Asaph (d. 1535), 
who left 

* omnes libros meos distribuendos secundum discrecionem magistri Johannis 
Cudnor S.T.D., nunc gardiani fratrum Minorum Londoniensium et 
magistri Willelmi German eiusdem facultatis, et cuilibet ipsorum quinque 
marcas pro labore 

Alyngdon, Doctor, friar Minor, in Jan. i5xf 

'promised to pay William Hows 11s. ^d. before the fourth Sunday in Lent 
under penalty of the law 

Richard Lorcan, an Irish Franciscan, ' subtracted ' some goods 
and money of John Eustas, a scholar, who died intestate, in 15 14, and 
was ordered by the Chancellor s Court to restore them ^. 

John de Castro of Bologna was admitted to oppose on Dec. 6, 
1 5 14, and to read the Sentences four days later ^. He made the fol- 
lowing entry with his own hand in the Register of the Chancellor's 
Court (su5 anno 1514) : 

* In die cinerum ego frater Joannes ordinis minorum italus de Castro 
Bononiensi praedicabo sermonem dante domino 

E-aduIph Gudman on May 23, 151 5, obtained grace to oppose, 
&c., after studying for twelve years 

' in hac universitate et Cantibrigie et in partibus transmarinis 

1 Reg. G. 6, fol. 187. 

2 Ibid. fol. 254 b. ^ Ibid. fol. 301. 
* Reg. H. 7, f. I. See also ibid. f. 


^5 P.C.C. Hogen, qu. 26. 

® Acta Cur. Cane. f. 210 ; another 
Alyngton is mentioned in Boase's Regis- 
ter, p. 99; for W. Hows, see Boase, 
Reg. p. 80. 

' Acta Cur. Cancell. f. 250, 254 b. 
See Part I, chapter vii. A secular 
named Richard Lorgan is mentioned in 
Boase's Register, p. 128. 

" Reg. G. 6, fol. 220. 

» Acta Cur. Cancell. T, fol. 263. 
Wadding {Script. 148) mentions another 
Minorite of the same name. 
Reg. G. 6, fol. 253 b. 


William Walle, having studied for twelve years, obtained grace to 
oppose, with the stipulation that six months should intervene between 
his opposition and responsion (July 3, IqIs)- He incepted in June 
or July, 1 518, and half his composition was remitted. In Dec. 1518, 
he was dispensed from his regency for a fortnight \ 

John Flavyngur or Flanyngur, scholar of Canon Law, suppli- 
cated on June 20, 151 5, 

* quatenus studium octodecim annorum in eodem jure et in jure civili cum 
multis lecturis publicis in cathedra doctoris et multis aliis locis sufRciat ut 
admittatur ad lecturam extraordinariam alicujus libri decretalium. Hec 
est cqncessa sic quod solvat vj^ viij'i Universitati in die admissionis sue et 
legat duos libros decretalium 

It is curious that a scholar should, before attaining the degree of 
B.Can.L., lecture as a Doctor : most of the instruction in civil and 
canon law was given by Bachelors ^. 

Thomas Peyrson, elected Fellow of Merton College in 1520, is 
said to have entered the Order of Observant Friars while still a B.A. * 
Perhaps he is confused with 

' Johannes Perse (or Person) electus et cursor theologie hujus loci (London), 
qui obiit 18 die Mensis februarii 1527,' 

who was buried at the Grey Friars, London, infer chorum et altaria ^ 
Thomas Peyrson was an Observant Friar at Lynn in 1534, probably 
as a prisoner : he was still there at the dissolution ^ 

John Porrett or Parott obtained leave, on Nov. 19, 151 1, to 

enter the University library'^. He supplicated for B.D. on April 26, 
1520, having studied for sixteen years. He was not admitted till 
May, 1526, after fourteen years' study (?)^. Early in the next year 
he applied to have his composition reduced to £4 : this was granted 
on condition that he would proceed at the next act, say five masses 
for the regents, and interpret the epistles of Paul to the Galatians 

1 Reg. G. 6, fol. 187, 301 ; H. 7, 
fol. I, 6 b. 

2 Reg. G. 6, fol. 257 b. 
2 Lyte, p. 222. 

* Brodrick, Memorials of Merton 
College, p. 251. 

5 MS. Cott. Vitell. F XII, fol. 288 b, 

^ CaK of State Papers, Vol. VII, No. 

1607. Eighth Report of the Deputy 
Keeper, App. II, p. 30. One of this 
name was Rector of Gedleston, Herts., 
from 1 551-1558 ; Newcourt, Repert. I, 
827. Another was vicar of Clacton- 
parva and died before Jan. 1523 (ibid. 
11, 155). 

' Acta Cur. Cancell. T, fol. 156 b. 
« Reg. H. 7, fol. 156 b. 



[Ch. III. 

before Easter. He does not appear to have fulfilled these conditions : 
on May 23, the same grace was conceded, 

'because he is very poor and scarcely has what is necessary to take a 

wdth the condition that he should read the first epistle of the Corin- 
thians publicly in his house, schedulis fixis hosHo ecclesie h. Marie 
Virginis'^, after graduating. He incepted on July 8. On Oct. 10, 
1527, he was dispensed from his necessary regency as being Warden 
of the Grey Friars of Boston : he was, however, to continue to deliver 
his ordinary lectures till All Saints' Day ^. 

David Williams, B.D., was allowed to incept, after fourteen years' 
study, on condition of preaching at St. Mary's and St. Paul's, con- 
tinuing his studies at the University for two years, and paying a 
' golden angel ' to repair the staff of the inferior bedell of arts 
(Jan. 24, i52j)^. In April his examinatory sermon was at his 
request postponed till after his degree : 

* Causa est quia dicit se plura beneficia a parentibus consequuturum si 
fuerit inceptor quam non 

On May 13, he supplicated 

' quatenus graciose secum dispensetur ut posset iterum circuire non obstante 
aliquo statuto in oppositum. Hec est concessa et conditionata ; conditio 
est quod non circuerat [circueat ?] ante festum Penthecostes ' (i. e. 
May 19) ^ 

The meaning of this is not clear ; perhaps he had already ' gone 
round ' once and failed to incept at the ensuing Congregation ^ 
Having secured a reduction of his composition to £4, he incepted on 
July 9 In Oct. he obtained a dispensation from all scholastic acts 
till the first Sunday in Advent, ' because he has to preach on that 
day^'. In Feb. of the next year, he was dispensed from his necessary 
regency ^. 

* To ensure publicity. 

2 Reg. H. 7, fol. 40, 153, 161 b, 
171b, 177 b, 178 b. 

^ Ibid. fol. 51 b. David Williams 
B. Can. L. must be a different person, 
Boase, p. 104. 

* Ibid. fol. 61. For similar dis- 
pensation to him, see ibid. fol. 64 
(May 5). 

^ Ibid. fol. 63 ; on circuihis, see 
Clark, Reg. of the Univ. Vol. II, Part 
I, p. 42, 

® He was, however, not licensed till 
June 3, 1521 ; Reg. H. 7, fol. 58 b. 
' Ibid. fol. 64, 69. 

Ibid. 72. 
'* Ibid. fol. 78 ; cf. 75, 70 b. 


William Cnrtes was admitted to oppose on April 20, 1520. 
Soon afterwards he obtained permission 

*to respond in the new schools without having any opposition there 

In Feb. 152 J, as B.D. he supplicated for D.D., having studied arts 
and theology for eighteen years. 

* Hec gratia est concessa sic quod solvat xl d^^ ad reparationem baculi 
inferioris bedelli sue facultatis et quod predtcet sermonem ante gradum 
susceptum et quod procedat ante paschal' 

Richard Clynton supphcated for B.D., after eight years' study, 
April' 26, 152 1. Among the conditions imposed was one 

* that he should celebrate three masses for the plague and another for 

Thomas Frances, B.D., had grace to incept (after sixteen years' 
study) on condition of paying ^od. to mend the staff of the sub-bedell 
of arts, preaching at St. Paul's within two years, and preaching an 
examinatory sermon before his degree (Jan. 24, 152^). He incepted 
on July 9, 1 52 1, having three days before obtained a dispensation 
from his necessary regency, 

* because he is warden in some convent of his Order and cannot continue 
in the University.' 

The conditions on which this was granted were : 

* (i) that he should say the Psalter of David before Michaelmas ; (2) that 
he should celebrate seven masses for the good estate of the Regents ; (3) 
that he should pay his debts to the University before going away 

John Thornall, on Nov. 19, 152 1, having studied for sixteen 
years, was allowed to proceed to B.D., on condition 

' quod studuit hie vel in alia universitate per xii annos.' 

He was admitted B.D. in June, 1523, and obtained grace to incept 
in May, 1524, after 'studying fifteen years in this University.' His 
composition was reduced to five marcs on condition 

* quod solvat illas quinque marcas in primis suis inceptionibus,' 

and that he should incept before Easter ^. He failed to do so, and on 
July II, 1525, was permitted to pay £5, instead of his full compo- 

1 Reg. H. 7, fol. 38, 40 b, 78. 
Ibid. fol. 61. 

3 Ibid. fol. 38. 51 b, 68, 69. 

* Ibid. fol. 73, 104 b, 124, 127, 130. 


sition, with the stipulation that he should distribute \os. for the use of 
poor secular scholars ^ He incepted on July 17. In Oct. he was 
dispensed for all scholastic acts for twenty ' legible ' days, 

* because he has promised to preach at two places which are forty miles 
distant from each other 

At the Dissolution he was living at the Grey Friars, London ^. 

K'ieholas de Burgo an Italian Minorite, native of Florence, B.D. 
of Paris, was incorporated B.D. of Oxford in Feb. i52|^ A year 
later (Jan. 25) he suppKcated for the Doctor's degree, stating that he 
had studied seventeen years, seven of them having been spent in 
Oxford ^. On the same day he prayed that his composition to the 
University on his inception might be remitted ^. 

* Causa est quia est alienigena et anglice nescit, preterea multos hie labores 
suscepit, legendo publice in hac academia hoc septennio, et pene gratis, et 
lecturus est quoque perpetuo, et hie remoraturus, modo dignati fuerint 
magistri Regentes tantum gratiarum sibi impartire. Hec gratia est con- 
cessa sic quod legat unum librum sacre theologie publice et gratis post 
gradum ad designationem Domini Cancellarii.' 

A few days later he was dispensed from nearly all his necessary 
regency, promising to preach ' on some day when there shall be a 
general procession'^.' In March, being ' unable to procure all that 
was necessary to him,' he was allowed to postpone his inception till 
after Easier, paying a fine of 20s. to the University. The fine was 
afterwards remitted and a sermon substituted, as Nicholas alleged 
extreme poverty (June 20)^. He incepted shortly after this. His 
dispensation from necessary regency seems to have lapsed, for in Oct. 
he obtained leave to absent himself for ten ' legible ' days, 

* because he had been bidden to preach a sermon within twenty days,' 

and had not time to fulfil the duties of regent ^. He preached at St. 
Peter's-in-the-East on Ash Wednesday, 1528^°. Pie was patronized 
by Wolsey, but whether he came to England at the Cardinal's invita- 
tion is doubtful. In Nov. 1528, ' Fryer Nicholas of Oxford' received 
£5 as a reward from Wolsey". In 1529 the King desired that the 

^ Reg. H. 7, fol. 140 ; App. D. 
2 Ibid. 142 b, 143. 

^ Eighth Report of Deputy Keeper, 
App. 11, p. 28. 

' Reg. H. 7, fol. 82 b, 98 b. 

Ibid. fol. 1 16 b. 
« Ibid. fol. 117. 

' Ibid. fol. 117 b. 

^ Ibid. fol. 119, 125 b. 

^ Ibid. fol. 129 b ; in this entry he is 
described as Doctor. 

1° Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, fol. 362. 

" Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, 
Vol. V, p. 304. 


friar should have a benefice ^ ; payments to him from the Privy Purse 
and other sources are frequently found ^. The Italian friar had 
made himself useful by advocating the King's divorce ^. He was 
perhaps the 

* Franciscan, who was one of the chief writers in favour of the King,* 

and who consorted with Dr. Barnes, the Austin Friar and friend of 
Luther His advocacy of the divorce rendered him very unpopular ^, 
and perhaps after the fall and death of his old protector, Wolsey, he 
felt his position less secure. In Dec. 1531, he came to London, 
having ' disposed of his stuff at Oxford,' to ask leave to return to 
Italy, for his health. It was thought impolitic to let him go, ' he being 
so secret in the King's great matter as he has been,' and means were 
found to keep him in England ^ 

Wolsey had already appointed him public reader in theology at 
Cardinal College, in succession to Thomas Brynknell, at a yearly 
salary of 53^. id., besides commons^; and in 1532, Henry VIII. 
re-appointed him to the chair of divinity**. He was also divinity 

1 Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, 
Vol. IV, No. 5875. 

2 In a list of monthly wages for July, 
1529, there is a payment of £6 i^s. ^d. 
to ' Friar Nicholas, one of the King's 
spiritual learned counsel ; ' in Feb., 1530, 
he received £3 1 5 j. by the King's com- 
mand : ibid. Vol. V, p. 304. See ibid. 
Vol. IV, No. 6187 (25), a grant of 
denization to ' Nicholas Delborgo, 
Minorite, S.T.P.,' Jan. 21, 1530. 

^ In conjunction with Stokesley and 
Edw. Fox he wrote (a.d. 1530) a book 
on the King's marriage, which Cran- 
mer translated into English with altera- 
tions and additions : Cal. of State 
Papers, VIII, 1054; cf. Vol. VII, 289. 
He is probably the ' Friar Nicolas, a 
learned man and the King's faithful 
favorer,' who was employed in negotia- 
ting with the University of Bologna for 
a decision favourable to the divorce 
(1530) : Cal. of State Papers, Vol. IV, 
No. 6619, But there was another Friar 
Nicholas at this time who was employed 
by the Pope, Wolsey, Henry VIII, and 
other princes. This was a German 
Dominican, Nicholas de Scombergt or 
Schomberg, usually called Friar Nicho- 
las 0/ Fra Niccolo. He came to 

England in 1517, the same year that 
N. de Burgo began to teach in Oxford. 
He was in England in 1526, and hoped 
to be made cardinal. In Oct. 1532 he 
was on his way to Capua (from 
England?) : a few months previously, 
Dr. Nicholas of Oxford (i. e. probably 
N. de Burgo) was trying to leave 
England. These facts are taken from 
the Calendars of State Papers, Hen. 
VIII, Vols. II-V. 

* Cal. of State Papers, V, 593 (Dec. 

21, 1531). 

^ See Part I, chapter viii. 

^ Cal. of State Papers, V, 623. 

' Ibid. Vol. IV, 6788, ii, iv, vii. 

8 Ibid. V, 1 181. When, after Wolsey's 
fall, Cardinal College was in danger of 
suppression, Dr. Nicholas extracted an 
admission from the King as to the fate 
of the rich vestments and ornaments 
which had been sent to Eondon to have 
the Cardinal's arms removed ; ' he had 
begged of the King " whitze copies for 
the high days of Our Lady." The King 
said, " Alack ! they are all disposed, 
and not one of them is left." ' Tresham 
to Wolsey, May 12, 1530; Cal. of 
State Papers, Vol. IV, No. 6377. 


lecturer in Magdalen College. In Jan. 1533, he writes to Thomas 
Cromwell , 

' I have performed the duties of reader bestowed on me by the King, and 
for greater advantage I have added public lectures. I have received no 
remuneration, for those who distribute the King's gifts do so arbitrarily. 
I have often asked in vain. Mr. Baxter retains the profits of my 
benefice, and has not paid me the money due Michaelmas last ^' 

This appeal was not fruitless: in June, 1533, Dr. Nicholas de 
Burgo received £6 13J. ^d. from Cromwelll In 1534 he was still 
at Oxford, and acted as substitute for the Commissary in the Chan- 
cellor's Court ^ Next year he obtained permission to return to Italy. 
In Oct. he wrote to Henry VIII, expressing a hope that he would be 
allowed to retain his fellowship at Oxford {locus collegii), and his 
benefice In the same year he resigned the divinity lectureship at 
Magdalen College ^. In July 1 537 he again wrote to the King from Italy, 
renewing his previous request ; he was at present prevented by trouble 
and illness from coming to England, but hoped to come next month". 

Thomas Kirkham was admitted B.D. in 1523, after twelve years' 
study In 1526 he supplicated 'that four years' study after the 
degree of Bachelor ' might entitle him to incept. He became D.D>, in 
July, 1527, his composition being reduced to £4, ' because he is very 
poor,' and in November he was dispensed from the greater part of his 
necessary regency as warden of the Grey Friars at Doncaster^. He con- 
tinued to hold this office till the Dissolution^. He was, in Wood's words, 

* a very zealous man against the divorce of King Henry VOI from Queen 

He seems to have obtained Church preferment immediately after 
the Dissolution. In Feb., 1539, Thomas Kirkham was admitted to 
the rectory of St. Mary's, Colchester", and in 1548, to that of St. 

1 Cal. of State Papers, Vol. VI, No. 
75. The benefice was worth 25/. a 
year; ibid. IX, 645. 

2 Ibid. Vol. VI, No. 717. 

3 Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, f. 274. 
* Cal. of State Papers, IX, 645. 

5 Ibid. 1 1 20. 

e Ibid. XII, ii, 282. 

' Reg. H. 7, f. no, June 8; Boase 
calls him Robert Kyrkeham in this 
place (pp. 131, and 118). 

^ Reg. II. 7, f. 104 b, 156 b, 160 b, 
1 80 b; A pp. D. 

'■> Eighth Report of the Deputy Keeper, 

App. II, p. 19. See will of Thomas 
Strey, lawyer of Doncaster (Nov. 14, 
i53o)> ill Test amenta Eboracensia 
(Surtees Society), Vol. V, pp. 294-7 : 
' Item I bequeth to Master Doctor of 
Grey Freres xxvjs viij^ to bie hym a 
cotte . . . Theis beyng witnes of this my 
said will, Sir Thomas Kirkham, doctor 
of dyvinyte and warden of the Freres 
Minours in Doncaster' (and three others). 
1" Wood, Fasti, 75. 

According to Newcourt (Repert. II, 
174) this living was vacant by his death 
before Jan. 22, 1551. There may have 


Martin's, Outwich : he resigned the latter Hving in 1553 or 1554 ^. 
From these dates it is clear that he had joined the Protestant party. 

Richard Brinkley (co. Cambridge), D.D. of Cambridge, and 
' Minister General of the Order of Minors throughout all England,' 
was incorporated D.D. of Oxford on June 26, 1524 ^. There is a dis- 
crepancy about the dates, which seems to admit of no satisfactory 
explanation. A Minorite called Peter Brikley was S.T.B. of Cam- 
bridge in 1524. 'Brinkley frater minor' was admitted D.D. of 
Cambridge in 1527, when he paid £5 6s. Sd. 'pro non convivando^.' 
He was buried at Cambridge 

An illuminated copy of the Gospels in Greek, now MS. Caius 
College 403, was lent to him out of the Franciscan Library at 
Oxford, as the following inscription on p. i testifies, 

* Iste liber est de con(ventu) fratrum minorum Oxonie omissus et 
accommodatus fratri Ricardo Brynkeley Magistro.' 

Another MS. in the Caius College Library (No. 348), containing 
the Psalter in Greek, has this note (p. 113): 

* here xeeld be no qweyr' off ye nubyr off 8, ffor her' ys all q ffr. Ric. 

Edmund Bricott, Brycoote, or Brygott, born about 1495 ^ 
supplicated for B.D. in Jan. or Feb. 152I, having studied ten years 
'here and at Paris.' He was admitted to oppose on June 13, and 
became B.D. on June 28. In Jan. 152I-, he obtained grace to incept 
after fourteen years of study. He was Hcensed in Feb. i5|f. In 
June he obtained a reduction of his composition to £5 on the score 
of poverty, and a dispensation (in advance) from his necessary regency, 
because he was warden of some house of Minorites. He incepted in 
July, 1530^. He was warden of Lynn at the Dissolution^. Like so 
many others, he seems to have gone with the times ; he held the 
living of Thorley, Herts., from 1545 to 1562; was collated to the 

been two of the same name. Sir Thomas 
Kyrkeham, priest, was among those 
arrested for conspiring at the Grey- 
Friars London to refuse a subsidy to 
the King in 1531. Foxe, V, 57. 

^ Newcourt, I, 419. 

2 Reg. H. 7, f. 126. 

^ Wood, Fasti, 68 : he refers to Cam- 
bridge tables at the end of Mat. Parker's 
Antic^ Brit. Eccles. first edition; these 

are not in the edition of 1572. Cooper, 
Athen. Cantab. I, 34, 527. 

* Mon. Franc. I 539. 

^ Smith, Catalogue of Caius Coll. 
MSS. p. 197, 166. 

^ Foxe, VI, 215. 

' Reg. H. 7, Vol. 150, 153, 184b, 
2iob, 234, 235, 237. 

^ Eighth Report of the Deputy Keeper, 
App.IL . . ^ , 


rectory of Wiley, Essex, in 1547, to that of Hadham, Herts, in 1548 ; 
and became Prebendary of St. Paul's in 1554. He probably died in 
1562 ^ 

Thomas Knottis was admitted B.D. in May, 1527. He may be 
the same as the Thomas Knott who suppHcated for B.A. in 1522 ; if 
so, he became a Franciscan after that date ^. 

Anthony Papudo, of Portugal, was admitted to oppose in June, 
1526, and B.D. in May, 1527 ^ 

William Walker supplicated for B.D., June 3, 1527, after study- 
ing fourteen years. The grace was conceded on condition 

* that he will read the Epistles of St. Paul to the Ephesians and the Gala- 
tians in his house ' {in edibus juis, i. e. the Franciscan Convent) *. 

Robert Knowlys supplicated for B.D. in Jan. 152^^ In Oct., 
1529, as B.D., he obtained grace to incept, after eighteen years' 

sic quod procedat in proximo actu, et legat 2™ et 3^°^ Scoti super senten- 
tias in Domo sua, et faciat sermonem latinum in templo Dive Virginis 
intra annum post gradum susceptum, et alium etiam intra annum anglice 
intra universitatem ^. 

His composition was reduced to £5, owing to his poverty (June 22, 
1530). He was dispensed from his necessary regency, 

* because he was lecturing in some house of the Order of Friars Minors * 
(June 28, 1530). 

He incepted D.D. in July, 1530^. 

John Arture kept a horse in Oxford in 1528 In May, 1533, he 
supplicated for B.D., after fourteen years of study ; he was to preach, 
before Christmas, a sermon at St. Mary's, 

< another from the pulpit (e suggestu) of St. Paul's London, and another 
e puipito at Westminster 

In Dec. of the same year he sued Joanna Coper for libel : the 

^ Wood, Fasti, 83 ; Newcourt, Re- 
pertorium ; Foxe, VI, 215 (his evidence 
at the trial of Gardiner). Burnet, Re- 
formation, II, i. 582, a curious account 
of Eonner's visitation of Hadham in 
1554. Strype, Life of Grindal, p. 88. 
Reg. II. 7, fol. 169b; Boase, 124. 

^ Ibid. fol. 153, 169 b. 

* Ibid. fol. 174. Cf. Newcouit, 

Repert. II, 114; Will. Walker, Vicar 
of Burnham, Essex, 1557 -1582. 
Boase, p. 145. 

Reg. H. 7, fol. 218 b; adm. to 
incept Feb. i, ibid. 210 b. 

^ Ibid. fol. 234, 235 b, 237. 

Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, fol. 74 b, 
Part I, chapter vii. 

Reg. II. 7, fol. 288. 


scandal about him, and his doings ' at the sign of Bear' (May, 1534) 
have already been noticed. Soon afterwards he was again in trouble, 
and had to give bail for his appearance whenever he should be 
required to answer certain charges, which are not specified in the 
register ^. About this time (1534-5) he was appointed warden of the 
Grey Friars of Canterbury, according to his own account, by the 
King, ' against the heart of the provincial ^/ There was continual 
war between himself and the brethren of the house. Each side 
accused the other of hostility to the King. Arthur wrote that he kept 
the observance somewhat strict because the friars rebelled against the 
King and held so stiffly to the Bishop of Rome ^ On the other 
hand' a brother whom Arthur had imprisoned brought an accusation 
of disloyalty against him. This seems to have been founded on a 
sermon which Arthur was said to have preached in the Church of 
Herne on Passion Sunday, 1535 ^ in which he 'blamed these new 
books and new preachers for misleading the people ' and discouraging 
fasts, prayers, and pilgrimages, especially to the shrine of St. Thomas. 

* And he said, if so be that St. Thomas were a devil in hell, if the Church 
had canonized him, we ought to worship him, for you ought to believe us 
prelates though we preach false.' 

Further he did not pray for the King as head of the Church, nor 
for the Queen. As the result of this charge, Arthur was thrown into 
prison by Cromwell's orders, and an Observant, ' his mortal enemy/ 
was made his keeper, while another friar was appointed warden. 
Fearing to be starved, Arthur escaped to France, and wrote letters 
from Dieppe to a servant of Cromwell, and to Browne, the Provincial 
Prior of the Austin Friars, praying for his own recall and urging the 
punishment of his enemies^. He appears to have returned, if the 
dates in the Calendars are correct, and to have been again arrested on 
Aug. 21, 1537 at Cromwell's command by 'CardemakerV 

J ohn Baccheler was vice-warden or sub-warden of Grey Friars in 
1529 and in 1534. At the latter date he became one of the sureties 
for Friar Robert Puller. In June, 1533, supplicated for B.D., 
after studying twelve years : the grace was conceded on condition 
of his preaching at St. Mary's and Paul's Cross, but it does not appear 
■whether the friar took advantage of it 

^ Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, fol. 257, ^ i^id. 789. 

271 b, 380 b, Part I, chapter vii. ^ Ibid. XII, ii, -557. 

2 Cal. of State Papers, VIII, 789. ^ Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, fol. 124 b, 

^ Ibid. 161 : the date 1534 is uncertain, Reg. 

* Ibid. 480. H. 7, fol. 290. 



[Ch. III. 

Gregory Based, or Basset, B.D., was at one time suspected of 
heretical leanings and subjected to persecution. 

* For in Bristol (writes Foxe, referring to John Hooker as his authority) he 
lay in prison long, and was almost famished, for having a book of Martin 
Luther, called his Questions, which he a long time privily had studied, and 
for the teaching youth a certain catechism^.' 

He afterwards abjured, and, to prove his orthodoxy, took a prominent 
part in the examination and condemnation of Thomas Benet, who 
was burned at Exeter in 1533^. On December 20, 1534 (?), he 
came forward as one of the sureties of Friar Robert Puller, for a debt 
of 25^., in the Chancellor's Court at Oxford ^. He was still alive in 
Mary's reign, and is mentioned by Foxe as ' a rank papist,' in 
connexion with the trial of Prest's wife, a half-witted woman, who was 
burned as a heretic at Exeter in 1558 In 156 1 a warrant was out 
for the arrest of ' Friar Gregory, alias Gregory Basset, a common 
mass-sayer,' who was lying hid, it was thought, in Herefordshire °. 

Robert Beste was summoned before the Chancellor's Court on 
September 30, 1530, to answer a charge of 'incontinence and 
disturbance of the peace:' he does not appear to have been convicted. 
He continued to reside at Oxford during the next few years. In 1539 
he became vicar of St. Martin's in the Fields; he supported the 
reformation, and was expelled from his vicarage on Mary's accession. 
He was afterwards reinstated, and resigned the living before January, 
1572 ^ 

Nicholas Sail, admitted B.D. March, 153^^. 

John Rycks, according to Wood, spent some time among the 
Grey Friars at Oxford ^ In 1509, John Rickes, M.A. (who may have 
been the same person), was elected fellow of Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge ^ In a list of Franciscans written in Cromwell's hand, and 
dated September 13, 1532, 'Father Rykys' appears as warden of the 
Observant Convent at Newark (Notts.) 

1 Foxe, Acts and Monuments, V, 20. ^ Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, f. 230, 257, 

2 Ibid. p. 20 seq. 270 b, 380b. Newcourt, Re^erlorium, 
^ Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, f. 161 a. I, 692. 

There is no year marked on this leaf; ^ Boase, Reg. 168. 

on fol. 159, the years are 1534, 1536; ^ Athenae Oxon. I, loi. 

on fol. 164, 1528; on fol. 170, 1533. ® Aihen. Cantab. I, 61. It seems 

* Acts and Monuments, VIII, 501; very doubtful whether these notices refer 

he is probably the ' old friar ' mentioned to the same person, 

ibid. p. 500. Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, 

^ Strypc, Annals, I, i. 415. Vol. V, No. 13 12. 


* At length in his last days (being then esteemed a placid old man), when he 
saw the pope and his religion begin to decline in England, he became 
a zealous protestant 

He died at London a.d. 1536 ^. His works are as follows : — 
The image of divine love. Inc. ' Consideryng in my mind how/ 
Printed at London 1525 ^ 

Against the blasphemies of the papists 

Otto Brunsfelsius. A very true Pronosiicacion with a Kalendar 
gathered out of the moost auncyent Bokes of ryght Holy Astro- 
nomers for the y ere of our Lorde MCCCCCXXXVI, and for 
all yeres hereafter perpetuall. Translated out of Latyn into 
Englyshe by fohn Ryckes Freest^. 
Printed at London 1536 : dedicated to Thomas Cromwell. 

John Nottingham, or Nottynge, supplicated for B.D. in October, 
1532, after studying for twenty years. He was admitted to oppose in 
November of that year ; but in an entry two years later he is not 
described as B.D ^. 

Edward Ryley was allowed to proceed B.D. in June, 1533, after 
sixteen years' study, on condition of preaching at St. Mary's and St. 
Paul's He was warden of the Franciscan Friars of Aylesbury in 
1534, and as such took the oath of Succession^. He seems to have 
remained loyal to the old religion; he held several livings in Mary's 
reign, namely, Wakering Parva, and Peldon in Essex (a.d. 1555), 
St. Mary at Axe (1556), which was united to the parish of St. Andrew 
Undershaft in 1561 ; he resigned the living St. James Garlickhithe, 
London, in 1560, and that of Stisted, Essex, in 1561 ^ 

John Williams was admitted to oppose in 1533, after studying 
fourteen years. On May 4, 1534, in the dispute about a horse, 
already referred to, between Dr. Baskerfeld and Richard Weston, he 
was called as a witness on behalf of the former. In January, 153^-, 

^ Wood, Athenae Oxon. loi. 

2 Ibid. 

3 Tanner, Bibl. p. 648 ; Bale (MS. Seld. 
sup. 64, f. 76 b) gives the Latin incipit 
for this work, ' ex mnseo Nicolai Grimo- 

* Wood, and Tanner, ut supra. 
^ Ames, Typographical Antiquities, 
pp. 48^-7- 

^ Reg. H. 7, f. 273 b, 264 b, 310 b. 

7 Ibid. f. 289 b. 

8 Cal. of State Papers, Vol. VII, 
665, ' Edward Tyley, S.T.B.' Burnet, 
Reform. I, ii. 205, 'Edward Tryley, 

^ Newcourt, Repertorium. Strype, 
Life of Grindal, p. 79- 


Baskerfeld bound himself on pain of imprisonment to produce John 
Williams when required, to answer charges brought against him ; the 
nature of the charges does not appear ^. 

William Browne was admitted B.D. in January, 153!. 
was at Oxford when the friary was dissolved ^. 

John Tomsiin, ' Ordinis Franciscani,' was admitted to oppose on 
October 17, 1534^. The name appears among the twenty-seven 
names appended to the deed of surrender of the Grey Friars, London, 
November 12, 1538*. 

Eobert Puller was at Oxford about 1534; Richard Roberts, 
scholar of Broadgates Hall, brought an action against him for the 
recovery of 

' XXV solidos sibi debitos ab eodem Roberto Puller fratre ex causa 
emptionis et vendicionis.' 

John Bacheler and other friars engaged to pay the debt ^. 

Jolin Notly, or Snotly, Minorite, was appointed to preach the 
University sermon at St. Peter's (in the East ?) on Ash Wednesday, 

David Whsrthede was at Oxford in January, i53-g-, when the 
warden bound himself to produce him in the Chancellor s Court when- 
ever required ^. 

J ohn Joseph, a Minorite of Canterbury, supplicated for B.D. in 
June, 1533, after studying for twelve years. He was licensed D.D. in 
1 54 1, and incepted in 1542, as vir litter is ac moribus ornatissimus. He 
was dispensed from his necessary regency 

' quia astringitur ad residentiam nec hie diutius manere poterit.' 

It is evident that he held some benefice at this time. In 154I, he 
was dispensed from a sermon owing to ill-health ^. 

1 Reg. H. 7, fol. 287, 284 b. Acta ' Ibid. fol. 380 b. The year is not 

dir. Cancell. EEE, fol. 271, 380 b. certain. I have found no evidence to 

Part I, chapter viii. connect him with David Whitehead, 

^ Ibid. 303 b. Part I, chapter protestant preacher, who was recom- 

viii. mended by Cranmer for the Arch- 

^ Ibid. f. 303 b. bishopric of Armagh, fled on Mary's 

* Reports of the Deputy Keeper, Rep. accession, and became English pastor 

8, App. II, p. 28. at Frankfurt; Strype, Life of Cranmer, 

° Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, fol. 161, 39.S, 399? 450- 
230. « Reg. H. 7, f. 290; I. 8, f. 84 b, 85, 

6 Ibid. fol. 366 b. 88 : Boase, p. 175. 


He was one of Cranmer's chaplains, and a zealous member of the 
reforming party, and was appointed preacher at Canterbury by 
Cranmer^ In 1546 he became Rector of St. Mary-le-Bow ^. In 
1547 he was made one of the commissioners for the visitation of the 
dioceses of Peterborough, Lincoln, Oxford, Coventry, and Lichfield^. 
In 1549 he preached at Paul's Cross against the observance of Lent*, 
and, on another occasion, as substitute for the Archbishop, against the 
rebellions in that year, concerning 

* the subdewynge of them that dyd rysse in alle iij places, and how mysery 
they ware browte unto, and there he rehersyd as hys master dyd before 
that the occasyone came by popysse presttes 

In 1550 he was presented to a prebend in the Church of Canterbury ^ 
On Mary's accession he was deprived of his preferments, being 
married. He fled to the Continent ^. 

Hugh. Payne, Observant Friar of Newark, who opposed the King's 
divorce and upheld the papal supremacy in 1533-4, may have studied 
at Oxford before he entered the Order; a Hugh Payne supplicated for 
B.A. in 1523*. 

Richard Risby, warden of the Friars Observant at Canterbury, 
was executed on May 5th, 1534, for being implicated in the conspiracy 
of the Nun of Kent. It is doubtful whether he was identical with 
Richard Rysby, B.A., Fellow of New College in 1506 ^ 

William David supplicated for B.D. in November, 1534, after 
studying arts and theology for thirteen years The grace was con- 
ceded, and in February, 1535, he obtained permission to defer his 

* Opposition ' until after he had taken the degree He may be the 
Dr. David, Grey Friar, who assisted at the condemnation of Thomas 
Benet for heresy at Exeter in 1533 

Richard David, ' Ordinis Franciscani,' admitted to oppose, October 

* Chronicle of the Grey Friars of ^ Boase, Register, p. 131; Cal. of 
London (Camden Soc), p. 62 ; Strype, State Papers, Vol. VI, Nos. 836, 887, 

17, 1534 


Cranmer, 229; Wood, Fasti, 114. 

^ Newcourt, Repert. I, 439. 
^ Strype, Cranmer, 209. 
* Ibid. 295. 

^ Chron. of the Grey Friars, p. 62. 

1370 ; VII, 923, 939, 1020, 1607, 1652 ; 
Gasquet, I, 166, 181-2. Cf. ibid. II, 
420 ?. 

^ Wood, Fasti, 114; Rymer, Foedera, 
XV, 237. 

^ Boase, Register, p. 71 ; Gasquet, I, 
chapter iv; Froude, II, 178. 
1" Reg. H. 7, f. 310 b. 

Ibid. f. 315. 

' Wood, ibid. ; Strype, Cranmer, 
450, 468^9. 

12 Foxe, Acts and Mon. V, 20. 

13 Reg. H. 7, f. 303 b. 




[Ch. III. 

Thomas Tomsun supplicated for B.D. in November, 1534, after 
studying philosophy and theology for fifteen years hie ei CantabricB^ 
and was admitted on January 29, i53|-^ With Gregory Basset, 
he became surety for his fellow friar Robert Puller in December, 

1534 (?)^ 

One of this name was rector of Lambourne, Essex, in 1546 (and 
died before April 16, 1557), and rector of Beamont, Essex, in 1555 
(died before 1559) ^ 

John Billing was admitted B.D. in 1537, after seven years' study *. 
His name occurs in a list of Observant Friars of the year 1534, as 
having fled to Scotland ^. 

Guy Etton, or Eton, was admitted to oppose in January, 153 1, 
and was admitted B.D. in the same month. In October, 1535, he was 
allowed to substitute for a sermon at St. Mary's, 
* concionem ruri vel in suo monasterio ad placitum ^' 

In 1553 (in Edward VI's reign) he was granted license to preach. In 
Mary's reign he took refuge at Strasburg with John Jewell. In 1559 
he obtained the archdeaconry and a prebend of Gloucester, which he 
held till 157 1 or later. In 1576 he was instituted Vicar of St. 
Leonard's, Shoreditch, and died before June 14, 1577 

Anthony Brookby (Brockbey, Brorbe), sometime student in 
Magdalen College, a man learned in Greek and Hebrew, entered the 
Franciscan Order apparently after leaving the University. Bourchier 
calls him licentiate in theology at Oxford ; Francis a S. Clara, Doctor 
of Theology. He attacked the King 's anti-papal and anti'monastic 
measures, was thrown into prison, tortured, and at length (July 19, 1537) 
strangled with his own cord ^ 

John Forest, who entered the Franciscan Order at Greenwich, 
about the age of seventeen, is said by Wood to have been instructed 
afterwards in theology among the Friars Minors of Oxford, and to have 

1 Reg. H. 7, 308 b, 303 b. 

^ Acta Cur. Cancell. EEE, f. 161. 

^ Newcourt, Repert. 11. 

* Reg. I. 8, fol. 21 b, 23. 

5 Cal. of State Papers, Hen. VIII, 
Vol. VII, No. 1607 ; perhaps in con- 
nexion with the conspiracy of the Nun 
of Kent, or with the refusal of the 
Observants to take the Oath of Suc- 

•Reg. H. 7, f. 303 b; I. 8,f.9. 

Strype, Memorials, II, ii. 277; 
Life of Parker, II, 52 ; Wood, Fasti, 
98-9 ; Le Neve, Fasti, I, 446, 447 ; 
Newcourt, Repert., I, 687. Wood says 
he was Archdeacon of Gloucester in 
Edward's reign. 

8 Wood, Fasti, 106-7. Gillow, Bib- 
liograph. Diet, of the Engl. Catholics 
I> 313; Bourchier (ed. Paris, 1586), p. 


supplicated for B.D. There seems to be no evidence in support of 
this statement. Forest was burnt in 1538, aged sixty-four, for denying 
the royal supremacy \ 

John Taylor alias Cardmaker, of Exeter, entered the Franciscan 
Order when under age 2. In Dec. 1532, after studying sixteen years 
at Oxford and Cambridge, he obtained grace to proceed to B.D. ^ 
He was warden of the Grey Friars at Exeter in 1534 At the time 
of the Dissolution he preached against the Pope ^ In 1543 he 
became vicar of St. Bride's in Fleet Street ^ then prebendary, and in 
1547 Chancellor of Wells'^. In the reign of Edward VI. he married 
a widow (by whom he had a daughter) ^, and was appointed reader in 
St. Paul's, where he lectured three times a week ^ ; 

*his lectures were so offensive to the Roman Catholic party, that they 
abused him to his face, and with their knives would cut and haggle his 

On the accession of Mary he tried to escape to the continent, dis- 
guised as a merchant ; he was caught, committed to the Fleet, and 
afterwards removed to the Compter in Bread Street". Convened 
before Gardiner and others, he appears to have shown some signs of 
wavering at first. 

* You shall right well perceive,' he wrote to a friend, * that I am not gone 
back, as some men do report me, but am as ready to give my life as any of 
my brethren that are gone before me ; although by a policy I have a little 
prolonged it, ... . That day that I recant any point of doctrine, I shall 
suffer twenty kinds of death 

He was convicted of heresy, deprived of his preferments, and burnt 
with others at Smithfield on May 30, 1555 

John Crayford or Crawfurthe supplicated for B.D. in April, 

^ Wood, Athenae, I, 107; Gasquet, lector in Powlles that if God ware a 

I, 192-201. man he was a vj or vij foote of lengthe 

^ Foxe, Acts and Monuments, VII, with the bredth, and if it be soo, how 

p. 79. canne it be that he shuld be in a pesse 

^ Keg. H. 7, f. 276 b. of brede in a rownde cake on the awter : 

* Oliver, Monast. Exon. 331. what an ironyos oppynyone is this unto 

^ Wood, Fasti, 92. the leye pepulle.' Grey Friars Chron. 

^ He resigned the living in 1551; p. 63. 

Newcourt, Repert. I. Strype, Eccl. Mem. Ill, i. p. 322 ; 

' Le Neve, Fasti, I, 177. Foxe, VI, 627. 

8 Cooper, Athen. Cantab. I, 126-7. " Foxe, VII, 84. 

^ Ibid., and Wood, Fasti. ^' Strype, Eccles. Mem. Ill, i. 166, 

Wood, Fasti : his manner was not 347. 
conciliatory : ' he sayd opynly in his 

U 2 



[Ch. III. 

1537, after studying fourteen years at Oxford and Cambridge ^ He 
was the last warden of the Grey Friars at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and 
surrendered his house to the King on Jan. 9, 153! In 1543 he was 
presented by Henry VIII to a canonry in Durham Cathedral. He 
became vicar of Midford in Northumberland in 1546, and resigned 
the living in or before 1561. He died in 1562, bequeathing legacies 
to several of the canons, grammar-scholars, and others connected 
with the church of Durham. To the library he left St. Augustine's 
works in ten volumes, St. Basil in Greek and Latin, and Rabbi Moses 
in print; and to Sir Stephen Holiday, all St. Cyprian's works. He 
willed his body to be buried in St. Michael's, Wytton-Gylbert, if he 
died there ; otherwise in Durham Cathedral 

Hugh Glaseyere supplicated in 1535 that fourteen years' study 
might suffice for his admission to oppose and read the Sentences. He 
was admitted to oppose on July 13, and B.D. on July 14, 1538 *, i.e. 
on the day of the dissolution of the Oxford friary. His name, how- 
ever, does not appear in the list of Minorites at Oxford ' who would 
have their capacities.' He conformed to the various changes in 
religion. In November, 1538, he was instituted to the rectory of 
Hanworth, Middlesex, on the presentation of the King ; he resigned 
it in 1554. In 1546 he was appointed to the rectory of Harlington, 
which he held till his death'. In 1541 he was appointed by Cranmer 
to the .difficult post of commissary-general of the Archbishop at 
Calais ^ In 1542 he was made canon of Christchurch, Canterbury''. 
In Edward's reign he was reckoned ' an eager man for reformation/ 
and preached at Paul's Cross (1547) that the observation of Lent 
was only 

* a politic ordinance of man, and might therefore be broken of men at their 
leisure ' 

In 1553 he was presented by Queen Mary to the rectory of DeaP. 

* Reg. I. 8, fol. 22, Another of the 
same name was D.D. of Cambridge 
( 1 536), and Master of University College, 
Oxford (1546). Boase, p. 120; Wood, 
Fasti, 123; Cooper, Athen. Cantab. 
Reg. H. 7, fol. 227 b, I. 8, f. 16 b, 112. 

^ Eighth Report of the Deputy 
Keeper, App. II. 

^ Cooper, Athen. Cantab. 70, 532 ; 
Le Neve, Fasti, III, 308 ; Hutchinson's 
Durham, II, 170; Durham Wills, Vol. 
I, 194 (Surtees S0C.1835), ' Crawfurthe.' 

The ten vols, of St. Augustine (ed. 1529) 
given by him are still in the library of 
the Dean and Chapter, 

* Reg. I. 8, fol. 6 b, 35 b. 

^ '^twcourt,Repertorium, I, C29, 632. 

^ Strype, Memorials, II, i. 40; Life 
of Cranmer, 126, 133. 

'' Le Neve, Fasti, I, 54. 

^ Wood, Fasti, 108; Strype, Mem. 
II, i. 40 ; Tanner, Bibl. 327. 

^ Rymer, Foed. XV, 350. 


In March, 1558, Cardinal Pole appointed certain commissioners for 
the suppression of heresy in his diocese, among them being Hugh 
Glazier, S.T.B.^ Hugh did not survive the persecution in Kent which 
followed. On the 27th July, 1558, * Magister Glasier, sacellanus 
cardinalis/ was buried at Lambeth ^. 

Henry Stretsham supplicated for B.D. in May, 1538, having 
studied twelve years at Oxford and Cambridge ; he was to preach 
at St. Mary's and in some other church intra Universitaiis pre- 
cindum ^. 

Richard Roper, B.D., was one of the Franciscans at Oxford who 
desired ' to have their capacities ' at the dissolution *. 

Radulph Kyr swell, or Ores well, was an Observant Friar at 
Reading in 1534, having probably been sent there as a prisoner for 
refusing to acknowledge the royal supremacy. At the time of the 
dissolution he was at Oxford, and as priest supplicated for a 
* capacity ' ^. 

Robert Newman was one of the priests among the Oxford Fran- 
ciscans at the dissolution who asked for 'capacities.' He became 
vicar of Hampton in 1541, joined the reforming party, and was 
deprived of the living on the accession of Mary ^ 

John Comre (?), James Cantwell, Thomas Cappes, William 
Bowghnell, James Smyth, Thomas Wythman, were among the 
priests in the Franciscan Convent who asked for ' capacities ' at the 

John Staflbrdeschyer, priest, was at Oxford when the friary was 
suppressed ^. John Staiford, who was warden of the Grey Friars at 
Coventry in 151 9 and 1538, when he surrendered his house to the 
King on the 5th October, seems to have been a different person 

1 Strype, Mem. Ill, ii. 120, who 62 ; Cal. of State Papers, Vol. VII, 
gives 1558 as the date. Burnet puts this No. 1607. Cf. Gasquet, I, 191-2. 
commission in 1557; Reformation, Vol. ^ Chapter House Books, Ay^y, p. 62; 
III, Part i, p. 502. Newcourt, Repert. I, 624, 

^ Tanner, Bibl. 327: Hugh's sue- ' Chapter House Books, A^^. One 
cessor at Harlington was instituted on Thomas Cappes was priest of St. Mary- 
Jan, 17, I55f ; Newcourt, ut supra. Magdalen, Old Fish Street, London, in 

2 Reg. I. 8, fol. 37. Henry Strensham 1540, and got into trouble for his Pro- 
was rector of St. George's, Botolph testant tendencies ; Strype, Eccles. Me- 
Lane, London, from 1541-4; Newcourt, morials, I, p, 566 ; he is not mentioned 
Repertorium. in Newcourt's Repert. I, 453. 

* Chapter House Books, A p. 62. * Ibid. 

' Chapter House Books, A/j-> PP- 2, Foxe, Acts and Monuments, IV. 


John Olliff, sub-deacon, after asking for a 'capacity' on the 
dissolution of the Oxford friary, joined the Grey Friars of Doncaster 
and was among the ten brethren who signed the surrender of that 
house on November 20th, 1538 ^ 

Thomas Barly, William Cok, and John Cok, who were not in 
holy orders, desired 'capacities' at the suppression of the Oxford 
Convent^. A John Cooke subscribed the surrender of the Grey 
Friars of Cambridge ^ 

Simon Ludford was a Minorite at Oxford at the dissolution. An 
account of his subsequent career has been given in Part I, 
Chapter VIII \ 

557; 8th Report of the Deputy Keeper, ^ Eighth Report of the Deputy 
App. II, p. 17. Keeper, App. II, p. 14 ; the deed is not 

^ Chapter House Books, A p. 62 ; dated. 
8th Report of the Deputy Keeper, App, * Boase, p. xi^ 222 ; Reg. I. 8. fol. 
II, p. 17. 138 b, 139, 139 b, 190, 190 b, 192 b. 

^ Ibid, ut supra. 



I. William son of Richard Wileford (c. 1228). — 2. Robert son of Robert Oen 
(i;j36). — 3. Royal license to the Friars to enclose their lands (1244). — 4. Pur- 
chase by the King of an island in the Thames (1245). — 5. Grant of the same 
island to the Friars (1245). — 6. Thomas de Valeynes, grant of two messuages 
(1245). — 7 Laurence Wyche, grant of a messuage (1246"). — 8. Royal license 
to enclose (1248). — 9. Royal grant to the Friars of the Sack (1265). — 10. 
Grants from various persons (1310). — 11. Grant by the King of the property 
of the Friars of the Sack to the Minorites (1310). — 12. Regrant of the same 
(1319). — 13. John Culvard, Inquisitio ad quod damnum (1319). — 14. Grant 
by John de Grey de Rotherfield (1337). 


Grant of a house by William de Wileford. 

The following document is by far the earliest private deed relating 
to the English Franciscans now extant ^ and very few grants in the 
Public Records are of greater antiquity. The original is to be found 
in the Oxford City Archives (No. 17). It is not dated, but it was 
executed during the mayoralty of John Pady, who held the office from 
1227 to 1229^. The document is in excellent preservation, and the 
seal of W. de Wileford is still attached. 

Notum sit uniuersis Christi fidelibus, quod ego Willelmus filius 
Ricardi de Wileford concessi dimisi et liberaui Johanni Pady, tunc 
maiori Oxonie, et Andree Halegod et Laurencio Halegod et PhiHppo 
Molendinario et ceteris probis hominibus Oxonie, illam domum meam 
in parochia Sancte Abbe in Oxonia que aliquando fuit Ricardi de 
Wileford patris mei cum omnibus pertinentibus eiusdem domus, ad 
hospitandum fratres minores in perpetuum. Et si ita contigerit quod 
fratres minores a uilla Oxonie discesserint, et ibi amplius manere 
noluerint, ad hospitandum ibi aliquos probos uiros in elemosina, saluo 

^ Except, I think, one mentioned in my reference to this, 
the Reports of the Historical Manu- ^ Wood-Peshall, City of Oxford, p. 
scripts Commission, but I have mislaid 355. 


quod dicti probi homines Oxonie et eorum heredes faciant Capitalibus 
dominis illius feodi annuale semicium quod ad predictam terram 
pertinet, et reddendo michi et heredibus meis annuatim unam libram 
cymini ad festum Sancti Michaelis pro omni seruitio. Et ego dictus 
Willelmus et heredes mei warantizabimus predictum mesuagium cum 
pertinenciis predictis probis hominibus hereditarie sicut prediuisum est 
contra omnes homines et feminas, pro hac autem mea concessione 
dimisione liberatione et warantizatione predicti probi homines Oxonie 
ex elemosyna collecta dederunt michi quadraginta tres marcas 
sterlingorum. Et ut hac predicta rata permaneant huic scripto sigillum 
meum apposui. 

Hiis testibus, Pentecost et Henrico filio Tome tunc prepositis, 
Roberto Oein, Henrico filio Henrici, Petro filio turoldi, Ricardo 
Mol(endinario), Ricardo Taillur, Milone drapario, Benedicto Mercer, 
Radulpho Palmer, Willelmo clerico, et aliis. 


Grant of a house by Robert Oen, a.d. 1236. 
Close Roll, 20 Hen. Ill, m. 9. 

Rex Maiori et probis hominibus suis Oxon' salutem. Quia per 
litteras vestras nobis directas accepimus quod sponte suscepistis in vos 
onus muragii ville Oxon' quod ad platiam quam Robertus filius 
Roberti Oen tenuit iuxta domos fratrum minorum Oxon', et quam 
idem Robertus eisdem fratribus dedit in augmentum mansionis sue : 
Vobis mandamus quod eisdem fratribus de predicta platia plenam 
seisinam habere faciatis ; Ita quod predictus Robertus, qui prius fuit 
liber hospes prioris et fratrum sancti Johannis Jerusalem in Anglia in 
predicta platia, eandem libertatem habeat in corpore domus sue in qua 
nunc manet alibi in eadem villa in parochia sancti MichaeHs ad portam 
Borealem. Teste ut supra (i.e. Rege apud Gloucestriam iiio die 


License to enclose their possessions and throw down part of 
the old wall, a.d. 1244. 
Pat. 29 Hen. Ill, m. 9 (printed in Mon. Franc. I. 616). 

Pro fratribus Minoribus Oxon'. Rex concessit fratribus minoribus 
Oxon' ad maiorem quietem et securitatem habitacionis sue, quod 
possint claudere uicum qui extenditur sub muro Oxon' a porta que 



dicitur Watergat' in parochia Sancte Ebbe usque ad paruum posticum 
eiusdem muri uersus castrum; Ita quod murus karnollatus similis 
reliquo muro eiusdem municipij fiat circa prefatam habitationem 
incipiens ab occidentali latere dicte porte de Watergat', et se extendens 
uersus austrum vsque ad ripam tamisie et inde protendens super 
eandem Ripam uersus occidentem vsque ad feodum Abbatis de Becco 
in parochia Sancti Bodhoci, iterum reflectatur uersus Aquilonem 
usquequo coniungatur cum ueteri muro prefati Burgi iuxta latus 
orientale prenominati posticij {sic) parui. Rex etiam concessit eisdem 
ad continuandum locum nouum cum ueteri, quod possint prosternere 
de muro antique quantum extenditur habitatio ipsorum infra eundem. 
Saluo tamen semper nobis et heredibus nostris, Regibus Anglie, libero 
transitu per medium loci noui, in quolibet aduentu nostro ibidem. In 
cuius, etc. Teste Rege apud S. Albanum, xxii die Dec. 

Et mandatum est vicecomiti Oxon', Maiori et Balliuis Oxon', quod 
id fieri permittant. Teste ut supra. 


Island in the Thames, a.d. 1245 (see below). 
Liberate Roll, 29 Hen. Ill, m. 9. 

Rex Baronibus de Scaccario salutem. Allocate Henrico filio 
Henrici Simeonis in fine Ix marcarum quem fecit nobiscum eo quod 
inponebatur ei quod interfuit interfectioni cuiusdam scolaris Oxon' xxv 
Marcas quas debuimus Henrico Simeonis patri suo pro quadam Insula 
in aqua Tamisis apud Oxoniam quam ab eo emimus, et quas ipse 
petebat eidem filio suo in fine predict© allocari. Teste ut supra (i.e. 
King at Windsor, April 22 nd). 


Grant of the island to the Friars Minors, a.d. 1245. 
Pat. 29 Hen. Ill, m. 6 (printed in Mon. Franc. I. 615.) 
Pro fratribus Minoribus. 

Rex omnibus salutem. Sciatis quod ad ampliacionem aree in qua 
de nouo hospitari ceperunt ffratres Minores Oxon', assignauimus 
Insulam nostram in fluuio Thamis' quam emimus ab Henrico filio 
Henrici Simeonis, concedentes eis et volentes, quod ipsi pontem fieri 
faciant ultra brachium illud Thamis' quod currit inter insulam predictam 
et doifios suas, et quod Eandem Insulam ad securitatem domorum 


suarum et tranquillitatem Religionis sue muro uel alio modo, sicut 
sibi uiderint expedire, faciant includi. In huius Rei testimonium etc. 
Teste ut supra (i.e. Rege apud Westmonasterium xxii die Aprilis). 

Et mandatum est vicecomiti Oxon' quod Insulam illam eis habere 
faciat. Teste Rege apud Wind(esor) xxiiij die Aprilis. 


Grant of two messuages by Thomas de Valeynes, 1245. 
Feet of Fines, Oxon ; 29 Hen. Ill, m. 40. 

Hec est finalis concordia facta in curia domini Regis apud West- 
monasterium a die Purificacionis beate Marie (Feb. 2nd) in Tres 
septimanas, anno regni Regis Henrici filii Regis Johannis vicesimo 
Nono, coram Henrico de Bathonia, Rogero de Thurkelby, Roberto 
de Notingham, Jollano de Nevill, Gilberto de Preston et Johanne de 
Cobeham, Justiciariis, et aliis domini Regis fidelibus tunc ibi 
presentibus. Inter Thomam de Valeynes querentem et Symonem filii 
Benedicti et Leticiam uxorem eius Inpedientes, de duobus Mesuagiis 
cum pertinentiis in suburbio Oxon' unde placitum Warantie carte 
summonitum^ fuit Inter eos in eadem curia, scilicet quod predicti 
Symon et Leticia recognoverunt predicta mesuagia cum pertinentiis 
esse ius ipsius Thome, ut ilia que Idem Thomas habet de dono pre- 
dictorum Symonis et Leticie ; Habenda et Tenenda eidem Thome et 
heredibus suis de capitalibus dominis feodi illius imperpetuum, faciendo 
inde omnia seruicia que ad predicta mesuagia pertinent. Et predicti 
Symon et Leticia et heredes ipsius Leticie Warantizabunt, adquietabunt, 
et defendent eidem Thome et heredibus suis predicta jnesuagia cum 
pertinentiis per predicta seruicia contra omnes homines imperpetuum. 
Et pro hac recognitione, Warantia, adquietancia, defensione, fine et 
concordia, Idem Thomas ad peticionem predictorum Symonis et 
Leticie attornauit et assignauit predicta mesuagia cum pertinentiis in 
augroentum aree in qua hospitantur fratres minores Oxon' com- 
morantes, in puram et perpetuam elemosinam, liberam et quietam ab 
omni seculari seruicio et exactione in perpetuum. Et preterea idem 
Thomas dedit et concessit predicte Leticie unum mesuagium cum 
pertinentiis extra portam Aquilonarem Oxon' in angulo de Hors- 
mongharestrete iuxta terram Reginald! Gamages, simul cum fabrica 
quam Hugo Marescall tenet, que scilicet Mesuagium et fabricam 
Benedictus le Mercer pater predicti Symonis aliquando tenuit; Habenda 

1 MS. Sum. 


et Tenenda eisdem Symoni et Leticie et heredibus ipsius Leticie de 
capitalibus dominis feodi illius imperpetuum, faciendo inde omnia 
seruicia que ad predicta tenementa pertinent : Ita tamen quod non 
licebit predicto Symoni predicta tenementa dare, vendere, assignare, vel 
legare, vel aliquo alio modo alienare, quominus ilia tenementa 
remaneant predicte Leticie et heredibus suis in perpetuum. 


Grant of a messuage by Laurence Wych, a.d. 1246. 
Pat. 31 Hen. Ill, m. 8. 

Pro fratribus Minoribus Oxon'. Rex omnibus etc. Salutem. Sciatis 
quod (ad) amplificationem aree ffratrum Minorum Oxon' assignauimus 
eis totum mesuagium illud cum pertinenciis quod laurencius Wych 
maior noster Oxon' nobis reddidit et commisit ad amplificationem aree 
predictorum ffratrum, concedentes eis et uolentes, quod, ad securitatem 
domorum suarum et tranquillitatem religionis sue, muro uel alio modo, 
sicut sibi uiderint expedire, illud faciant includi. In cuius etc. Teste 
Rege apud Clarendon xxvij die Nouembris. 

Et Mandatum est vicecomiti Oxon' quod mesuagium illud loco 
Regis recipiat ad opus eonindem ffratrum. 


License to enclose their new possessions ; the city wall 
to be repaired, a.d, 1248. 

Pat. 32 Hen. HI, m. 10 (printed in Mon. Franc. I. 617). 
Pro fratribus minoribus Oxon'. 

Rex omnibus etc. salutem. Noueritis nos intuitu pietatis concessisse 
ut vicus qui extenditur sub muro Oxon' a porta que dicitur Watergat* 
in parochia Ste. Ebbe vsque ad paruum posticum eiusdem muri uersus 
Castrum claudatur propter maiorem securitatem et quietem fratrum 
minorum iuxta dictum vicum habitancium, quamdiu domino loci 
placuerit. Saluo tamen nobis et heredibus nostris, Regibus Anglie, 
libero transitu per medium Noui loci in quolibet aduentu nostro ibidem. 
Concedimus etiam ut latus aquilonare capelle in prefato vico constructe 
et construende suplere {sic) possit prenominati muri interruptionem, 
quantum se extendere debet, ceteris eiusdem muri rupturis in integrum 
reparatis ut prius, excepto paruo posticu in dicto muro, per quod 
possin^ dicti fratres ire et redire de nouo loco in quo modo hospitantur 


ad priorem locum in quo prius hospitabantur. In cuius, etc. Teste 
Rege apud Westmonasterium, x die febr*. 

This concession is repeated and confirmed in Patent Roll 1 8 Edw. 
III. m. 19 (a.d. 1344). 


Royal grant to the Friars of the Penitence of Jesus Christ or 
Friars of the Sack, 1265. 
Pat. 49 Hen. Ill, m. 24. 
As the Minorites subsequently obtained the ' area ' of the Friars of 
the Sack, records relating to this property will naturally find a place 
here. On May 7th, 1262, the king gave them permission, 

quod in area sibi collata ^, quam habent in parochia ecclesie Sancti Boduci 
Oxonie, in qua ius patronatus habemus, oratorium construere possint ad 
diuina ibidem celebranda (Pat. Roll 46 Hen. HI, m. 11). 
On February 5th, 1265, he made them a further grant (Pat. 49 Hen. 
in, m. 24), and on February 8th, 1265, this second grant was again 
made in greater detail (ibidem). It is this last which is here quoted. 

Pro fratribus de penitencia IlTu Xp Oxon*. Rex episcopo 
Lincolniensi salutem. Cum ecclesia sancti Budoci in suburbio Oxon' 
nostri patronatus per amocionem et decessum parochianorum eiusdem 
ecclesie iam in tantum depauperata sit et adnullata, quod fructus et 
obuenciones eiusdem ad sustentacionem vnius capellani ministrantis in 
eadem non sufficiunt, vt veraciter accepimus ; ac fratres de penitencia 
Ihu Xpi quendam situm habeant ibidem contiguum ecclesie predicte, 
in quo domos suas construxerunt, deo famulari proponentes ibidem : 
nos, intuitu caritatis et pro salute anime nostre et animarum anteces- 
sorum et heredum nostrorum, dictis fratribus ecclesiam predictam cum 
cimiterio eiusdem et domibus existentibus in eodem et ad ecclesiam 
eandem pertinentibus, quantum ad nos pertinet, concessimus pro 
nobis et heredibus nostris habendam sibi et successoribus suis, videlicet 
ad faciendam inde sibi capellam in qua diuina celebrare possint inper- 
petuum, ita quod cimiterium predictum tanquam cimiterium bene- 
dictum in statu suo remaneat. In cuius, etc. Teste Rege apud 
Westmonasterium, octauo die februarii. Et habent dicti fratres litteram 
aliam (?) sub hac forma, * Rex omnibus etc.'^ 

^ For the grant of this area by the dated May 7, 1262, already mentioned; 

Abbat and Convent of Osney, at the Pat. 46 Hen. IH, m. 11. The word 

instance of Ela Longespee, Countess of * aliam ' is not quite clear ; it may be 

Warwick, see Wood-Clark II, p. 474. alteram. 

^ This is a reference to the letter 




Grants from various persons, a. d. 13 10. 
Pat. 3 Edward II, m. 14. 

Rex omnibus ad quos etc. salutem. Sciatis quod de gratia nostra 
speciali concessimus et licenciam dedimus pro nobis et heredibus 
nostris quantum in nobis est, dilectis nobis in Christo Gardiano et 
fratribus de ordine Minorum Oxon', quod ipsi de Johanne Wyz et 
Emma uxore eius quandam placeam terre in Oxonia continentem in se 
ab oriente versus occidentem quinque perticatas et duos pedes terre et 
ab aquilone versus austrum duas perticatas terre et dimidiam : et de 
Henrico Tyeys quandam placeam terre iacentem inter placeam in qua 
ecclesia Sancti Budoci edificata fuit et aqua {sic) Thamisis, qi^e quidem 
placea continet in se sex perticatas terre in longitudine et quinque 
perticatas terre in latitudine; et quandam aliam placeam terre 
extendentem se ab aqua Thamisis vsque ad predictam placeam terre 
que fuit Ricardi le Lodere, et continentem in se in longitudine 
quatuordecim perticatas et dimidiam et quinque pedes terre et in 
latitudine quatuor perticatas et tres pedes terre : et quandam aliam 
placeam terre continentem in se in longitudine ab aqua Thamisis vsque 
ad viam regalem sexdecim perticatas terre et dimidiam et in latitudine 
decem perticatas terre, placee dictorum Gardiani et fratrum ibidem 
contiguas ; adquirere possint habendas sibi et successoribus suis ad 
elargacionem placee sue predicte imperpetuum, statuto de terris et 
tenementis ad manum mortuam non ponendis edito non obstante. In 
cuius, etc. Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium xxviij die Marcij ; 
per ipsum Regem. 


Grant of the property of the Friars of the Penitence of Jesus Christ 
to the Friars Minors, a.d. 13 10. 

Pat. 3 Edward II, m. 9. 

Rex omnibus ad quos etc. salutem. Licet de communi consilio 
regni nostri statutum sit, quod non liceat viris Religiosis seu aliis 
ingredi feodum alicuius ita quod ad manum mortuam deueniat sine 
licencia nostra et capitalis domini de quo ilia {sic) immediate tenetur ; 
Volentes tamen dilectis nobis in Christo Gardiano et fratribus de 
ordine Minorum Oxon' gratiam facere specialem, concessimus et 
licenciam dedimus pro nobis et heredibus nostris, quantum in nobis 


est, eisdem Gardiano et fratribus, quod ipsi quandam placeam terre in 
suburbio Oxon' placee dictomm Gardiani et fratmm in eadem villa 
contiguam, continentem viginti perticatas terre et dimidiam in longitu- 
dine, et sex perticatas terre in latitudine ad capud australe, et ad capud 
boriale duas perticatas et quatuor pedes terre, et medio inter capud 
australe et capud boriale quatuor perticatas et septem pedes terre, in 
qua placea aliquo tempore fuit quedam ecclesia parochialis sancti 
Budoci cum quodam cimiterio pertinente ad eandem ecclesiam, quam 
quidem placeam cum dicto cimiterio dominus H. quondam Rex 
Anglie auus noster per cartam suam dedit et concessit fratribus de 
ordine de penitencia Kiu Xpi Oxon pro quadam capella ibidem con- 
struenda in qua diuina celebrare possent : Ita quod cimiterium pre- 
dictum tanquam cimiterium benedictum in suo statu remaneret, sic(ut) 
per quandam inquisicionem per dilectum et fidelem nostrum Walterum 
de Gloucestria Escaetorem nostrum citra Trentam de mandato nostro 
inde factam et in Cancellaria nostra retornatam est compertum de 
predictis fratribus de penitencia Ihu Xpi, perquirere possint et 
tenere sibi et successoribus suis ad elargacionem placee sue predicte 
imperpetuum, Ita tamen quod Cimiterium predictum tanquam bene- 
dictum in suo statu remaneat imperpetuum. Nolentes quod predicti 
Gardianus et fratres aut successores sui ratione premissorum per nos 
vel heredes nostros, Justiciarios, Escaetores, Vicecomites aut alios 
balliuos sen Ministros nostros quoscunque occasionentur, molestentur 
in aliquo, seu grauentur. In cuius, etc. Teste Rege apud West- 
monasterium xxviij die Marcii per ipsum Regem. 


Regrant of the property of the Friars of the Penitence of Jesus Christ 
to the Friars Minors, a.d. 1319. 
Pat. 12 Edward II, part 2, m. 25. 

This document was probably intended as a protest against the 
claim implied in the papal grant of the same property, as already 
explained (Chapter II), or perhaps merely as an additional confirmation 
of the friars' title. 

Pro fratribus de ordine minorum Oxon'. Rex omnibus ad quos etc. 
salutem. Sciatis quod cum fratres de ordine Minorum Oxon' totam 
illam aream que quondam fuit fratrum de penitencia Ihu Xpi 
Oxon' in suburbio Oxon' aree dictorum fratrum de ordine Minorum 
ibidem contiguam de eisdem fratribus de penitencia Ihu Xpi 
adquisivissent, et iidcm fratres de ordine Minorum aream illam 


adeo integre sicut ad manus suas devenit, nobis dederint et in manus 
nostras reddiderint habendam nobis et heredibus nostris imperpetuum : 
Nos, ob affectionem quam ad dictum ordinem fratrum Minorum 
gerimus et habemus, volentes eis graciam facere specialem, dedimus 
eis et concessimus pro nobis et heredibus nostris, quantum in nobis 
est, aream predictam nobis sic redditam cum pertinenciis, habendam 
sibi et successoribus suis fratribus eiusdem ordinis apud Oxoniam 
commorantibus, ad elargacionem aree sue predicte, in liberam puram 
et perpetuam elemosinam, salvo iure cuiuslibet. In cuius, etc. Teste 
Rege apud Eboracum vi^o die Marcii, per ipsum Regem. 


Inquiry held at Oxford, a.d. 13 19, into the advisability of allowing 
John Culvard to grant land to the Friars Minors.^ 

Inquisitio ad quod damnum 1 2 Edw. II, No. 47. 

Edwardus dei gracia Rex Anglorum dominus hibernie et dux 
Aquitanie, Magistro Ricardo de Clare Escaetori suo vltra Trentam, 
salutem. Mandamus vobis, quod per sacramentum proborum et 
legalium hominum de Balliua vestra, per quos rei Veritas melius sciri 
poterit, diligenter inquiratis, si sit ad dampnum vel preiudicium nos- 
trum aut aliorum, si concedamus Johanni Culuard de Oxonia, quod 
ipse quandam placeam terre cum pertinenciis in Oxonia, manso 
dilectorum nobis in Xpo Gardiani et fratrum de ordine minorum 
in eadem villa ex parte orientali contiguam, continentem in se 
in longitudine sex perticatas terre et in latitudine quinque perti- 
catas terre, dare possit et assignare eisdem Gardiano et fratribus 
habendam et tenendam sibi et successoribus suis ad elargacionem 
mansi sui predicti imperpetuum, necne. Et si sit ad dampnum vel 
preiudicium nostrum aut aliorum, tunc ad quod dampnum et quod 
preiudicium nostrum, et ad quod dampnum et ad quod preiudicium 
aliorum, et quorum, et qualiter, et quo modo ; de quo vel de quibus 
placea ilia teneatur, et per quod seruicium, et qualiter et quo modo ; 
et quantum valeat per annum in omnibus exitibus iuxta verum 

^ The following petition to the King 
(Parliamentary Petitions, 4299, in the 
Record Office), probably refers to this 
grant, or possibly to the grant of Richard 
Gary (p. 20) ; the petition is undated. 
*A notre seigneur le Roi si luy plest 
prient les poures freres Menours de 

Oxenford qil lour voille graunter la 
mortificacioun de vne place en Oxenford 
qe ne vaut qe deux souz per an auxicome 
retourne est en la chauncellrie et qe est a 
nuly preiudice.' Endorsed; ' Soit veu(?) 
lenqueste et le Roi en dirra sa volonte.' 


valorem eiusdem ; et qui et quot sunt (sic) medii inter nos et prefatum 
Johannem de placea predicta ; et que terre et que tenementa eidem 
Johanni remaneant vltra donacionem et assignacionem predictas, et 
vbi et de quo vel de quibus teneantur, et per quod seruicium, et 
qualiter et quod modo, et quantum valeant per annum in omnibus 
exitibus; et si terre et tenementa eidem Johanni remanencia vltra 
donacionem et assignacionem predictas sufficiant ad consuetudines 
et seruicia tam de predicta placea sic data quam de aliis terris et 
tenementis sibi retentis debita facienda, et ad omnia alia onera que 
sustinuit et sustinere consueuit, vt in sectis, visibus franci plegii, 
auxiliis, tallagiis, vigiliis, finibus, redempcionibus, amerciamentis, 
contribucionibus, et aliis quibuscumque oneribus emergentibus sus- 
tinenda. Et quod idem Johannes in assisis iuratis et aliis recog- 
nicionibus quibuscumque poni possit, prout ante donacionem 
et assignacionem predictas poni consuevit. Ita quod patria per 
donacionem et assignacionem predictas in ipsius Johannis defectum 
magis solito non oneretur seu grauetur. Et inquisicionem inde dis- 
tincte et aperte factam nobis, sub sigillo vestro et sigillo eorum per 
quos facta fuerit, sine dilacione mittatis et hoc breue. Teste me ipso 
apud Eboracum, v die Marcii, anno regni nostri duodecimo. 

Inquisicio capta coram Escaetore domini Regis citra Trentam apud 
Oxoniam xviiio die Maii anno regni Regis Edwardi filii Regis 
Edwardi duodecimo, secundum formam breuis huic inquisicioni con- 
suti, per sacramentum Johannis de Coleshull, Willelmi Pennard, Rogeri 
Mymekan, Gilberti de Grensted, Thome Somer, Willelmi de Whatele, 
Roberti de Watlington, Johannis de Gunwardeby, Johnnis de Ew, 
Henrici de Edrope, Ricardi de Hethrop, et Willelmi de Eueston. Qui 
dicunt per sacramentum suum, quod non est ad dampnum nec preiu- 
dicium domini Regis nec aliorum, si dominus Rex concedat Johanni 
Culuard de Oxonia quod ipse quandam placeam terre cum pertinenciis 
in Oxonia, manso Gardiani et ffratrum de ordine minorum in eadem 
villa ex parte orientali contiguam, continentem in se in longitudine 
sex perticatas terre et in latitudine quinque perticatas terre, dare possit 
et assignare eisdem Gardiano et fFratribus, habendam et tenendam 
sibi et successoribus suis ad elargacionem mansi sui predicti imper- 
petuum : Ita tamen quod communitas ville Oxon' in omnibus tem- 
poribus quando necesse fuerit liberum habeat introitum et egressum 
ibidem ad murum ville predicte reficiendum reparandum et defen- 
dendum. Et dicunt quod predicta placea tenetur de Willelmo de 
AdrcsLon' in capite per seruicium vnius denarii per annum pro omni 


seruicio; et quod predicta placea valet per annum ij^ in omnibus 
exitibus iuxta verum valorem eiusdem ; et quod non sunt plures medii 
inter dominum Regem et prefatum Johannem de placea predicta 
nisi predictus Willelmus de Adreston'. Et dicunt quod eidem 
Johanni vltra donacionem et assignacionem predictas remanent 
sexaginta solidi terre tenement' et redditus in eadem villa que de 
domino Rege tenentur in capite pro seruicio ij sol' per annum pro 
omni seruicio. Et dicunt quod terre et tenementa eidem Johanni 
remanencia ultra donacionem et assignacionem predictas sufficiunt 
ad consuetudines et seruicia tam de predicta placea sic data quam de 
aliis terris et tenementis sibi retentis debita facienda, et ad omnia alia 
onera que sustinuit et sustinere consueuit. Et quod idem Johannes 
in assisis iuratis et aliis recognicionibus quibuscumque poni possit, 
prout ante donacionem et assignacionem predictas poni consueuit. 
Ita quod patria per donacionem et assignacionem predictas in ipsius 
Johannis defectum magis solito non oneretur seu grauetur. In cuius 
rei testimonium predicti Jurati huic Inquisicioni sigilla sua appo- 
suerunt. Dat' predictis die, anno, et loco. 

The license to alienate this land was granted to John Culvard on 
the 8th of July of the same year, and is entered in the Patent Roll for 
13 Edw. II, m. 44. The same year similar inquisition was held to 
consider the petition of Richard Gary to grant land to the Friars 
Minors at Oxford; Inquis. ad quod damnum 13 Edw. II, no. 31. 


Grant of a parcel of ground by John de Grey de Rotherfield, 

A.D. 1337. 
Pat. Roll II, Edw. Ill, pt. II, m. 6. 

A certain interest attaches to this deed as recording the last gift 
of land to the Oxford Minorites, of which evidence remains— probably 
the last gift ever made. 

Pro Gardiano et fratribus ordinis Minorum Oxon' de acquirendo ad 
elargacionem mansi. 

Rex omnibus ad quos, etc. salutem. Licet de communi consilio 
regni nostri statutum sit, quod non liceat viris religiosis seu aliis 
ingredi feodum alicuius ita quod ad manum mortuam deueniat sine 
licencia nostra et capitaHs domini de quo res ilia immediate tenetur ; 
Volentes tamen dilectis nobis in Christo Gardiano et fratribus ordinis 
minoruih in villa Oxon* graciam facere specialem ; concessimus et 




licenciam dedimus pro nobis et heredibus nostris, quantum in nobis 
est, dilecto et fideli nostro Johanni de Grey de Retherfeld, quod ipse 
quandam placeam terre cum pertinenciis in villa predicta manso pre- 
dictorum Gardiani et fratrum ibidem ex parte orientali contiguam, 
continentem in se in longitudine sex perticatas terre et in latitudine 
quinque perticatas terre, dare possit et assignare eisdem Gardiano et 
fratribus, habendam et tenendam sibi et successoribus suis ad elar- 
gacionem mansi sui predicti imperpetuum: et eisdem Gardiano et 
fratribus, quod ipsi placeam predictam cum pertinenciis a prefato 
Johanne recipere possint et tenere sibi et successoribus suis predictis 
ad elargacionem mansi sui predicti imperpetuum, sicut predictum est 
tenore presencium, similiter licenciam dedimus specialem. Nolentes 
quod predictus Johannes vel heredes sui, seu predicti Gardianus et 
fratres aut successores sui, racione statuti predicti per nos vel heredes 
nostros inde occasionentur in aliquo seu grauentur Saluis tamen 
capitalibus dominis feodi illius seruiciis inde debitis et consuetis. 
In cuius, etc. Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, xix die Augusti. 



I. Food for the Friars Minors, etc. (A.D. 1244). — 2. Adam Marsh as royal 
nuncius (a. d. 1247). — 3. For the same (a. d. 1257). — 4. The Church of the 
Minorites used as a Sanctuary (a.d, 1284-5). — 5. Royal grant of 50 marcs 
(a .D. 1289). — 6. Decree of the General Chapter at Paris (a.d. 1292). — 7. Royal 
grant of 50 marcs ; tally on the sheriff of Oxford for half the amount 
(a.d. 1323) ; evidence of payment. — 8. ' Receptor denariorum gardiani Fratrum 
Minorum Oxon' (a, D. 1341). — 9. Goods and chattels of Friar John Welle, 
S.T.P. (a.d. 1378). — 10. Expulsion of foreign Friars Minors from Oxford 
(a.d. 1388). — II. Friar William Woodford; confirmation of his privileges by 
Pope Boniface IX (a.d. 1366.) — 12. Appointment of a lecturer to the Convent 
at Hereford (c. a.d. 1400). — 13. Decree of the General Chapter at Florence 
(a.d. 1467). — 14. Recovery of debt from a Sheriff (a.d. 1488). — 15. Docu- 
ments relating to the lease of a garden at the Grey Friars to Richard Leke 
(a.d. 1513-1514). — 16. Extracts from the will of Richard Leke (a.d. 1526). — 
17. An ex-warden called to account (a.d. 1529). 


Food for Friars Minors, &c,, a.d. 1244. 
Liberate Roll, 29 Hen. Ill, m. 14. 

Mandatum est Balliuis Regis Oxon' quod de firma ville sue habere 
faciant fratri Rogero Elemosinario Regis die Mercurij in crastino 
sancte Lucie Virginis decern Marcas ad pascendum mille pauperes et 
fratres predicatores et minores Oxon' pro anima domine Imperatricis 
sororis Regis in aniuersario ipsius Imperatricis sicut ei iniunxit Rex. 
Et computetur etc. Teste ut supra (King at Woodstock, Dec. 12th). 


Adam Marsh as royal nuncius, a.d. 1247. 
Liberate Roll, 31 Hen. Ill, m. 4. 

Rex Thesaurario et Camerario salutem. Liberate de Thesauro 
nostro Herberto de Denmade quadraginta marcas ad Equos et Har- 
nesium emendum ad opus^ . . . Mathei Prioris Prouincie ordinis 

* The edge of the parchment is worn away here. 
X 2 



fratrum predicatorum et fratris Ade de Marisco, quos mittimus In 
Nuncium ad partes transmarinas, et ad expensas eorundem. Teste 
Rege apud Clarendon' xviii die Julii. 


For the same a.d. 1257. 
Liberate, 42 Hen. Ill, m. 3. 

Rex Vicecomiti Kancie salutem. Precipimus tibi quod venerabili 
Patri W. Wygornensi Episcopo et fratri Ade de Marisco, quos mittimus 
in nuncium nostrum ad partes transmarinas, facias habere festinum 
passagium in portu nostro Douor' et illud aquietes et computetur ^ tibi 
ad scaccarium. Teste me ipso apud Westmonasterium, xiij die De- 
cembris, anno regni nostri xlijo. 

Rex Thesaurario et Camerario, etc. Liberate ^ Johanni Marscallo 
nostro xjli i]^ pro iiij equis emptis ad opus nostrum et liberatis per 
preceptum nostrum iiijor fratribus ordinis predicatorum et minorum 
euntibus in nuncium ad partes transmarinas, et Ixixs vijd obolum pro 
expensis eorundem equorum et garcionum custodientium eos per xxxv 
dies. Liberate etiam eidem Johanni Ixvjs ix^ pro hernesiis emptis ad 
opus fratrum predictorum . . . Teste ut supra (Rege apud Westm' 
xxi die Dec). 


The Church of the Minorites used as a Sanctuary, a.d. 1284-5. 
Assize Roll 710, m. 55 ^ 

Adam de Kydmersford posuit se in Ecclesiam fratrum minorum 
Oxon' et cognouit se esse latronem de pluribus latrociniis et abiurauit 
regnum coram Coronatore. Nulla habuit catalla. 


Royal grant of 50 marcs, 1289. 

Exchequer, Queen's Remembrancer, Wardrobe Acc*^ ^, Anno 17-18, Edw. I. 

This is the earliest mention which I have found of the annual grant 
of 50 marks to the Oxford Minorites. After reciting the similar grant 
to the Friars Preachers, the record goes on (nth October) : — 

* Comp"". ^ Formerly * Placita de juratis et 

^ This entry occurs a few lines before assisis et corone 13 Edw. I, Oxon, 

the foregoing on the same membrane; ^ | 3 m 55 ' 

it probably refers to the same embassy. f j ' ' ' 


Et ffratribus Minoribus Oxon', percipientibus similiter annuatim 
a Rege in subsidium sustentacionis L marcas, scilicet eodem modo ad 
duos terminos pro Elemosina Regis predicti; de termino Sancti 
Michaelis anno presenti per manus ffratrum Johannis de Bekinkham 
et Johannis de Clara, xvi^i xiij^ iiij^^. 

Later in the same document occurs this entry : — 

Pro Scaccario. ffratribus Minoribus Oxon' percipientibus ^ annuatim 
L marcas de Elemosina Regis ad sustentacionem suam ad duos anni 
terminos, vid. ad festum Sancti Michaelis et ad Pasch', pro eadem 
Elemosina de termino Sancti Michaelis anno xvj™^ finiente et de ter- 
mino pasche anno xvijo xxxiijli vj^ viij^. 


Decree of the General Chapter at Paris, a.d. 1292. 

The following extract is reprinted from Ehrle's * Die altesten Re- 
dactionen der Generalconstitutionen des Franziskaner-Ordens,' in 
the * Archiv fiir Literatur- und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters,' vol. 
VI. p. 63. The Franciscan School at Oxford evidently had at this 
time a greater reputation and greater popularity than those at 
Cambridge and London. But why the burden should be especially 
heavy during the long vacation is not quite clear. Can the Mendicant 
Friars have been to any large extent dependent on the alms of the 
secular scholars ? 

Memoriale ministro Anglie. Ut tempore vacacionis maioris onus 
conventus Oxonie aliqualiter relevetur, ordinat generale capitulum, 
quod studentes ibidem de provinciis inter ipsam Oxoniensem et 
Londonensem et Q2iiX.€ti\rigiensem\ conventus pro tertia parte, con- 
numeratis aliis studentibus extraneis, qui in prefatis Londonensi et 
Cantebrugiensi conventibus fuerint, ad ministri provincialis ar- 
bitrium dividantur. 


Royal grant of 50 marcs ; tally on the Sheriff of Oxford for half the 
amount, a.d. 1323; evidence of payment. 

R.O. Exchequer, Treas. of Receipt 

Gardiano et conventui ordinis fratrum Minorum Oxon' xyjli 

xiij^ iiij^. 

Liberatum eisdem xxv die Maij. In vna tallia facta .... Coll' x^ et 


vjta 1 in comitatu Oxon' et Liberata fratri Johanni de Stanle videlicet 
pro hoc termino Pasche de illis quinquaginta marcis per annum quas 
Rex eis concessit ad scaccarium percipiendas de elemosina Regis ad 
voluntatem suam per breue de Liberate datum apud Westmonasterium 
primo die Aprilis anno xvjo. persolutum et est inter breuia de hoc 


'Receptor Denariorum/ a.d. 1341. 
Brian Twyne MS. xxiii. 266. 

This document — the prosecution of the collector of alms by the 
Warden of the Oxford Friars Minors for embezzlement — seems to 
be the only one of the kind extant. As Twyne points out, we should 
naturally have expected the suit to be tried by the Chancellor, not by 
the Mayor and Bailiffs of Oxford ^. The original is no longer to be 
found in the City Archives, and is probably irretrievably lost. Twyne's 
reference is : ' Ibid. (i. e. Oxford City Archives) Husteng' Oxon tent, 
ibid' die D {luncB crossed out) proxim' post festum Epiphaniae Domini, 
ao Ed. si 140.' (Jan. 134^.) 

Ricardus de Whitchford minor summonitus fait ad respondendum 
fratri Johanni Ochampton Guardiano ordinis fratrum Minorum Oxon' 
de placito computi, et unde idem Gardianus per fratrem Johannem de 
Hentham attornatum suum queritur quod praedictus Ricardus iniuste 
non reddit computum de tempore quo fuit receptor denariorum ipsius 
Gardiani, etc. : et ideo iniuste, quia idem Gardianus dicit quod prae- 
dictus Ricardus die Lunae proximo post festum Santi Michaelis anno 
regni regis praedicti 140 (i.e. a.d. 1340) recepit apud Oxoniam de 
denariis dicti Gardiani per manus diversorum ad summam 60 soli- 
dorum et amplius, viz. per manus Ricardi famuli Johannis de Couton j 
marc, per manus Thomae de Lundon xijs, etc., ad computum inde red- 
dendum cum inde requisitus fuerit, etc.: unde idem Gardianus saepius 
postea venisset ad praedictum Ricardum et ipsum rogasset ut com- 
putum ei inde reddidisset, etc.; idem Ricardus computum inde reddere 
recusavit et adhuc recusat, etc. : unde dicit quod deterioratus est et 

^ Sic. 

^ Cf. Twyne MS. xxiii, 252, for an 
appearance of the Warden before the 
Mayor's Court in 1287. * Rot. Cur. die 
Lunae Oxon. proxim. post festum 
assumptionis B. Mariae regni R. 
Edw. I. 150. Memorandum quod 

Johannes de Westover et Isolda uxor 
ejus venerunt ad curiam istam et obtu- 
lerunt se clam (antes) versus Gardianum 
fratrum minorum Oxon. qui venit, et 
petunt partes licentiam concordandi, et 


damnum habet ad valorem et inde producit sectam, etc. : et prae- 
dictus Ricardus venit et non potest dedicere receptionem praedictam 
et petit Auditores, etc. : et sic per curiam dantur ei Auditores, viz. 
Ricardus Gary et Johannes le Peyntour, etc. : et idem Ricardus postea 
computavit coram praefatis Auditoribus de summis praedictis, et in- 
venitur in arreragiis de 60s, unde non potest satisfacere, ideo com- 
mittitur custodiae quousque, &c. 


Goods and chattels of Friar John Welle, S.T.P., a.d. 1378. 
Patent Roll, i Ric. II, Part 4, m. 37. 

It is doubtful whether the following extract is entitled to a place in 
this work. There is no evidence that Friar John Welle had any con- 
nection with Oxford ^\ but we venture to print the document here as 
illustrating in some degree the actual manner of life of a Franciscan 
Doctor of Divinity of the later 14th century. 

Pro fratre Johanne Welle. Rex omnibus ad quos etc. salutem. 
Sciatis quod, cum quedam equi, salices isic)^ libri, moneta, vasa 
argentea, ac diuersa alia bona et catalla, que fuerunt dilecti nobis in 
Xpo fratris Johannis Welle de ordine fratrum Minorum in theologia 
doctoris, extra hospicium suum London' per quendam Thomam Bele 
servientem suum et quosdam alios malefactores nuper elongata et 
asportata fuerint, quorum quidem bonorum et rerum aliqua, vna cum 
persona dicti Thome, per suspicionem occasione eiusdem mesprisionis 
apud villam nostram Gantebrigg' arestata existunt, sicut per prefatum 
fratrem Johannem coram nobis plenius est testificatum ; Nos, de gracia 
nostra speciali, concessimus eidem Johanni omnia, equos, calices, libros, 
monetam, vasa et alia bona et catalla predicta, vbicumque fuerint, seu 
eciam denarios de eisdem bonis et catallis, in casu quo idem Johannes 
eosdem denarios in manibus dictorum malefactorum seu aliorum, 
quibus iidem malefactores partem eorundem bonorum et catallorum 
vendiderint peruenientes, inuenire poterit, ac eciam bona et catalla per 
eosdem malefactores de denariis per ipsos de dictis bonis et catallis, 
que fuerunt dicti Johannis, receptis empta, habenda de dono nostro, 

^ He is probably to be identified bus, ministro Tusciae, et Fratre Simone 

with * Johannes Vallensis Anglus, qui Bruni in Universitate Tolosana ; ' 

diu Londinii Theologiam docuit,' who Wadding, vol. viii. p. 209. Wadding 

was promoted to the Magisterium in (\iii. p. 533) gives a letter addressed to 

1368 by order of Pope Urban V, John Welle, Minorite, S T.P. and papal 

' laureaifite fratre Bernardo de Guasconi- chaplain, A.D. 1372. 


si ea ad nos tanquam forisfacta seu confiscata occasione eiusdem 
mesprisionis de iure debeant pertinere. In cuius, etc. Teste Rege 
apud Westmonasterium, xxii die ffebruarii. per breue de private 


Expulsion of foreign Friars Minors, a. d. 1388. 

Close Roll, 12 Ric. II, m. 42. 

De certis fratribus expellendis. Rex dilectis sibi in Christo Gardiano 
ordinis fratrum Minorum de Oxonia ac fratribus Anglicis, de consilio 
Conuentus eiusdem ordinis ibidem, qui nunc sunt vel qui pro tempore 
fuerint, salutem. Quibusdam certis de causis nos et consilium nostrum 
intime monentibus, vobis inhibemus firmiter iniungentes, ne aliquos 
fratres alienigenas ordinis vestri predict], nisi tantum eos pro quibus 
respondere volueritis quod ipsi secreta et consilium regni nostri aduer- 
sariis nostris in scriptis seu alio modo minime reueiabunt, in dictam 
domum vestram vobiscum moraturos ex nunc recipiatis, et si aliquos 
huiusmodi fratres alienigenas in dicta domo vestra ad presens como- 
rantes, pro quibus in forma predicta respondere nolueritis, habeatis 
seu qui ordinacionibus dictorum ordinis et Conuentus humiliter parere 
ac missas, si sacerdotes fuerint, denote celebrare, seu aliud diuinum 
seruicium sibi iniunctum facere, aut pro nobis et statu dicti regni 
nostri specialiter orare noluerint, prout alii fratres indigene dicti ordinis 
faciunt et tenentur : tunc eos omnes cuiuscumque gradus fuerint ab 
eadem domo vestra et Vniuersitate dicte ville Oxon' de tempore in 
tempus penitus expelli faciatis, Et hoc sub incumbenti periculo nulla- 
tenus omittatis. Teste Rege apud Oxoniam tercio die Augusti. 


William Woodford : confirmation of his privileges by Boniface IX, 
A.D. 1396. 

MS. New College 156. 

This document is bound up at the beginning of vol. 156 of the 
New College MSS. The first half of the last two lines has been torn 
away. Compare the letter of Innocent VI to Roger de Conway in 
Wadding Annales, vol. viii. p. 457. 

Bonifacius episcopus servus servorum dei Dilecto filio Wilhelmo 
Wodford ordinis fratrum Minorum professori, in Theologia Magistro, 


Salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Religionis zelus, litterarum 
sciencia, vite ac morum honestas, aliaque laudabilia probitatis et 
virtutum merita, super quibus apud nos fidedigno commendaris 
testimonio, nos inducunt ut te favoribus apostolicis et graciis prose- 
quamur. Exhibita siquidem nobis nuper pro parte tua peticio 
continebat, quod quidam locus in Conventu domus fratrum Minorum 
londonien' quern obtines, et nonnulla aliqua privilegia et gracie per 
superiores tuos tibi fuerunt concessa. Quare pro parte tua nobis 
fuit humiliter supplicatum, ut tibi, quod locum quoadvixeris cum 
omnibus Cameris et pertinenciis suis retinere valeas, concedere ac 
huiusmodi privilegia confirmare de benignitate apostolica dignaremur. 
Nos igitur tuis in hac parte supplicacionibus inclinati, tibi, ut predic- 
tum locum cum omnibus Cameris et pertinenciis suis quoadvixeris 
retinere et possidere, et quod ab eo absque rationabili causa nulla- 
tenus amoveri valeas, auctoritate apostolica concedimus ac huiusmodi 
privilegia et gracias, si alias rite tibi concessa fuerint, confirmamus 
per presentes, Constitucionibus apostolicis ac statutis et consuetu- 
dinibus dicti ordinis contrariis non obstantibus quibuscunque. Nulli 
ergo omnino hominum liceat banc paginam nostre concessionis et 
confirmacionis infringere vel ei ausu temerario contraire. Si quis 

autem hoc attemptare presumpserit indignacionem om 

et Pauli Apostolorum ejus se noverit incursurum. Dat' Rome apud 
sanctum petrum Pontificatus nostri Anno septimo. 


Appointment of a lecturer to the Convent at Hereford, c. 1400. 
Harl. MS. 431, fol. 100 b. 

This letter illustrates the educational organisation — the ' University 
Extension System' — of the Franciscans. Friar John David, the 
lecturer mentioned, was D.D. of Cambridge ^ and does not appear to 
have studied at Oxford ; but original documents relating to the subject 
are so scarce that no apology will be necessary for inserting the letter 

The writer, John Prophet, was Dean of Hereford from 1393 to 
1407 ^. John David was Provincial Minister in 1425^. 

* Mon. Franc. I, 539. 

' It is clear that J. Prophet was Dean 
of Hereford when this letter was written; 
in anotl;ier letter, referring to the same 
appointment, he writes : ' Cum prede- 

cessores mei decani et Capitulum here- 
fordenses fundatores in parte domus 
confratrum vestrorum hereford' dinos- 
cantur existere.' Harl. MS. 431, f. loob. 
3 Wilkins, Concilia HI, 459. 


Scribit J. Prophete Prouinciali et Capitulo general! {sic) ad admit- 
tendum quemdam fratrem J. Dauid in Lectorem et Regentem Domus 

Venerabiles ac religiosi viri in Christo carissimi. Post votiue salutis 
ac salutacionis affectum : cum omnes de conuentu fratrum vestrorum 
Hereford' in votis iam habeant ac desideriis intensis aflfectent, vt 
instruor, fratrem Johannem Dauid, cum prepollens virtutibus ac 
litterarum sciencia preditus et acceptus, vt dicitur, existat eisdem, 
suum ibidem habere lectorem eciam et regentem anno proximo iam 
futuro, vt ex sua inibi per tanti temporis interuallum exhibenda 
presencia feliciori valeat gubernari regimine. Vestram reuerenciam 
presentibus censui deprecandum ex corde, quatinus, desiderijs atque 
votis huius predicti Conuentus graciosius annuentes de predicto fratre 
Johanne, sub quo prefatus Conuentus maximam in religione ac 
scolastica disciplina dinoscitur obtinere proficiendi fiduciam, in hoc 
venerabili prouinciali vestro Capitulo eidem Conuentui eciam harum 
precium mearum intuitu dignemini, si placeat, prouidere ; claro si 
libeat considerantes intuitu, quod Conuentus ille predictus, qui in 
perfeccione religionis et fame consueuerat hactenus haberi prefulgidus 
nisi celerius prouideatur eidem, ad lamentabilem, vt informor, in 
breui videbitur deuenire ruinam : Quod siquidem per ipsius confratris 
Johannis presenciam, vt speratur a multis Conuentui predicto beneuolis 
et amicis, apcius quam per alium poterit euitari. Ad scribendum 
communi vestro cetui venerando pro expedicione felici votiui desiderij 
supradicti Conuentus, pro tanto quod in fratrem de Conuentu predicto 
receptus existo, ac de cognacione mea non pauci Conuentui predicto 
beneuoli pro bono inibi exercendo regimine ad idem videre desiderant, 
et parentes mei et alij de genere meo multi in Conuentuali ibidem 
tumulantur ecclesia, multo procliuior sum efifectus. Itaque super isto, 
vt vtilis effectus inde exequi videatur, cogitare dignetur vestra reueren- 
cia prelibata. Omnia conseruare etc. 


Decree of the General Chapter at Florence, a. d. 1467. 

In the Definitio siudiorum quoted by Sbaralea (Wadding, Sup. ad Script, p. 717) 
from the Acts of this Chapter, occurs the following clause. 

Ad provinciam Anglic possunt mittere omnes provincie Ordinis, scil. 
ad Studium Oxoniarura, Canlabrigie, et ad alia studia ejusdem pro- 



Recovery of debt from a Sheriff, a. d. 1488. 
Exchequer of Pleas; Plea Roll, 3 Hen. VII, m. 35. 

Pro Ricardo Salford querente versus Johannem Paston Militem 
nuper vicecomitem Comitatuum Norff ' et Suff ' defendentem in placito 
debiti per billam. 

Ricardus Salford Gardianus ffratrum Minorum Oxon' venit coram 
Baronibus huius Scaccarii vicesimo die Maii hoc termino per Jacobum 
Bartelot attornatum suum et queritur per billam versus Johannem 
Paston Militem nuper vicecomitem Comitatuum Norff' et Suff' 
presentem hie in Curia eodem die, super compoto suo de officio suo 
predicto hie ad hoc Scaccarium reddendo, per Edmundum Dorman 
attornatum suum, de eo quod predictus nuper vicecomes ei debet et 
iniuste detinet decem Hbras decem et octo solidos argenti ; Et pro eo 
iniuste, quod, cum dictus Rex nunc pro diuersis debitis in quibus 
indebitatus fuerat prefato querenti, inter alia assignasset eidem querenti 
decem Hbras decem et octo solidos predictos per quandam talliam curie 
hie ostensam eandem summam continentem leuatam ad Receptam Scac- 
carii dicti domini Regis apud Westmonasterium, terciodecimo die 
Maii anno regni dicti domini Regis tercio, pro ffratribus Minoribus 
Oxon', prefato querente tunc Gardiano ffratrum Minorum predictorum 
existente, de et super prefato iam defendente per nomen Johannis 
Paston nuper vicecomitis dictorum Comitatuum Norff' et Suff' per- 
cipiendam de ipso de exitibus balliue sue et de pluribus debitis suis ; 
Et licet predictus querens decimo septimo die Maii dicto anno tercio 
apud villam Westmonasterium in Comitatu Midd' per quendam 
Jacobum Bartelot adtunc seruientem suum monstrauerit et ad de- 
liberandum optulerit talliam predictam cuidam Edmundo Dorman' 
adtunc attornato predicti nuper vicecomitis iam defendentis super 
compoto ipsius nuper vicecomitis hie ad hoc Scaccarium faciendo pro 
solucione decem librarum decem et octo solidorum predictorum 
habenda secundum effectum tallie predicte, ac tunc et ibidem ipse 
querens requisiuit prefatum nuper vicecomitem iam defendentem ad 
ei soluendum x^i xviijs predictos iam in demanda ; Quo quidem decimo 
septimo die Maii ipse iam defendens ibidem satis habuit in manibus 
suis de dictis exitibus balliue sue predicte prouenientibus et de pluribus 
debitis predictis, vnde ipse tunc soluisse potuit prefato querenti x^i xviija 
predictos secundum effectum tallie predicte ; Ipse tamen nuper vice- 
comes iam defendens x^i xviij^ illos sine aliquam inde parcellam 


prefato querenti nondum soluit, set hoc facere conlradixit et adhuc 
contradicit ; et vnde predictus querens deterioratur et dampnum 
habet ad valenciam decern librarum. Et hoc ofFert etc. 

Et predictus nuper vicecomes. per predictum attornatum suum 
presens etc., petit auditum bille predicte, et ei legitur etc. : qua audita 
dicit quod ipse ad presens non est auisatus ad respondendum prefato 
Ricardo Salford in premissis. Et petit diem inde loquendi vsque 
Octavis sancte Trinitatis citra quem etc. : quod per curiam concessum 
est ei. Et idem dies datus est prefato Ricardo Salford hie etc. — 
Ad quem diem (xxv die Junii, in margin) predictus Ricardus Salford 
venit hie per predictum attornatum suum et petit quod predictus 
nuper vicecomes ei respondeat in premissis. Et super hoc idem 
nuper vicecomes ad respondendum prefato Ricard Salford in pre- 
missis hie solempniter exactis etc., non venit set fecit defaltam etc. 
Et super hoc idem Ricardus Salford petit indicium suum in premissis 
et debitum suum predictum vna cum dampnis suis predictis sibi in 
hac parte adiudicari etc. Super quo, visis premissis per Barones 
predictos habitaque inde deliberacione pleniori inter eosdem, con- 
sideratum est per eosdem Barones quod predictus Ricardus recuperet 
versus prefatum nuper vicecomitem debitum suum predictum decem 
librarum decem et octo solidorum predictorum, et dampna sua, tarn 
occasione iniuste detencionis debiti predict!, quam pro misis custagiis 
et expensis suis circa sectam suam predictam in hac parte appositis (.?), 
taxata per eosdem Barones ad viginti sex solidos et octo denarios, 
que quidem summe in toto se attingunt ad summam duodecim li- 
brarum quatuor solidorum et octo denariorum ; et quod predictus nuper 
vicecomes sit in misericordia domini Regis, etc. 


Documents relating to the lease of a garden at the Grey Friars to 
Richard Leke, a. d. 1513-1514. 

Acta Curiae Cancellarii, Oxford Univ. Archives, TE, fol. 194, 197, 210, 212. 

Eodem die (June 10, 15 10) dominus doctor Kynton accepit sibi 
in seruientem Ricardum Leke pandaxatorem promittens sibi 6^ 8<1 
annuatim aut unam robam, quem juratum ad privilegia admisimus 
(fol. 194). 

Eodem die gardianus fratrum minorum Oxon' promisit, quod ab 
isto die de cetero, donee maior communicacio in causa, que euidencius 
in quadam indentura inde confccta liquet, inter prefatum gardianum 


et Ricardum Leke habeatur, non impediet, aut impediri procurabit 
per se aut per alium, quominus predictus Ricardus Leke uti valeat jure 
et libertate sibi concessis secundum effectum dictarum indenturarum 
prefato Ricardo concessarurn {ibid). 

Eodem die gardianus predictus promisit in verbis sacerdocii quod 
litem istam et causam motam non trahet ad extra que pendet inter 
prefatum gardianum et Ricardum Leke predictum {ibid.). 

6^ die Julii comparuit coram nobis doctor Goodefyld ordinis mino- 
rum et olim gardianus eiusdem loci, qui fide media confessus est 
Ricardum Leke recepisse in firmam ab eodem, tempore prioratus sui, 
et conuentu eiusdem loci, quemdam ortum infra cepta sua secundum 
tenorem cuiusdam indenture inde confecte, quam indenturam affirmat 
eadem fide fuisse legittime factam. Hoc idem testificante fratre vocato 
Brown bacallario sacre theologie eiusdem loci {ibid). 

(Aug. 12). Gardianus fratrum Minorum promisit fide data quod 
seruabit pacem domini regis pro se et suis, quantum in illo est, 
aduersus Ricardum Leke, et si contingat fratres suos perturbare 
predictum Ricardum, quod retinebit eos in salua custodia quousque 
res maturius possit examinari, si possit deuenire in noticiam eorum 
(fol. 197^). 

(Jan. 23, 1 5 if). Comparuit coram nobis gardianus ft-atrum mino- 
rum et constituit suum procuratorem Magistrum Carew cum clausulis 
necessariis, etc. (fol. 210). 

Eodem die Mr. Carew nomine procuratoris pro ecclesia fratrum 
minorum petiit restitucionem in integrum aduersus quemdam con- 
tractum indentatum inter predictos fratres et Richardum Leke cuius 
datum est, etc., et causa est quia predicta Ecclesia ut asseruit est 
grauiter lesa et in futuro erit, ad quod probandum accepit terminum 
viz. istum diem ad octo dies {ibid). 

(Feb. 19). Comparuit coram nobis eodem die Ricardus Leke, et 
conquestus est de fratre Johanne Haruey, gardiano fratrum minorum, 
de et super quodam contractu indentato inter eos pro quodam gardino 
et expensis factis circa idem infra precinctum fratrum predictorum : et 
post multa communicata amicabilia inter partes predictas, tandem com- 
promiserunt se expectare laudum, arbitramentum, et determinacionem 
Johannis Cokkes, legum doctoris, et Willelmi Balborow, utriusque 
juris bachularii, in alto et in basso, in omnibus causis, negociis, et 
querelis, motis vel mouendis, inter predictos fratrem et Ricardum, 
concernentibus se et conuentum suum, pro predicto gardino, edificio 
murorum, et occasione eorundem, a principio mundi usque in pre- 


sentem diem; ita quod feratur sentencia siue laudum per predict03 
arbitros citra festum annunciationis B. Virginis .... (fol. 2 1 2^). 


Extracts from the will of Richard Leke, a. d. 1526. 
Prerog. Court of Canterbury, Register Porch, quire 9. 

In the name of God amen. In the yere of our Lorde god a 
Thousand fyve hundred twenty and six ; The first day of May, I 
Richard Leke, late Bruer of Oxford, beying of hole and perfite 
mynde and sike of body, make my testament and last wille in this 
maner and fourme folowing, ffirst I bequethe my soule to almighty 
god to our blissed lady saint marye and to all the holy company of 
hevyn, my body to be buried w* in the graye fifreres in Oxford before 
the awter where the first masse is daily vsed to be saide . . . Item 
I will that my body be first brought to the Church of saint Ebbe, and 
there dirige and masse to be songe for me. Item I bequeth to two 
hundred prestes two hundred grotes to say dirige and masse at saint 
Ebbys and at the gray freres with other parishe Churches the day of 
my burying . . . Item I bequeth to euery gray frere being prest w*in 
the gray freres in Oxford iiij*^, and to euery gray frere there being noo 
prest ijd, to dirige and masse for my soule the day next after my 
burying. Item I bequeth to the said gray freres vjs viij<i to make 
a dyner in their owne place, and also other vjs viijd to the wardeyn of 
the same gray freres to prouide for the premisses. Item I bequeth to 
the said wardeyn of the gray freres xx^ to prouide the awters to be 
prepared and ornated w* apparell for prestes to say masse w*in the 
said freres. Item I bequeth to euery oon of the foure orders of freres 
in Oxford x^ to be paid after the maner and fourme folowing, that is 
to say, at my burying \\f iiijd, at my monethes mynde iij^ \\\]^, and att 
my yeres mynde iij^ \\\]^. And also to bringe me to Churche I woU 
the foresaid iiij orders, and there to synge dirige and masse for my sonle 
and to receyue their money after the manner aboue expressed . . . 

The will was proved on the 26th of July, 1526. 


An ex-warden called to account, a. d. 1529. 
Acta Curiae Cancellarii, EEE, fol. 124 b. 

{SecunJo die Sepl) Comparuit coram nol^is (sc. Commissario) 
Johannes Bacheler ordinis minorum Oxon' vicegardianus eiusdem 


ordinis, qui petiit, nomine gardiani eiusdem domus, a patre Johanne 
Harwey S.T.B., eiusdem ordinis et loci dudum gardiano, quosdam 
fideiussores produci ad reddendum compotum super omnibus et 
singulis que eidem obicientur ex parte gardiani moderni; qui pater 
Johannes in fideiussores produxit Willelmum Symcokes et Willelmum 
Plummer Oxon', qui pro predicto Johanne Harwey fideiubebant in 
summa x librarum sterlingorum, dicto gardiano et ordinis prefati 
conuentui soluendorum, si dictus Johannes Harwey citra festum Pasche 
proximum legittime compotum non reddidit secundum formam peti- 
tionis prefati gardiani, cum ab eo requisitus et licite monitus. 




This curious treatise, here printed for the first time, is preserved in 
Vol. 31 19 (ff. 86-88) of the Phillipps MSS. at Thirlestaine House. 
The MS., a folio with two columns on each page, is written in a clear 
upright hand of the late 13th or early 14th century. The work, which 
appears to have been unknown to Wood, is attributed by Bale and 
Pits to Eccleston, probably merely because it is bound up with a copy 
of Eccleston's Chronicle : the MS. itself gives no clue as to the author, 
and the style bears no close resemblance to that of Eccleston. It is 
clearly the work of an Oxford Minorite who was an eyewitness of, 
and probably a participator in, the events which he records. The 
treatise is interesting as affording a glimpse from the inside into the 
life of the Oxford friars, and as showing the shifts and quibbles to 
which the Franciscans were compelled to have recourse in order to 
estabUsh their claim to be professors of ' perfect poverty.' 

Impugnacio fratrum Mtnorum per fratres Predicatores apud Oxoniam. 

A.D. MccLxix circa quadragesimam venerunt fratres predicatores de 
conventu Oxon', viz. Salomon de Ingeham et Robertus de novo 
Mercato^ pro quibusdam negociis expediendis ad domum fratrum 
Minorum Oxon'. Cumque tractarent de negociis suis cum tribus 
fratribus minoribus, viz. Waltero de Landen, Willelmo Cornubienci, 
Alano de Wakerfelde, nacta quacumque occasione, dixit frater Salomon : 
' Vos fratres Minores peccuniam recipitis per interpositas personas 
sicut nos in personis propriis.' Respondens frater Alanus dixit : 
* Noli, frater, ita dicere, quia nobis est verbum hoc verbum scandali et 
religioni nostre cedit in derogacionem et nobis omnibus in manifestam 
offensionem; cum non recipiamus nec recipere possimus, et certi 
sumus de nostra veritate quod non recipimus.' Ffrater Salomon cum 
impetu sponte ^ (?) manum suam ad crucem in pariete depictam juravit 

^ Afterwards Prior of Friars Preachers. ' erigens ' is wanted to complete the 
London, Q.R. Wardrobe $ (21 Edw. I). sense. 
^ spc. some word like 'elevans' or 



dicens : ' In crucifixo juro quod vos recipitis ; ' et adjecit : ' Ego non 
sum magnus clericus nec homo magne litterature, et tamen constanter 
hoc affirmo, et in presencia pape, si necesse fuerit, affirmabo.' Et 
cum esset pluries increpatus ut taceret, sepius idem replicans affirmabat. 
Hec in presencia duomm predicatorum et trium Minorum quos supra 
memoravimus facta sunt, ideo certam probacionem habent. 

Post hec fratres Minores, hiis non obstantibus, caritatis obsequia 
predictis predicatoribus exhibuerunt. et accepto caritatis indicio, versus 
domum suam conduxerunt. Cumque starent in porta fratrum 
Minorum, frater Alanus ait, qui solus ibi tunc aderat cum predicatoribus : 

* Ffrater Salomon, rogo in lege fraterne caritatis, ut verbum istud 
offensionis et scandali de cetero de ore tuo non procedat, quia plane 
tibi facio constare, quod non recipimus peccuniam per nos nec per 
alios; nec de professione nostra recipere possumus.' Respondit frater 
Salomon : 'Ex verbis tuis sic arguo: vos de non recipiendo peccuniam 
votum fecistis ; hec est major ; assumo— et recepistis ; ac concludo ; 
ergo vos estis in statu dampnacionis.' Ad hec frater Alanus respondit : 

* Majorem concedimus, minorem negamus, quia simpliciter falsa est ; 
et ideo non est mirum si conclusio sit falsa/ Hiis dictis recesserunt 
fratres. Ad hec non modicum fratres turbati, tum propter im- 
posicionem tum propter imponendi modum. Habita ergo deliberacione 
diligenti, de consilio discretorum, missi sunt duo de minoribus ad 
predicatores, rogantes humiliter errata corrigi et delinquentem regu- 
lariter emendari. Post modicum temporis spacium, missi sunt duo 
de predicatoribus ad minores pro pace reformanda, viz. frater Vin- 
cencius le Sauvage et frater Robertus de novo Mercato; qui fratribus 
minoribus in unum convocatis hoc inicium proposuerunt. * Ffratres 
nostri petunt, quod vos doceatis fratrem Salomonem errasse et falsum 
vobis imposuisse, et extunc fratres nostri manum correctionis apponent 
et delinquentem juxta peccata regulariter emendabunt.' 

Ex parte minorum fuit responsum sic : ' Vos affirmatis nos pec- 
cuniam recipere, et ideo partem affirmativam tenetis; nos negamus, 
et negativam tenemus. Unde, si ad probacionem accedendum sit, 
vestrum est probare, non nostrum ; quia affirmative, non negative, in- 
cumbit probacio.' Quo dicto tacuerunt predicatores. Hec de 
substancia nuncii. 

Extra ordinarie proposita fuerunt ista verba, dicente fratre Roberto 
de novo Mercato : * Videtur sic posse persuaderi quod vos recipitis 
peccuniam per interpositas personas ad minus. Pono quod aliquis 
moriatur et in testamento suo unam summam peccunie vobis leget. 



Quero cujus sit ilia peccunia. Defuncti non est, quia nichil pro- 
prietatis in ea aut in re alia defunctus habet aut habere potest ; 
vivencium enim et non moriencium est jus et proprietatem in rebus 
habere, et in eis dominium vendicare. Executorum non est, constat. 
Ergo aut omnino nullius erit, aut vestra erit.' 

Ad hec frater Minor dupliciter respondit ; primo per instanciam sic : 
* Ponatur quod ilia peccunia legaretur alicui fabrice alicujus ecclesie ; 
quero, cujus esset ilia peccunia. Non executorum, constat ; et 
secundum te non est defuncti. Sed qua racione non est defuncti? 
Si defunctus unde defunctus nichil proprietatis in rebus habet, nec 
fabrice illius ecclesie erit, ut videtur ; cum non sit major racio a parte 
fabrice non viventis, quam a parte defuncti non viventis, ut videtur. 
Non est ergo necessarium dicere quod legatum semper transit in 
dominium legatarii. Et ideo peccunia quamvis nobis legetur, non 
est necesse dicere quod sit nostra. Ad quod accedit quod nunquam 
in dominium consensimus, et nobis invitis et contradicentibus nullo 
modo in dominium nostrum transire potest: vero ipsam tanquam 
nostram petere possimus aut debemus nullo jure. Ex quo patet quod 
racio vestra non valet.' 

Secundo fuit sic responsum, quod, secundum diffinicionem jurisperi- 
torum, peccunia legata in bonis annumeratur defuncti, quousque 
transierit in dominium et proprietatem legatarii. ' In jus autem 
nostrum aut dominium nullo modo potest transire, nobis invitis et non 
consentientibus. Unde, qualitercumque peccunia ab executoribus 
deponatur seu apud quemcumque pro fratribus reponatur, quam diu 
manet inexpensa, semper in bonis defuncti annumeratur, et possunt 
earn executores, auctoritate propria vel defuncti, repetere quando 
volunt. Quomodo ^ ergo dicetur nostra ? nullo modo.' 

Ad hec predicatores, ut suam contra minores sentenciam roborarent, 
plures casus personales proposuerunt, in quibus asserebant fratres 
minores non posse excusari quin peccuniam per se vel per alios 
recepissent. Ad hec frater minor respondit, dicens quod hoc in 
nullo modo derogat communitati; quia communitas religionis a 
principio tales transgressores punit et parata est semper punire, 
ubicumque fuerint inventi. Item transgressio talium nullo modo pro- 
bare potest, quod fratres stent cum transgressione sue professionis, 
sicut vero^ lapsus carnis aut contumax inobediencia, si contingeret, 
quod absit, alicujus persone singularis. 

Circa banc ergo materiam verbis cessantibus, dictum est a parte 

1 Quo. 

2 (or nec ?) 


Minorum : ' Mirum est, cum tot sint status religiosorum et tot status 
secularium tam in clero quam in populo, sicut cernimus, quare 
diligencius et curiosius (in) statum nostrum quam aliorum exploratur, 
et omnibus aliis tacentibus vos soli verba de statu nostro tintinatis ^ (?) 
et de professione discutitis.' Respondit frater Vincencius le Sauvage, 
'Hec est/ inquit, 'racio. Veniunt ad nos diversi seculares et religiosi, 
comparacionem inter statum et statum facientes, statum vestrum 
extollentes, et nostrum in hoc deprimentes, quod nos peccuniam 
recipimus, vos autem non recipitis, judicantes nos in hoc minus 
perfectos mundi contemptores. Nos modo in declaracionem veritatis 
et status nostri exaltacionem, dicimus vos hoc facere per interpositas 
persorias quod nos facimus in propriis personis/ Et cum inculcando 
quereretur a fratre Vincencio, quare in ista materia haberent contra 
minores faciem sic obstinatam, respondit : ' Quia nunquam duos 
fratres minores in hoc articulo inveni consencientes/ Cui cum esset 
responsum ex parte minorum ; ' En octo sumus congregati omnes 
unanimes et uno corde et ore idem sencienteset asserentes;' respondit, 
* Certe verum est, sed si seorsum vos haberem in privata collacione, 
non ita esset; eciam vos duos,' demonstratis fratribus Willelmo de 
Wykham et Dyonisio, ' habita seorsum collacione, invenirem discordes 
et de vobis diversa eHcerem.' Ista turbato animo et impetu sponte^ (?) 
proferens, non minus fratri suo proprio quam eciam ipsis fratribus 
minoribus offensionis materiam dedit. Quod cum averteret, ad pedes 
fratrum se projecit in terram, culpam confitendo. Cui frater suus 
proprius, verba contumeliosa equanimiter non ferens, sic ait : ' Cum 
mihi capud fregeris, penam^ dabis.' Quo dicto domum redierunt 

Hie transeo unum diem in quo miserunt fratres minores ad 
predicatores iterum postulantes sibi satisfieri, et errata regulariter 
corrigi ; quibus erat pacifice et mansuete responsum a parte predica- 
torum et de emenda humiliter facienda promissum. Set in solucione 
promissi inventi sunt minus habentes, unde tantum * facta fuit negocii 

Cum vero pendente tempore predicatores juxta promissa nichil 
facerent, minores injuriam personalem non multum ponderantes, sed 
injuriam communitatis sue conniventibus oculis dissimulare non 
poterant, et ideo de consilio discretorum miserunt ad predicatores 
iterum, duo postulantes. Primum est, quod principalis transgressio 

1 t"tinat.' 

2 MS. tena. 

^ spt. 

* (tamen?) 

Y 2 


facta per fratrem Salomonem emendaretur; secundum est, quod fratres 
pacific! et mansueti ex parte eorum ad tractandum de negocio pacis 
et amoris mitterentur. Quo petito, habita deliberacione, missi sunt 
quatuor predicatores ad minores, quorum principalis fuit frater 
Willelmus de Stargil. Qui, convocatis minoribus, hoc nuncium 
ex parte fratrum suorum proposuerunt : ' Ffrater Vincencius, qui in- 
solenter apud vos se habuit in nuncio faciendo, fuit in nostro capitulo 
a proprio socio fratre Roberto de novo mercato accusatus, a suo 
superiore correptus, et secundum exigenciam sue religionis punitus.' 
Quo dicto, siluit : et cum expectarent minores de principali responsum, 
sc. de facto fratris Salomonis, nihil est auditum. Et cum peterent 
responsum sibi dari de principali, responsum istud secundarium non 
multum ponderantes, respondit frater Willelmus de Stargil predicator 
pro se et suis sociis, se non esse ad hoc missos. Hec de substancia 

Extra ordinarie autem proposita ista verba fuerunt, dicente fratre 
Thoma de Docking : ' Mirum est, quod vos non cessatis nos 
impugnare in articulo de recepcione peccunie, et hac racione, vos 
dicitis quod nos recipimus per interpositam personam ; nos e contra (?) 
negamus et dicimus quod non. Mota est ergo lis et controversia 
inter nos et vos, et ideo oportuit per judicem determinari, quia per nos 
non potuit. Demigravimus ad judicem non quemcumque sed summum 
pontificem, et ad ilium qui regulam nostram dictavit et mentem beati 
francisci, eodem papa sibi ipsi testante, novit. Ipse pro nobis 
sentenciavit. Quid ultra queritis ? quid impugnatis ? ' Et adjecit 
idem frater Thomas de Docking, dicens : * Occurrit racio idem dictans, 
talis peccunia a quocumque data seu quocumque titulo pro fratribus 
apud quemcumque deposita nunquam est nostra; ergo nunquam 
recepimus earn nec per nos nec per interpositam personam/ 

Ad hoc respondit frater W. de Stargil, predicator, dicens : ' Sic 
possem arguere de capa quam porto que nunquam fuit mea, nec erit 
nec est ; et tamen ego recepi earn.' Ad hoc obvium fuit instanciam 
non valere ; Sic, ' quamvis tu non habeas personalem proprietatem in 
capa tua, ordo tamen tuus totus et communitas ordinis tui in ea 
proprietatem habet ; sed nec persona nec communitas ordinis nostri 
aliquam proprietatem habet nec habere potest in peccunia a quocumque 
oblata, data, seu deposita. Preterea in assercione vestra hoc in- 
conveniens incurritis. Nos habemus regulam qua utimur secundum 
declaracionem domini pape qui eam juxta mentem beati francisci 
declaravit. In sua declaracione dicit, quod nos ipsam declaracionem 


cum regula observando peccuniam non recipimus per interpositam 
personam. Vos ergo, si insistitis contrarium asserendo, notam 
mendacii, ut videtur, domino pape inponitis.' Respondit frater pre- 
dicator : ' Absit a nobis hec presumpcio, sed plane videtur quod 
dominus papa non declaravit regulam juxta mentem beati francisci et 
ipsius regule.' Ad hec frater Thomas de Docking sic opposuit: 
' Papa in sua declaracione dicit quod intencionem beati francisci 
plenius novit, et ad hoc persuadendum idem papa in sua declaracione 
tres raciones posuit : prima, quia longam familiaritatem cum eo traxit, 
in qua solent homines secreta cordium suorum mutuo communicare ; 
secunda, quia in condendo predictam regulam sibi astitit cum esset in 
minori officio constitutus ; tercia, quia in optinendo ipsius regule con- 
firmacionem eciam sibi non defuit. Si ergo papa dicit et racionibus 
convincit, se nosse intencionem beati francisci, ex quo eciam sequitur 
declaracionem factam juxta intencionem ejusdem sancti, quid 
dicetis ? ' 

Ad hoc quidampredicator dixit: ^Nullo modo videtur quod papa novit 
intencionem beati francisci, quod probo sic. Voluntas testamentaria 
fuit beati francisci, quod fratres nullo modo quererent litteras exposi- 
torias a sede apostolica, sed hoc non obstante quesierunt et papa 
annuente optinuerunt. Non solum ergo fratres sed et papa contra 
intencionem ejus fecerunt ; ex quo videtur quod intencionem ejus non 
noverunt ; quia si ipsam novissent contra ipsam non fecissent/ 

Ad hoc frater Minor : ' Esto quod racio sit bona, cum illacio sit 
satis mirabilis. Ex hac racione probatur papam vel mentitum esse 
vel falsum dixisse; ipse enim dixit, plenius intencionem 
ipsius sancti. Preterea, ut ad unum sit dicere de testamento suo 
quod non novimus, non respondemus, sed regulam quam observare 
promisimus parati sumus defendere. Accedit ad hoc, quod nec fratres 
nec dominus papa fecerunt contra intencionem beati francisci, quam 
in condendo regulam habuit, sed contra intencionem petende declara- 
cionis. Nec in hoc pape potuit in aliquo prejudicari in facienda 
declaracione, maxime cum apud eum resideat plena potestas et auc- 
toritas tocius ecclesie gubernande. Quo etiam in sua declaracione 
dicente et probante, ut patet inspicienti, hoc non potest nec debet in 
aliquo fratribus prejudicari.' 

Inter hec et alia que proponebantur, ait frater W. de Stargil : 
* Scimus quidem quia regulam et regule declaracionem ab eo qui 
potuit declarare, habetis et utramque observatis; hoc et nobiscum 
confitemur. Sed quomodo vos peccuniam non recipiatis, non vide- 


mus.' Ad hoc ffrater Thomas Docking sic respondit : ' Frater karis- 
sime, audeo plane dicere, quod si habitum secularem haberes quern 
ante habitum tue religionis portabas, facillime veritatem mee pro- 
fessionis tibi persuaderem ; et ad spacium vii psalmorum quam nos 
videmus luce ipse clarius videres/ 

Hiis ergo transactis transivimus ad principale, petentes iterum 
quod ipsi responderent nobis de principali, ipsum accessorium de quo 
factum est nuncium non ponderantes. Respondit frater W. sicut 
prius, dicens se non posse nec debere hoc facere, cum non esset ad 
hoc missus; tamen peticionem nostram libenter fratribus suis nun- 
ciaret. Quo facto domum redierunt fratres. 

Hie transeo alium diem, in quo missi sunt de minoribus duo ad 
predicatores, quibus facte fuerunt multe promissiones de correctione 
facienda, sed in solvendo promissum inventi sunt iterum minus 
habentes, ut videtur: unde tantum fuit dilacio negocii. Interim 
pendente tempore et fratribus predicatoribus nichil respondentibus, 
supervenit prior provincialis predicatorum^ Oxoniam. Ffratres' Minores 
pro pace mutua reconsilianda ^ et servanda miserunt^ ad eum, cum 
humilitate postulantes, excessum corrigi et sibi regulariter satisfieri. 
Prior vero provincialis, habita deliberacione et facta diligenti inquisi- 
cione per fratres suos, sic respondit : ' Ego claudam os fratris de 
cetero ne presumat talia dicere contra vos, et ego ipse dicam sicut 
vos ipsi, cum de illo articulo agitur, dicitis ; et ut alii fratres sic dicant, 
pro viribus inducam. Fratrem vero Salomonem, quem vos esse trans- 
gressum (dicitis), aliter punire non possum, quia plane sicut dixit ita 
et sentit, nec induci potest ad contrarium, quia sua consciencia est 
quod vos estis receptores peccuniarum ad minus per interpositas 
personas ; unde ego contra leges consciencie non possum. Misissem 
autem ipsum pro culpa dicenda sua ad vos, sed timui ne ipse plus vos 
provocasset et fierent novissima pejora prioribus/ Hie nota quod 
frater non dixit ex surrepcione, sed ex plena deliberacione. Hec de 
substancia nuncii. 

Extra ordinarie autem allocutus priorem predicatorum quidam de 
minoribus cum mansuetudine prcdicatoris ^ et obsecrans, ut ipse 
partes suas de pace lesa reparanda et reparata jam fovenda vigilanter 
juxta discrecionem a deo sibi datam interponeret. Adjecit autem 
dictus frater minor cum mansuetudine dicens : ' Mirum est quod ita 

* Robert Kilwardby. 
^ Sic. 

^ This word is added in the margin in a later hand. ^ p'toris. 



extranee de re nobis manifesta quidam de vestris senciunt, maxime 
cum peccunia a quocumque legata seu donata nunquam ad dominium 
nostrum transeat. Et propterea nullo modo dici possumus receptores 
non per nos nec per interpositas personas/ Respondit prior provin- 
cialis cum mansuetudine dicens : ' Unum est quod videre non possu- 
mus. Cum peccunia in usus vestros quocumque titulo deputata 
multociens sit apud multos deposita, et cum post deposicionem 
transeat a dominio conferentis nec cedat in dominium depositarii — 
hoc, inquam, est quod videre non possumus, quin peccunia ilia in 
vestrum cedat dominium.' 

Ad hoc respondit frater minor, quod peccunia, quocumque titulo ad 
usuS'fratrum deputata, nunquam in eorum dominium transeat juxta 
declaracionem domini pape, sed possunt fratres in suis necessitatibus 
recursum habere ad recipientem, qui auctoritate domini principalis 
potest fratribus, si vult et non aliter, subvenire ; quia jure debiti nullo 
modo fratribus tenetur, nec nomine depositi aliquid^ exigere possunt 
ab eodem. Auctoritas ergo et dominium peccunie quocumque titulo 
tradite permanet penes ipsum tradentem, intantum quod nunquam 
transit nec transire potest in fratrum dominium ullo jure : unde dicit ^ 
dominus papa quod principalis potest eam repetere si vult, quamdiu 
manet inexpensa. 

Ad hoc prior : ' Quid si peccunia penes ipsum recipientem est 
centum annis aut plus remanserit ? ' Ad hoc frater Minor : * Non 
plus juris habent fratres nostri in peccunia in fine C annorum aut 
cujuscumque alterius spacii quam in fine prime diei. Et hoc parati 
sumus probare, et pro loco et tempore mundo manifestare/ 

Ad hoc attonitus prior cum admiracione dixit : ' Vere si hoc con- 
staret, mundo non sic habundaretis sicut habundatis/ Respondit 
frater Minor: ' Quomodocumque habundancia se habeat, veritatem 
professionis narro/ Tunc exclamans quidam predicator, cujus nomen 
ad presens ex causa retineo, factum eorum ut videtur non approbans, 
ait : ' Eya, domine deus, verba que de vobis facimus ex mahs que de 
nobis dicitis occasionem^ sumunt/ 

Interim dum hec agebantur, fratres minores inter se contulerunt, et 
habito consilio miserunt ad priorem provincialem gratias agentes de 
sua oblacione, rogantes quod frater Salomon, ex quo conscienciam 
suam non deponit nec culpam suam recognoscere proponit, pro 
mutua pace concilianda et servanda, de loco, ex quo pacem pertur- 
bavit, amoveretur. Respondit prior se super hoc velle deliberare. 
\ MS. ad. 2 Dicit inserted in a later hand. ' MS. occosione. 



Habita vero deliberacione, sollempnes nuncios de ordine suo mittens, 
sic respondit : * Frater Salomon pro conventu Oxon' fratribus suis est 
multum necessarius et utilis sicut bonus et ministerialis, in tantum 
eciam ut difficile esset mihi invenire alium eis ita utilem et neces- 
sarium, et ideo grave esset ipsum amovere. Item pro peccato private, 
publica pena non debet adjungi. Hoc autem fieret si frater Salomon 
de loco suo ad alium locum amoveretur. Unde peticio de dicto 
fratre amovenda non videtur consona racioni. Nec debetis turbari, 
quia peticionem vestram in hac parte non fulcio, quia, ut videtur, id 
quod vobis primo optuli debet sufficere, viz. quod os ejus per obedien- 
ciam claudatur, et ne de cetero a(liqua) sinistra contra puritatem 
regule vestre dicere presumat.' 

Ffacta ista responsione nuncii ex parte prioris tres faciebant peti- 
ciones. Prima fuit, quod pro dicto unius stulti communitas fratrum 
minorum non turbaretur; secunda fuit, quod caritas mutua ut olim 
omnimodis signis ostenderetur. Tercia fuit quod regula nostra cum 
exposicione vel exposicionibus eis ad tempus ostenderetur, ab illis 
tantummodo et non ab aliis quam nos nominare decrevimus inspici- 
enda. Hec de substancia nuncii. 

Extra ordinarie autem facta sunt verba ista, dicente fratre Minore : 
' Si stultus de sua stulticia corrigendus est, mirum est quod fratrem 
Salomonem non corrigitis, qui in sua stulticia manet ; quem eciam 
vos ipsi stultum nominatis, cum petitis quod propter dictum unius 
stulti communitas fratrum minorum non turbetur. Item si peccatum 
est corrigendum, maxime vobis qui estis professores veritatis, mirum 
est quod fratrem Salomonem non corrigitis, quem peccasse probatis, 
cum pro eo allegatis quod pro peccato privato publica pena^non sit 

Post hec fratres Minores, habita diligenti deliberacione, perpendentes 
quod fratres predicatores a principio in toto processu aut id negocium 
distulerunt aut dissimulaverunt aut a principali diverterunt, ut videtur, 
miserunt ad eos fratres diffinitive sic respondentes ; ' Pendente princi- 
pali, videtur fratribus quod peticionibus vestris accessoriis non sit 
respondendum ; unde ad hue petunt fratres quod frater Salomon, qui 
pacem mutuam turbavit, ammoveatur ; ad quod movere ^ potest pax 
et tranquillitas mutua utriusque ordinis, que est magis ponderanda 
quam utilitas ministerialis unius persone. Ad hoc autem quod vos 
dicitis, quod penitencia publica peccato privato non sit imponenda, sic 
respouderunt fratres ; quod quamvis ammoveatur, peccatum suum non 

or moncre. 



publicatur. Est enim pene omnium sentencia una, tarn secularium 
quam religiosorum, quod fratres vestri ^ conventuales ad prelacias et 
ceteras dignitates, et studentes ad doctorum officia exercenda, cum 
gloria et non cum ignominia, frequenter emittuntur et de loco ad 
locum transferuntur. Unde ad hue petunt vel quod ammoveatur vel 
quod culpam suam confiteatur. Et ad hoc movere debet, quod fratres 
Minores in consimili casu personas multum dissimiles, viz. lectores, in 
tantum humiliaverunt, quod pro levi occasione unum valde graciosum 
ad pacem vestram conservandam de conventu suo ammoverunt, et 
alium suspenderunt per annum a predicacione et confessione; et 
usque hodie manet a lectione suspensus. Ad hoc autem quod vos 
dicitis, quod nobis debet sufficere, quod os ejus obstruatur, ne mala 
de nobis loquatur, respondent fratres, quod non debet sufficere, quia 
ad hoc tenetur de communi lege caritatis eciam si nunquam aliquem 
offendisset/ Cum vero fratres non solum bis aut ter, sed eciam 
sepcies, pro correctione transgressionis postulanda missi fuerunt, nec 
est eis in aliquo satisfactum, dicunt quod nolunt ulterius vexari, sed si 
predicatores noluerint hac vice satisfacere, sedebunt in domo patiencie 
sue, expectantes tempora meliora. Hec de substancia nuncii. 

Extra ordinarie autem fuit responsum a parte predicatorum ad 
racionem de ammocione facienda sic : ' Ffratris minorum delictum 
contra predicatores fuit publicum, et'ideo non fuit mirum si publice 
ammoveretur; sed istius fratris predicatoris peccatum fuit privatum, 
et ideo non est simile.' Ad hoc frater Minor : ' Esto quod illius 
fratris ammocio, cum esset persona valde gravis, in cujus compara- 
cione, secundum judicium humane estimacionis, frater Salomon est 
persona multum humilis, movere non debeat ; saltem moveat vos quod 
alius lector fuit ammotus a loco suo pro pace vestra servanda, qui 
eciam cum se in presencia quorundam predicatorum excusaverat, 
nichil contra eum habuerunt nec habere potuerunt.' 

Post hec, pendente dissencionis tempore et predicatoribus nihil 
super petita respondentibus, urgente quadam necessitate, prior pro- 
vincialis predicatorum repente de Oxonia recessit ; qui nacta temporis 
opportunitate rediit, ne (.?) incepta feliciter consummaret. Quadam 
vero die, clam fratribus Minoribus, credentes fratres predicatores ne- 
gocium ^ melius agere per seculares magistros, necnon et dissencionem 
et ejus occasionem celerius quam per semet ipsos extirpare, rogatus 
est dominus Cancellarius cum magistris quatuor de soUempnioribus 
tocius universitatis, ex parte predicatorum in causa dissencionis fortiter 

^ Vcftri inserted in a later hand. ^ Suuni inserted in another hand. 


instructi, subito et occulte venerunt, et fratres Minores convocari 
rogaverunt, antequam de responsione facienda aliquid deliberarent 
aut deliberare potuerunt^ Convocatis igitur minoribus, ex parte 
predicatomm, processum dissensionis supra memoratum quamquam 
incomplete recitaverunt, hoc nuncium adicientes : ' Petunt fratres pre- 
dicatores et nos cum ipsis petimus, consilium in id ipsum dantes, 
quod vos descendatis in formam pacis et unitatis. Ipsi enim parati 
sunt, vobis, juxta racionis exigenciam et discrecionem arbitrancium, 
regulariter per omnia satisfacere ^' Inculcando vero adjecerunt : * Nos 
invenimus predicatores ad omnia secundum racionis exigenciam para- 
tissimos, iniantes quantum possunt forme pacis et unitatis et fraterne 
caritatis ; utinam in vobis contrarium non inveniamus.' Hec de sub- 
stancia nuncii et consilii. 

Ffacta autem ista peticione, deliberans penes se sicut potuit, quidam 
frater Minor sic ait : ' Magistri mei et amici karissimi, duo verba tan- 
tum ad presens vobis propono, unum pro devota gratiarum accione, 
aliud pro humili peticione. Primo enim regracior vobis pro labore 
vestro, quod vos pro nobis pauperibus dignati estis tantum laborare, 
non minores gratiarum acciones exsolvens, quam zelum dei habentes 
pro forma pacis et unitatis insudatis. Secundo peto quod, sicut hodie 
principaliter pro predicatoribus laborastis, secundario pro nobis, ita 
eras placeat vobis laborare principaliter pro nobis, secundario pro 
predicatoribus, ut, vobis in unum ubicumque placuerit convenientibus, 
super petita cum deliberacione respondeam, et totum processum plenius 
manifestem.' Magistri vero instabant ut statim eis responderetur, si 
fieri posset bono modo. Minores vero ad eorum instanciam ab eis 
paululum divertentes, habita deliberacione, responderunt communiter 
ad omnia que magistri ex parte predicatorum recitaverunt, in qua 
nimirum responsione non declinabant in aliquo a responsionibus supra 
memoratis ; adicientes quod, sicut predicatores, ita et semet ipsos, ad 
formam pacis et unitatis paratos invenirent. Hec de responsionis 

Extra ordinarie autem facta fuerunt verba disputacionis magne inter 
seculares magistros, fratribus minoribus nichil opponentibus aut re- 
spondentibus ; ubi fratres perpenderunt quod fuerunt contra eos graviter 
informati. Ipsi vero habili cautela redimentes tempus pertraxerunt in 
longum. Unde, pendente tempore, accidit quod bedellus universitatis 
missus fuit eciam bis ex parte universitatis, dominum Cancellarium 

^ The whole sentence is utterly un- ^ Satisfacere inserted in another 
grammatical, but quite intelligible. hand. 


pro quadam incepcione advocare ; quo vocato una cum magistris aliis 
recessit. Magistrorum nomina, qui cum ipso ex parte predicatorum 
venerant, erant hec : Magister Johannes de Wyntun, Magister Hugo 
de Corbrug', Magister Hugo de Hevesham, Magister Willelmus ^ Po- 
may. Nomen vero Cancellarii, Magister N. de Ewelm'. 

Interim pendente tempore, minores quesierunt consilium, quid facto 
opus esset discucientes. Ffacta vero discussione in hoc consenserunt, 
quod amicos eorum, de quibus specialiter confiderant, convocarent, et 
eos secundum veritatem de toto processu informarent, Convocatis 
autem quinque de majoribus tocius universitatis, frater unus capitulum 
regule sue de recepcione peccunie, et ejusdem declaracionem secundum 
domihum papam factam, recitavit. Quesivit frater si magistri intelli- 
gerent. Respondit Magister, persona multum sollempnis, in utroque 
jure peritus, Johannes le Gras nomine : ' Intelligo quidem ego/ Et 
incepit volvere capitulum et revolvere, et super hoc sermonem con- 
tinuare. Qui ita proprie vitam fratrum communem et vivendi modum 
quem tenebant, et secura consciencia tenere poterant, instinctu nescio 
quo descripsit, quasi ipse inter fratres vitam fratrum per longa tempora 
duxisset. Admiratus quidam frater quod ita proprie loquebatur, que- 
sivit an super hoc ab aHquo fratre fuisset informatus. Magister re- 
spondit et cum juramento asseruit, se nunquam verbum super hoc a 
fratre Minore prius audisse, adiciens hec verba : ' Ponamus quod papa 
nunquam declarasset capitulum id, eciam secundum jura communia 
possetis regulam vestram sancte et sincere observare. Nec dico vobis 
aliud quam jura civilia et canonica communiter dicunt. Unde mira- 
bile est, quod vobis imponitur recepcio peccunie ad utilitatem vestram 
quocumque titulo deputate, ex quo in dominium vestrum non transit 
nec transire potest ullo jure, sed semper remanet dominium et auc- 
toritas peccunie penes principalem dominum, et cam repetere potest 
quando volt quamdiu manet inexpensa.' Et inculcando adjecit dicens : 
' Fratres, non oportet ut in hoc casu timeatis. Ego enim sum paratus 
pro ista veritate defensanda curiam adire romanam, si necesse esset, et 
ahquis se opponeret impudenter/ Magister Adam de Norfolk' hoc 
idem sentit et idem dixit. Alii vero facta super hoc longa disputacione 
idem senserunt. 

Post hec ffrater unus totum processum a principio supra memoratum 
eis enarravit. Quo audito obstipuerunt. Magistrorum vero nomina 
qui ex parte minorum venerant hec fuerunt ; Magister Johannes de 
Maydeston, Archidiaconus Bedeford', Magister Thomas de Bek', 
/ ^ de la inserted in another hand. 


Magister Johannes le Gras, Magister Stephanus de Wytun', Magister 
Adam de Norfolk'. 

Post hec de istomm magistrorum consilio, rogavemnt minores 
magistros, qui ex parte predicatorum venerant, ut iterum plenius 
veritatem audituri convenirent. Qui cum venissent, et in uno loco 
cum magistris, qui ex parte minorum venerant, congregati essent, 
unus minorum sic exorsus est, dicens : ' Magistri boni, sicut scitis, ex 
infirmitate condicionis humane orta fuit quedam dissensio, persuadente 
generis humani inimico, inter predicatores et nos ; et^ injuria incepit a 
predicatoribus ; petimus nos bis regulariter satisfieri. Oblata fuit 
quedam satisfactio, sed non sufficiens nec plena, ut videbatur ; et cum 
Minores amplius habere non poterant, pacienter meliora tempora 
expectabant. Negocium autem id publicare eciam amicis suis nolebant 
duplici racione ; primo quia timebant animos infirmorum scandalizare, 
secundo quia injuria a predicatoribus incepit et absque correccione a 
suis superioribus dissimulata fuit, cum esset correccio pluries petita ; 
et ideo non poterant minores, ut videtur, hiis et aliis causis, negocium 
istud publicare, nisi aliqua^ verba dicerent que in predicatorum 
derogacionem sonarent, unde minus in conspectu secularium com- 
mendabiles redderentur. Igitur contra infirmorum scandala et contra 
predicatorum derogacionem sanctam cautelam adhibentes prudenter 
tacuerunt et humiliter dissimulaverunt. Modo autem quia predicatores 
primo amicis suis divulgaverunt, urgente quadam necessitate, eciam 
minores suis amicis pubHcare voluerunt.' 

Quo dicto, incepit idem frater omnes in communi informare sicut 
prius specialiter Minorum amicos informabat. Quo facto ceperunt 
Magistri, qui prius ex parte predicatorum venerant, aliqualiter magis 
pie quam prius sentire. Facta igitur longa disputacione, de discretorum 
consilio facta deliberacione, ait frater Minor : ' Magistri karissimi, 
nos parati sumus per omnia in hac causa stare arbitrio vestro et 
provisive discretioni in forma pacis et unitatis, scientes quod nunquam 
sitivimus nec adhuc sitimus penam fratris, sed tantum correccionem 
et emendam. Nec multum ponderamus fratris emissionem de suo 
loco, sed omnis satisfaccio, quantacumque exilis, que precludit viam 
et occasionem resumendi de cetero consimilia verba contra nos, potest 
et debet nobis sufficere. Tamen, si placet, duas peticiones vobis facio ; 
primo, ut sic provideatis de forma pacis ut non detur ^ predicatoribus 

' One letter, prob. c ( = cum) is 
illegible here, owing either to inten- 
tional erasure or a flaw in the parchment. 

2 MS. a'^ (alia?). 

^ deiur inserted in another hand. 



aut fratri, qui deliquit, occasio iterum delinquendi. Nec hoc dico 
sine causa, quia si decreveritis ipsum non errasse nec deliquisse, in 
futuro tempore, nacta aliquali occasione, posset dicere, " sic et sic pro 
isto tempore dixi, toti universitati constabat, nec^ judicabat me in 
aliquo deliquisse ; quare eciam modo similiter non dicerem ? " Hec 
future dissensionis occasio piis cautelis est precludenda. Secundo peto 
quod vos, ex quo vobis constat secundum jura, prout quidam vestrum'^ 
dicunt, quod frater ille est in errore consciencie, Priorem suum pro- 
vincialem adeatis et persuadeatis ei, quod ipse informet fratrem suum 
ad conscienciam contrariam, ut videlicet errorem deponat, et pie, sicut 
debet, de Minoribus senciat.' Quod quidam se securos (?) spoponde- 
runt.' Hec de substancia negocii. 

Extra ordinarie autem allocutus est Gardianum in secreto unus de 
magistris sollempnibus, Johannes le Gras nomine, sic dicens : ' Ffrater 
karissime, fratres vestri non deberent ^ in aliquo turbari si fratres pre- 
dicatores de eis mala dixerint, quia pro constanti habeatis, quod quo 
pejora de vobis dixerint, deterius eciam eis in hominum estimacione 
eveniet, nec vobis cedet aut cedere potest in nocumentum, si tantum * 
claustra labiorum custodieritis et bona de ipsis semper predicaveritis/ 

Cui Gardianus hec verba dixit : ' Unum est de quo doleo et 
verecundor nimis, et inde est quod fratres multum verecundantur ; 
videlicet, quod istius dissensionis noticia jam inter seculares est 
publicata, et que per nos discuti poterat, per ipsos est discussa/ 

Ad hoc Magister : ' Nolite in hoc contristari aut verecundiam pati, 
sed magis gaudere et diem letum ducite, et hac racione ; Modo mani- 
festa est nobis omnibus Veritas, que prius fuit occulta ; unde nos, qui 
sumus majores tocius universitatis, jam veraciter super facto isto in- 
formati, alios informabimus. Sed et ego omni quo possum conatu 
omnes informare studebo, et ipsos precipue predicatores conabor in- 

Superveniens autem Magister alius, Hugo de Evesham nomine, hoc 
exaggerando inculcavit, dicens : ' Crede mihi, ffrater Gardiane, quod 
nos quinque magistri, qui prius ex parte predicatorum venimus ad 
vos, eramus omnes heri in presencia predicatorum constituti, ubi eciam 
prior ipse provincialis non defuit ; nec memini me unquam in vita 
mea forciorem disputacionem audivisse, opponentibus nobis pro facto 
vestro secundum diffinicionem utriusque juris et exigenciam racionis. 

^ no (nullo) or u" (vero) in MS. : or ^ non deberent inserted in another 
n*' (nec) ? hand. 

2 vr™. * MS. mm ? 


predicatoribus communiter respondentibus ; facta vero longa dispu- 
tacione, ita predicatores omnes racionibus vexavimus et convicimus, 
quod sedentes omnes in pace et obstupescentes tacuerunt, in tantum 
quod prior ipse provincialis, inter alios plus motus et spiritu sancto 
plenius, ut arbitror, informatus, dixit : Eya, dilectissimi Magistri, 
quid plura ? quid ulterius inculcatis ? Ecce ego paratus sum discal- 
ciatis pedibus Minores, si vultis, adire et eis per omnia satisfacere." ' 
Adjecit autem Magister Hugo Corbrug' occasionaliter hec verba in 
predicatorum presencia dicens, ' Karissimi, audeo plane dicere, quod 
ille qui dicit eos recipere peccuniam per se vel per interpositam per- 
sonam, qui declaracionem domini pape super regulam fratrum 
Minorum observaverit [sic], audeo inquam plane dicere, quod nec jura 
novit nec terminos juris.' Alias autem in predicatorum eorundem 
absencia dixerunt Magistri Johannes le Gras et Adam de Norfolch * ; 
'Eciam si papa nunquam regulam declarasset, possent cam fratres 
absque prevaricacione observare, maxime cum peccunia ad eorum 
utilitatem quocumque titulo deputata nunquam in dominium eorundem 
transeat ^ ipsis invitis/ Et cum supplicaret Gardianus Magistro 
Stephano de Witon' quod propter deum fratres predicatores secretins 
juxta scita legum informaret, zelo accensus magister A. de Norf 
dixit : ' Mirum est quid ipsi habent intromittere se de professione 
vestra, et de regula vestra verba tintinare, cum nec sunt superiores 
vestri, nec in aliquo spectat ad eos vos corrigere, si, quod absit, con- 
tingeret vos in aliquo contra professionem vestram aliquid attemptare. 
Quod autem petitis de informacione facienda juxta scita legum, non 
est necesse sic petere; sedpetas ut juxta veritatem vestram informentur, 
omni eciam jure consopito.' Et adjecit Magister Stephanus dicens : 
' Non solum paratus sum predicatores pro vobis informare, sed eciam 
personaliter pro causa vestra curiam adire romanam.' 

Interim pendente tempore, iverunt Magistri quinque primo 
nominati, quorum principalis fuit Cancellarius, ad predicatores, et 
efficaciter pro parte minorum persuadentibus, tandem fratrem Salomo- 
nem, qui offensam fecerat, de assensu et voluntate sui prioris provin- 
cialis necnon fratrum suorum, ad fratres minores duxerunt, cum quo 
venerunt quinque ^ fratres predicatores subscript! ; Adam de Lakeor, 
cum socio Willelmo de Hodum'^ eorum cursore de sentenciis, Radul- 
phus de Swelm', quondam prior localis Oxon', Johannes de Mesley, 
tunc eorum visitator. Fuerunt eciam cum predictis quinque 

* transeat inserted in another hand. ^ Afterwards lector at Paris, and 

^ Only four mentioned. Provincial Prior of England. 



Magistris, sex fratres minores subscripti ; Adam de Werministre, tunc 
Gardianus, Thomas de Doking, quondam lector Oxon', Willelmus de 
Heddel/ tunc lector Oxon', Dyonisius, Robertus de Cap(e)ir, Alanus 
de Wakefend'. In quorum omnium conspectu pro bono pacis frater 
Salomon hec verba nomine culpe in scriptis recitavit, et recitata eciam 
in scriptis Gardiano tradidit ; verba autem sunt hec : ' Per ilia verba 
que protuli, non intellexi quod vos receperitis vel recipitis per vos vel 
per alios peccuniam contra regulam vestram et ejus interpretacionem, 
nec intendebam communitati vel ordini derogare. Et si ex modo 
dicendi fuistis provocati, doleo, et peto quod remittatis.' Hie finis 
negocii et reformacio pacis, per omnia benedictus deus in secula 

Memorandum autem quod cum extra ordinarie facta essent verba 
inter magistros seculares de veritate processus memorati, dixerunt inter 
se^, aliquid in processu propositum est falsum et calumpniabile, et 
maxime quod pro fundamento erat positum. Ffrater N. predicator, 
nunquam se fecisse illam racionem, ubi est conclusio de statu 
dampnacionis, manifeste dicit, sed dicit fratrem Alanum minorem 
fecisse premissas. Ipse vero subintulit; ' Si ita est si cut vos dicitis, 
sequitur conclusio de statu dampnacionis/ Aliud autem calumpnia- 
bile non receperunt. Quod cum minoribus constaret, vocatus fuit 
frater Alanus minor, in conspectu Cancellarii et INIagistri Johannis de 
Wynton' requisitus super hoc, dixit : ' Verum est, solus ego frater 
Minor eram in porta cum eis, et ideo probacionem non habeo ; sed 
tantum confido de veritate fratris Roberti de Novo IMercato et ipsius 
eciam Salomonis, quod si ipsi requisiti dicant in veritate deliberate 
consciencie, quod frater Salomon ipsam racionem non fecit, ego 
libenter subiciam me pene, tanquam sufficienter essem de falsi imposi- 
cione convictus.' Post hec ait unus ffrater Minor : ' De ista racione 
magna vis non est, quia de racione cujus (?) non disputamus, sed de 
hoc quod ipse nobis imposuit, quod negare non potuit, scilicet 
peccunie recepcionem, emendam quesivimus et emendam, benedictus- 
deus, recepimus.' Terminata fuit ista dissensio Anno domini 
MCCLXIX Non' Junii. 

^ se added in margin. 



John David. 

(145$). 40 die Marcij supplicat etc. ffrater Johannes Dauid ffrater 
ordinis sancti ffrancisci, quatinus eius oppositio, incepta in termino 
sancti Michaelis vltimo et continuata vsque ad festum Pasche proxi- 
mum, sufficiat sibi pro completa forma sue oppositionis. 

Hec gratia est concessa sub condicione quod legat primum librum 
ysaie in scolis publicis. (Regist. Aa. fol. 51 b.) 

(June 5, 145I-). Supplicat frater Johannes Dauid ordinis minorum 
et doctor sacre pagine quatinus secum graciose dispensetur vt valeat 
post festum sancti Thome proximo sequens resumere lecciones 
ordinarias et regentis actus exercere, ingressu in domum- congrega- 
cionis dumtaxat excepto. 

Hec gratia est simpliciter concessa, et ab altero procuratore etc. 
(Ibid. fol. 83.) 

John Sunday ; inception. 

(Feb. 5, I45f). Supplicat etc. frater Johannes Sunday de claustro 
minorum qui compleuit lecturam sentenciarum quatinus cum singulis 
responderit doctoribus completaque lectura Biblie, incipere valeat in 
theologica facultate. 

Hec gratia est concessa et condicionata 2^1 condicione ; prima 
condicio est quod octo vicibus respondeat pro forma et octies opponat ; 
2^ condicio est quod bis respondeat preter formam et sub hiis con- 
dicionibus etc. (Regist. A a. fol. 79 b.) 

Richard Ednam ; inception. 
(April 2nd, 1462). Supplicat frater Ricardus Ednam, bacallarius 
sacre theologie, quatinus 8 argumenta, 8 responsiones, introitus biblie, 
lectura libri sentenciarum, sermo examinatorius, sermo ad quem 
tenetur ex nouo statuto, sufFiciant sibi ad effectum quod possit admitti 
ad incipiendum in sacra thcologia, ita quod die inceptionis sue soluat 



Vniuersitati x li. Hec gratia est concessa condicionata ; condicio est 
quod incipiat infra annum ; alia condicio quod det Regentibus libera- 
tam consuetam. (Reg. A a. f. 122.) 

(May 24th, 1463.) Supplicat frater Ricardus Ednam de ordine 
Minorum quatinus tres responsiones, introitus biblie, introitus libri 
sententiarum, sermo examinatorius, sermo ad quern tenetur ex nouo 
statuto, sufficiant sibi ad efFectum quod possit admitti ad incipiendum 
in sacra theologia. Hec gracia est concessa cum multis condicionibus ; 
prima est quod incipiat ante festum S. Thome, 2^ quod soluat xv li. 
in die inceptionis sue, 3 quod det liberatam regentibus distinctam ex 
sumptu proprio. (Ibid. f. 128 a.) 

Supplications and Graces of Walter Goodfleld, 
Warden of the Franciscans. 

(Nov. 27, 1506). Eodem die supplicat frater Walterus Goodfelde 
ordinis minorum et scolaris sacre theologie, quatenus studium xii 
annorum in logicis philosophicis et theologicis sibi sufficiat ut admit- 
tatur ad opponendum in sacra theologia, qua oppositione habita vna 
cum responsione in nouis scolis possit admitti etc. Hec est concessa 
contra quod legat tres primas questiones canonici publice et gratis 
ante pascha ; 2^ quod dicat vnam missam de quinque vulneribus, cum 
ista colecta Deus summa spes, pro anima primi fundatoris vniuersitatis, 
et aliam missam de trinitaie pro bono statu magistrorum regentium. 
(Regist. G. 6. f. 27 b.) 

(May 10, 1507). Supplicat frater Walterus Gudfeld ordinis 
minorum quatenus studium 14 annorum in logicis philosophicis 
theologicis sufficiat ad opponendum in nouis scolis qua oppositione 
habita vna cum responsione in eisdem possit admitti ad lecturam 
libri sententiarum. Hec est concessa conditionata quod predicet 
vnum sermonem preter formam infra annum. (Ibid. fol. 39 b.) 

(June 16, 1507). Supplicat frater Walterus Goodfyld ordinis 
minorum et sacre theologie scolaris quatenus vnus sermo per eum 
post gradum susceptum dicendus ei sufficiat pro gradu baculariatus 
in sacra theologia. Hec est concessa simpliciter. (Ibid. fol. 41 b.) 

(He was admitted to oppose on Dec. 10, 1507.) 

(June 3, 1508). Supplicat frater Walterus Goodfylde, ordinis 
minorum et sacre theologie baccalarius, quatenus 4^^ responsiones in 
nouis scolis cum introitu biblie, vna cum sermone examinatorio, suffi- 



ciant ei ut admittatur ad Incipiendum in eadem facultate. Hec est 
concessa conditionata quod habuit studium 12 annorum in Logicis 
philosophicis theologicis et quod procedat ante pascha et quod semel 
predicet semel {sic) preter formam infra annum post gradum et quod 
legat vnum librum sententiarum publice et gratis. (Ibid. fol. 58.) 

(Jan. 24, 150I). Supplicat frater Walterus Goodfyld ordinis 
minorum et bachallarius sacre theologie quatenus studium quod 
habuit post gradum bachallariatus cum quattuor responsionibus cum 
sermone examinatorio et introitu biblie sufficiat ad incipiendum in 
eadem. (Ibid. fol. 67 b.) 

(March 19, isff). Supplicat frater Walterus Gudfylde (B.S.T.) 
quatenus sermo per eum dicendus in die cinerum possit stare pro 
sermone suo examinatorio. Hec gratia est concessa simpliciter. 
(Ibid. fol. 82 b.) 

(On May 12, 15 10, he was licensed in theology, fol. 86.) 

(June 27, 1 5 1 o). Supplicat frater Walterus Gudfyld, ordinis minorum 
et in sacra theologia licentiatus quatenus si contingat eum realiter 
incipere in sacra theologia secum gratiose dispensetur pro suis lecturis 
minutis. Hec est concessa sic quod compleat toto isto tempore et 
postea secundum dispositionem commissarii tunc presentis. (Ibid. 

f. 93.) 

(He was admitted DD on July i, 15 10.) 

(Dec. 10, 1 5 10). Supplicat frater Walterus Gudfylde doctor sacre 
theologie quatenus secum gratiose possit dispensari pro sua neces- 
saria regencia secundum dispositionem commissarii. Hec est con- 
cessa et ille disposuit post proximum actum. (Ibid. fol. 104 b.) 

John Thornall; July 11, 1525. 

Eodem die supplicat frater Johannes Thornall ordinis minorum et 
licenciatus in sacra theologia, quatenus cum eo graciose dispensetur 
ut composicio sua diminuatur ad quinque Libras ; causa est quia est 
admodum pauper et uix habet pecunias necessarias pro gradu sus- 

Hec gracia est concessa, et condicionata, quod causa non sit ficta, 
et celebret unam missam contra pestem, aliam pro bono statu regen- 
tium, et compleat necessariam regentiam, et distribuat decim solidos 
illarum peccuniarum jam diminutarum in vsum pauperum scolarium 
secularium. (Reg. H. 7, fol. 140.) 

Thomas Kirkham, Nov. 14, 1527. 
Eodem die suppHcat Mr. Thomas Kyrkam doctor in sacra theologia 



in ultimo Actu Creatus et necessarius Regens quatenus cum oe 
graciose dispensetur pro sua necessaria Regentia : causa est quia est 
gardianus cuiusdam loci ordinis minorum in villa Dancastrie, unde 
non potest commode hie adesse et interesse actibus scolasticis ad quos 
teneretur Racione sue necessarie Regentie. Hec gratia est concessa 
et condicionata ut faciat quinque missas de 5 vulneribus celebrari pro 
bono statu Regentium et continuet lectiones suas usque ad proximum 
actum. (Reg. H. 7, fol. i8ob.) 



A., warden at London, 136, n. 4. 

A., of Hereford, secretary to Adam 

Marsh, 33 ; biographical notice of, 


Abburbury, 109. 

Abdy, Robert, Master of Balliol, be- 
quest, 106. 

Aberdeen, Observant friars at, 89, n. 4. 

Abingdon, monks of, 2, 12, n. 2; men- 
tioned, 108. 

Acre (Palestine), 8. 

Acre (Norfolk?), 180. 

Acton, Nic, bequest, 103. 

Adam of Bechesoueres, physician, 181 ; 
notice of, 187. 

Adam of Bury St. Edmund's, Arch- 
deacon of Oxford, 102, n. i. 

Adam of Corf, friar Minor, 219. 

Adam Godham : see Adam Wodham, 

Adam of Hekeshovre : see Adam of 

Adam of Hoveden or Howden, lector, 
mentioned, 163; notice of, 162. 

Adam of Kydmersford, robber, 308. 

Adam de Lakeor, Dominican, 334. 

Adam of Lathbury, abbat of Reading, 
235, ^- 4- 

Adam of Lincoln, lector and provincial, 
notice of, 160. 

Adam Marsh or de Marisco, upholds 
Franciscan poverty, 4, and n. 8, 11, 
22; books bequeathed to him, 57; 
royal ambassador, 7, 307-8 ; influence 
at Oxford, 8 ; relations to Walter de 
Merton, 9, and Richard Earl of 
Cornwall, 25, 2 ; friendship with 
Simon de Montfort, 32, Grostete, 32, 
48, 57, Walter of Madele, 189, Roger 
Bacon, 192, 193; lecturer to the 
friars at Oxford, 31-32, 36, 37, 186, 
188 ; letters illustrating the position 
of lector and socius, 33-4, 56, n. 3 ; 
his socius, 185, 186, 188 ; controversy 
<on theological degrees in 1253, 38-9 ; 

his activity and reputation, 32, «. 2, 
3 ; 67 ; at the Council of Lyons, 127, 
128; obtains a papal privilege, 141, 
n. 2; his letters, 57, n. i, 59; men- 
tioned, 57, 65, 128, 129, 139, n.8, 
140, 141, 142-3, T51, 153, 154, 156, 
n. 3, 179, 181, T84, 186, 187, 189, 
211 ; biographical notice, 134-139. 
Adam of Norfolk, secular master, 331, 
332, 334- 

Adam of Oxford, missionary, 7 ; pupil 
of Adam Marsh, 135 ; biographical 
notice, 178. 

Adam Rufus : see Rufus. 

Adam of Warminster, warden at Ox- 
ford, notice of, 129 ; controversy with 
Dominicans, 333-5. 

Adam Wodham, lector, nominalist, 77, 
n. 4, 170, 226; notice of, 172. 

Adam of York, lectured at Lyons, 66, 
n. 10. 

Adee, Swithin, 1 24. 

Adreston (Adderstone ?), see William 

.ffigidius de Legnaco, 220. 
.^Egidius Delphinus, general minister, 

iEgidius Romanus, 215. 

Agas, Map of Oxford, 124. 

Agatha (daughter of Walter Gold- 
smith ?), 20. 

Agnellus of Pisa, first provincial, comes 
to England, 1-2, 125; character of 
the province under him, 3 ; royal 
ambassador, 7 ; opposes extension of 
areas, 13 ; builds infirmary and 
school at Oxford, 3, 21, 30 ; secures 
Grostete as lecturer, 30 ; holds pro- 
vincial chapter at Oxford, 69 ; buried 
there, 21, 26; mentioned, 57, 89,^2. 
2, 126, 127, 178, 179, 181, 188; bio- 
graphical notice, 176. 

Agnes, widow of Guido, grant of land to 
the Franciscans at Oxford, 14, 15, n, 
2, 17. 

Ailly, Peter d' : see Peter. 



Alan of Rodan, lector, 157. 
Alan of Wakerfeld, lector, 158, 320, 
321, 335- 

Albert the Great, Dominican, mentioned 
by Roger Bacon, 42 ; works ascribed 
to, 167, 210. 

Albert of Metz, 220. 

Albert of Pisa, provincial, his sayings, 
4, 6 ; knew St. Francis, 6, ^. 7 ; his 
connexion with the Oxford friary, 3, 
n. 7, 68; policy as minister, 7, 13, 
72; opinion of the English province, 
II, n. 3; mentioned, 2, n. i, 127, 
177, 178, 180, n. 3 ; notice of, 181. 

Alexander IV, pope, 136, 214, 2. 

Alexander V, pope, mentioned, 66, n. 
7 ; biogr. notice of, 249. 

Alexander of Hales, 67, 137, 192, 213, 
214, n. 215. 

Alien, John, mentioned, 41, n. 5, 53, n. 
4 ; biogr. notice, 265. 

Alienora de S. Amando, bequest by, 

Alifax, Rob. : see Eliphat. 
Alkerton, 109. 

Alnwick : see Martin, Roger, William, 

Alyngdon, doctor, mentioned, 96, n. 2 ; 

Amaury de Montfort, see Montfort. 
Ambassadors, Franciscans employed as, 

7, 128, 137, 138, 144, 159, 161, 162, 

177, 243, 272, 307-8. 
Amory Richard d', 239. 
Amour, William de St. : see William. 
Ancona, march of, 181. 
Andrewes, Richard, of Hales, buys site 

of Grey and Black Friars, Oxford, 

122, 123. 

Andrews, Nic, of Peckwater's Inn, 95. 
Anesti, Thomas of: see Thomas. 
Anger : see Auger, 

Anivers (Anilyeres, Aynelers), Nic. de : 

see Nicholas. 
Anjou, master H. of, 154. 
Anna of Radley, 94. 
Anneday, Thomas, mentioned, 47, 51 ; 

biogr. notice, 270. 
Anthony of Padua, St., 135, 156, n. I. 
Anthony Papudo, biogr. notice, 284. 
Anthony de Vallibus, 52 ; biogr. notice, 


Antioch, Patriarch of, 183. 
Antonius Andreas, 130, n. 2, 262. 
Anyden, Thomas : see Anneday. 
Apeltre, Henry of: see Henry. 
Apulia, Franciscan province, 235. 
Aquinas, St. Thomas : see Thomas. 
Aquitaine, Friars from, at Oxford, 66. 
Aragon, Minorites from, at Oxford, 
243 ; Peter Russel teaches in, 255. 

Arctur, John : see Arthur. 
Arezzo : see Philip of Castello. 
Argentina : see Strasburg. 
Argentine John, biogr. notice, 260 ; cf. 

191, n, I. 
Argos, bishop of: see Tinmouth. 
Aristotle, 73. 
— Commentaries on 254. 

De coelo et mundo, 153. 

Ethics, 156. 

Logic, 225-6, 259, 262. 

Metaphysics, 142, 196, 233. 

Meteorics, 130, n, 2, 196, 241. 

Physics, 157, 196, 216, 224, 226, 


[Secretum Secret orum], 196. 

[Vegetabilia], 196. 

Armagh, Archbishops of : see Richard 

Fitzralph; Foxholes, J. : see also 288, 

n. 7. 

Arnulphus, vicar of the Order, 180. 

Arter : see Arthur, John. 

Arthur or Arter, John, Friar Minor, 

charges against him, 95-6, 132; 

kept a horse, 96 ; biogr. notice, 284. 
Arthur, prince, 260. 
Arundel, Thomas, Archbp., 85, 112. 
Ascensius, editor of Ockham's Dialogus^ 


Ascoli : see Jerome of. 

Ashby, 125, 189; prior of Canons 

Ashby, 126. 
Ashendon, John, mathematician, 160, 

Asia, Franciscan mission, 244. 

Assisi; MS. at, 143; burial at, 159: 

general chapters at, 159, 177, 178, 

229, 235. 
Auger, William, biogr. notice, 254. 
Augustine, St., work in the Franciscan 

Library, Oxford, 5 7 ; mentioned, 1 50, 


Augustine, brother of William of Not- 
tingham, 183. 
Aureolus, 262. 

Aurifaber, Walter : see Goldsmith. 
Austin Canons, join Minorite Order, 

Austin Friars, 7, n. 2, 75, 80, 263, 
281, 285. 

Auvergne, William of : see William. 
Averroes, 73. 

Avignon, 163, 164, 167, 168, 170, 172, 
239 : see Clement V; Ockham im- 
prisoned at, 225; General Chapter at, 

Aylesbury, 163, n. 2 ; Grey Friars of, 

Aylmer, John and Christiana, property 

granted to Minorites, 16. 
Aynelers : see Nicholas of Anivers. 




Babwell, Grey Friars at, 56, n. 4, 173; 
see Bury St. Edmund's. 

Bacheler, John, Friar Minor, vice-war- 
den at Oxford, 131, 288, 318 ; biogr. 
notice, 285. 

Bachun, Thomas, biogr. notice, 187. 

Bacon, Sir Francis, quoted, 64, n. 3. 

Bacon, Peter, mentioned, 192. 

Bacon, Robert, Dominican, signs charter 
of Henry HI for the University, 9 ; 
professed on day of entry, 68 ; uncle 
of Roger Bacon, 191 ; preaches to 
the King, ib. ; life of St. Edmimd by, 
192, n. I ; works by, 196 (?), 210. 

Bacon, Roger, buried at Oxford, 26 ; 
• quoted, 31 ; on the study of theology, 
37, 42 ; nature and object of his 
writings, 37, n. i, 63, 64 ; writings in 
the Franciscan Library at Oxford, 58 ; 
lectures to Spanish students, 66, n. 8, 
at Paris, 68 ; sends works to the 
pope, 56 ; begs for alms, 91 ; pupil 
and friend of Grostete and Adam 
Marsh, 135, n. i, 139; his pupil 
John, 33, n. Af, 211 ; his opinion of 
Thomas Aquinas, 73, and Richard of 
Cornwall, 143; influence on Bungay, 
153, W. de Mara, 215, and J. Somer, 
244; biographical notice, 191-5 ; 
works, 195-210. 

Bacon, Roger, mentioned, 192. 

Bacon, Thomas, mentioned, 192. 

Baconthorpe, John, Carmelite, 166. 

Balborow, William, 317. 

Baldeswell : see Peter de. 

Balliol College : see Oxford. 

Balliol, Edward, 238. 

Balliol, Sir John de, 9, 217. 

Balsham, Hugh, Bishop of Ely, 138., 

Bampton, Vicar of, no; Hugh ol, see 
Hugh of Bath. 

Banaster or Banister, Alderman and 
Mayor of Oxford, visits the friaries, 
no, n, I, 117, 121. 

Banester, John, mentioned, 44, n. 4 ; 
biogr. notice, 270. 

Bangor : see Ednam, Ric. Bp. of. 

Banke, Thomas, Rector of Lincoln Coll., 
bequest, 107. 

Bannebury, John, bequest, 104. 

Barbeur, William le, and Alice his wife, 
16, 20, n. 5. 

Barclay, Alexander, 271. 

Bari, 167. 

Barlete, 179. 

Barlow, Richard, debt, no, n. 8. 
Barly, Thomas, Friar Minor, 119, 294. 
Bamby, prebend, 235. 
Barneby, Thomas of: see Thomas. 

Barnes, Dr., Austin Friar, 281. 
Baron, Roger, work by, 209. 
Bartelot, Jac, attorney, 99, n. 7, 315. 
Bartholomew of Pisa, quoted, 2,6, n. 4, 

30, 72, 167, 170, 180, 181, 182, 238, 


Barton : see Martin de, Roger de. 
Based : see Basset. 

Basel, mentioned, 173 ; Council of, 214, 

Basil, St., works of, 292. 

Basingstoke : see John of. 

Baskerfield, Edward, Warden at Oxford, 
95, 288 ; his horse, 96, 287 ; sur- 
renders his house, 118, 119; biogr. 
notice, 132. 

Basset, Gregory, Minorite, mentioned, 
113, 5, 6; 290 ; biogr. notice, 286. 

Basset, John, lector, 162. 

Bath, 2, 134; see Henry of, Hugh of. 

Baxter, Mrs., 282. 

Baynton, Sir Edw., ill. 

Beamont, 290. 

Beatrice of Falkenstein, wife of Ric. 
Earl of Cornwall, buried at Oxford, 

Beaune, 128. 

Beauvais, W. of Gainsborough buried 

at, 162 : see 268, n. i. 
Bee, fee of the Abbat of, in Oxford, 16, 

20, 297. 

Beche, Phil, de la, Sheriff, 60, n. 2. 
Bechesoueres : see Adam of. 
Becket, Thomas, Archbishop, 155, 285. 
Beckley, 218. 

Bedford, Minorite convent in the Oxford 
custody, 68; burials at, 128, 172, 

— Simon Ludford, Friar of, 119. 

— Duke of, 265, n. 4. 

— Archdeacon of, 331. 
Bedyngfeld, Edmund, Sheriff, 99, 130. 
Bek' : see Thomas de. 
Bekinkham : see John. 

Bele, Thomas, servant of Friar J. Welle, 
78, 311- 

Benedict XH, pope, constitutions for 
Friars Minors, 35, 36, 50-1, 170. 

— Attacked by Ockham, 231, 232. 
Benedict le Mercer of Oxford, 16, 296, 

298 ; Symon, son of: see Simon. 
Benedictines ; students at the Universi- 
ties, 43, n. 7. 

— Franciscan lecturers to, 66. 

— Monks enter Minorite Order, 2, 

Benet, John, will mentioned, 90, n. \. 
Benet, Thomas, martyr, 132, 286, 289. 
Benjamin, Jew of Cambridge, 190. 
Bercherius, Peter, 149, 170. 
Bereford, Edmund, bequest, 103 



Bereford, John of, Mayor of Oxford, 
bequest, 103. 

Bergamo, Philip of : see Philip. 

Beikhamstede, 218, n. 4. 

Berkshire, Sheriff of, 22. 

Bernard of Gascony, Minister of Tus- 
cany, 311. 

Bernardin of Siena, St., 221, n. 3. 

Berne well, Thomas, at Council of the 
Earthquake, 84, 246. 

Berney, Walter de, bequest, 104. 

Berton, William, Chancellor, 251. 

Berwick : see John of. 

Beste, Robert, charge of incontinence, 
94-5 ; joins reformation, 113, «. 7; 
biogr. notice, 286. 

Besylis, William, bequest, 108. 

Beverley : see John of. 

— Robert of. 

Bible, the study of the, 36-7, 38, 44, 46, 
47, 61, 65, n. 3, 141, 183, 185, 188, 
197, 261, 275, 277, 279, 336-8. 

— MSS. of, in possession of the Friars ; 
56, notes 2, 3, 4, 57, 58 and n. 14, 
59 and 71. 3, 113,143, 182, 283. 

— An Oxford Franciscan lectures against 
the translation of, into English, 254. 

— Works on, 139, n. 2, 210. 

— Commentaries on books of Old Testa- 
ment, 32, n. 4, 141, 147, 149, 151, 
152, 164, 173, 210, 218, 234, 235, n. 
6, 236, 247. 

— New Testament, edited by Erasmus, 

Commentaries on Gospels, 148, 

149, 152, 185, 217, n. 3, 221, 247, 

Acts, 236. 

Epistles of St. Paul, 58, 113, «. 5, 

152, 247, 277, 278, 284. 
Revelation, 152, 171, 218, 221, 

234, 2 54- 

Billing, John, Observant, 88, n. 5, 290. 
Bilney, Thomas, martyr, T13, n. 5. 
Black Death, 3, n. 7, 44, n. i, 80, 172. 
Black Friars : see Dominican Order. 
Blacwood, James, bequest, 106. 
Blund, Rob., vintner, 70, n. 3, 
Bockering : see Thomas Docking. 
Bohun, Humphrey de, E. of Hereford 

and Essex, bequest, 103. 
Bokkyg : see Thomas Docking. 
Boleyn, Anne, 114, 273, 285. 
Bologna, Albert of Pisa, Minister of, 

181 ; Bishop of, 224, n. 8. 

— John Foxalls lectures at, 262. 

— see 266, 281. 

Bologna : see John de Castro. 
Boltere, William le, of St. Ebbe's, 75, 
n. 2. 

Bonagratia, friar, 225. 

Bonaventura, general minister, men- 
tioned, II, n. I, 128, 137, 139, 154, 
155, 215, 216, n. 2. 

— Works ascribed to, 149, 193, n. 4 ; 
—his constitutions, 55, n. i. 
Bonetus, 262. 

Boniface VIII, pope, grants land to 
Minorites at Oxford, 18 ; calls W. of 
Gainsborough as lecturer to Rome, 
161 : see also 242. 

— IX, pope, 247, 250, 253, 3T2-3. 
Boniface of Savoy, Abp. of Canterbury, 

bequest, 102 ; mentioned, 32, n. 3, 
136, 137, ^38, 139' 8, 186. 

Bonner, Bp., visits Hadham, 284, n. i. 

Bordeaux, 160, n. 10. 

Borstall, 105. 

Bosellis : see Gregory de. 

Bosevile : see Walter de. 

Boston, parson of : see J. Tinmouth. 

— Gild at, 271. 

— Grey Friars at, 278. 
Boston of Bury, 58, 150, 151. 
Botehill, W., 268. 
Botolph, St., life of, 271. 
Bowghnell, William, Friar Minor, 119, 


Boys (Bors), Vincent, biogr. notice, 255. 
' boysaliz,' 188. 

Bozon, Nicholas, 37, n. 2, 64, n. 4, 167, 

n. 10, 240, n. 
Brackley, Friar John, of Norwich, ill. 
Brakell, John, Minorite, 274. 
Bramptone, Ric, bequest, 104. 
Brenlanlius : see John of Berwick. 
Brewer, Mr., quoted, 63, 64, 89, 129, 

194, 208, n. 2. 
Brian Sandon : see Sandon. 
Bricott, Edmund, biogr. notice, 283. 
Bridgwater, Grey Friars at, 157, 244, 

245, 254; chapter at, 271. 
Bridlington or Briddilton : see Philip of. 
Brikley, Peter, Cambridge Franciscan, 

Brill, 5. 

Brinkley, Ric, provincial, studies Greek, 

T13 ; biogr. notice, 283. 
Brinkley or Brinkel, Walter, biogr. 

notice, 223, 
Brisingham, A., H., T., of: see Henry of. 
Bristol, Minorites of, 60, 172, 174, 260, 


Britanny, John of, E. of Richmond, 

benefactor of the friars, 18. 
Briton, Laurence : see Laurence. 
Britte, Walter, 248. 
Broadgates Hall : see Oxford. 
Broghton, John, Sheriff, 99, 129. 
Bromyard : see Rob. of. 
Brookby (Brorbe), Anthony, Minorite, 

catholic martyr, 290. 



Brown, John, sup. for B.D. 45, n. 5, 50, 
n. I, 52 ; biogr. notice, 274. 

Browne, Oxford Dominican, 267. 

Browne, provincial of Austin Friars, 

Browne, Ric. (alias Cordon), bequest, 
105, 261. 

Browne, William, Minorite, 116, w. 7, 

119, 288, 317. 
Bruni : see Simon. 
Brunsfelsiiis. Otto, 287. 
Brusyard (Suffolk), Poor Clares of, 241. 
Brygott : see Bricott. 
Brynkley : see Brinkley. 
Brynknell, Thomas, 281. 
Bucks, 271. 

Bukenham : see Walter de. 
Bungay : see Thomas of. 
Burchestre, William de, bequest, 103. 
Burford, 109. 

— see Henry of. 
Burgo : see Nicholas de. 
Burnham (Essex), 284, n. 4. 

Burton, Robert, warden at Oxford, 44, 

n. 2 ; biogr. notice of, 130. 
Bury : see Boston of. 

— see Richard of. 

— St. Edmund's : see Adam of : see Bab- 
well ; monk of, 210. 

Butler, William, regent master and pro- 
vincial, biogr. notice, 254-5. 
Byrton, John, bequest, 109. 


Calais, staple of, 106; commissary 

general, 292. 
Call, William, provincial minister, leans 

to reformation, 113, n. 5. 
Cambrai, 231. 

Cambridge, mentioned, 311. 

— reformation begins at, 113. 

— University, 258, 260. 

— Caius College, 59, 226. 

— Corpus Christi College, 286. 

— King's College, 260, 261. 

— Austin friar at, 7, n. 2. 

— Carthusian at, 268. 

— Dominicans at, 74, 103, 108. 

— Franciscans at; custody, 57, 65, 68, 
n. 5, 139, n. 8, 178. 

friary; foundation, 126; burial 

at, 283 ; grant of a house, 190; gifts 
and bequests, 97, n. 5, 104, 108, 271 ; 
numbers, 44, n. i ; lifnites, 91, n. 4; 
dissolution, 294. 

schools, 34, n. 2, 35, n. 2, 66, n. 

10, no, n. 6, 309, 314; Oxford 
Franciscans study or lecture in, 130, 
140, 141, 153, 156, 157, 158, 162, 
1%, 214, 218, 234, 238, 242, 243 (2), 

) 261, 265, 266, 271, 276, 283, 290, 
291, 293. 

see also 49, n. 9, 80, n. 2, 113, n. 

5, 119, 313. 

— Jew of : see Benjamin. 

— Mendicant Orders at, 103. 
Cambridgeshire, 164, 223, 283. 

de Campo Portugaliensis : see Peter 

Candia : see Alexander V. 
Canon, John, realist, 77, n. 4; biogr. 

notice, 223. 
Canterbury : Archbishops : see Arundel, 

Thomas; Becket; Boniface of Savoy ; 

Cranmer, Thomas; Edmund Rich; 

Kilwardby, Robert ; Langham, Simon ; 

John Peckham ; Warham, William ; 

also 41, 81, n. 7, 84, 155, 242, 258, 


— convocation of, 257. 

— preachers at, 289. 

— Christchurch, monastery : Franciscan 
lectures at, 66. 

Peckham's burial and bequest, 

155, and 71. 10. 

shrine of St. Thomas Becket, 285, 

canon, 292. 

— Franciscans at, 2, 176, 178, 285, 288, 
289 ; their school, 181. 

MS. belonging to, 182. 

Cantilupe : see iiugh, Thomas, Walter, 

Cantwell, James, at Oxford at Dissolu- 
tion, 119, 293. 

Capell : see Robert de. 

Cappes, Thomas, at Oxford at Dissolu- 
tion, 119, 293. 

Capua, 281, n. 3. 

Cardaillac : see Francis de. 

Cardmaker, John, entered Minorite 
order young, in, n. 5 ; becomes 
reformer, 113, n. 7, 120, n. 3 ; arrests 
Friar Arthur, 285 ; burned, 114, «. i; 
biogr. notice, 291. 

Carew, Mr., 317. 

Carlisle, 162 : see Hugo Karlelle. 

Carmelites, 75, 80, 84, 85, 103, 245, 

255. 274- 

Cam, David, Dominican, 261, n. 8. 

Carrewe, David, Minorite bequest to, 
106 ; biogr. notice of, 261. 

Carron, David : see Carrewe. 

Carsewell, Richard, bequest, 104. 

Carthusian monk, 268. 

Cartwright, Thomas, loi, n. 3. 

Cary, Richard, Mayor of Oxford, grants 
land to the Franciscans, 19-20, 303, 
n. I, 305 ; represents Oxford in Par- 
liament, 21; auditor, 92, 311; will, 
loi, n. 4, 

Alice his wife, loi, n. 4. 



Castello : see Philip of. 

Castro : see John de. 

Casuelis : see Queswell. 

Catalogus illustrium Franciscanorum, 
58, 139, n. 2, 141, 152, 153, 157, 158, 
160, 163, 169, n. 3, 173, 185, 254, 
255j 256. 

Catton (Norwich), 170, n. 3 : see Walter 

de Chatton. 
Ceruise : see Henry de. 
Cesena: see Michael de. 
Charles IV, Emperor, 225, n. 7, 233. 
Charles VI, King of France, 253. 
Charles, M., life of Roger Bacon, 195, 


Chatton : see Walter de. 

Chaucer, 64, 89, n. 5, 91, 244. 

Chayne, Thomas, biogr. notice, 256. 

Cheshire, 215, n. i, 219. 

Chester, archdeacon of, 182 ; Francis- 
cans at, 240. 

Chestur, William, bequest, 106. 

Chichele, Henry, Abp., 258, 259. 

China, Franciscan mission in, 244. 

Chingford, 175. 

Chorasmeni, 128. 

Cistercians, 85, 156, 178. 

Clacton Parva, 277, n. 6. 

Clamiter, Thomas, 105. 

Clapwell, Richard, Dominican, 215, 

Clara : see John de, 

Clare : see Richard of. 

Clare, William, bailiff of Oxford, 93 ; 

bequest, 109. 
Clarendon, documents dated at, 299, 


Clarke, Thomas, 107, 268. 

Claymond, John, president of Magdalen 

and C.C.C., bequest, 109. 
Clement IV, pope, constitutions for 

Minorites, 65, n. 3 ; relations to 

Roger Bacon, 91, 193-4, 200, 201, 


Clement V, pope, grants property to 
the Oxford Franciscans, 18, 44, n. i, 
302 ; bull, 77, n. I. 

Clement VI, pope, 224, 225, 235, 237. 

Clement VII, antipope, 243. 

Clement of Langthon, 185. 

Clerkson, Simon, Carm., 54, n. 3. 

Clopton, Walter, chief justice, Minorite, 

Clyff, Richard, custodian at Oxford, 

99 ; notice of, 129. 
Clynton, Richard, Minorite, 279, 
Cobeham : see John of. 
Cocke, John, bookseller, 217, n. 
Codyngton : see John de. 
Cok, John, Minorite, 119, 294. 
— William, Minorite, 119, 294. 

Coke, Matthew, bequest, 104. 
Cokkes, John, scribe at Oxford, 208. 
LL.D., 317. 

Colchester, Grey Friars, 247, 253, 

— rector of St. Mary's, 282. 
Colebruge : see Ralph de. 
Coles, John, bequest, 108. 
Coleshull : see John of. 
Collins, Charles, 124. 

Colman, Robert, Minorite, Chancellor 

of Oxford, 256. 
Cologne, 126; Franciscans at, 89, n. 4; 

studium at, 221. 

— minister of : see Peter of Tewkes- 

— see Hermann of. 

Colvile : see William de. 

Combis : see John de Crombe. 

Combs (Suffolk), 166. 

Comre, John : see Covire. 

Comyn, John, murder of, 162. 

Confessions: Franciscan friars as con- 
fessors, 63-4, 74-5, 79, 105, no, 126, 
127, 129, 159, 162, 163, 177, 219, 
220, 239, 251. 

— works on, 144, 173 6, 239-240, 

Coniton : see Richard de Conyngton. 
Constance, canon of, 216, n. 3. 
Constantine, donation of, 257, n. 3. 
Conti : see Rinaldo. 
Conway, Roger : see Roger. 
Conyngton : see Richard de. 
Cooper, Joanna, wife of William, 94, 

95, 284. 
Cooper, William, 269, n. 4. 
Coper, Galfred, 94. 

Corbrug : see Hugh de ; Ralph de Cole- 

Cordon : see Browne, Ric. 

Corf : see Adam of. 

Cork, county, 267. 

Cornish, William, Minorite, 212. 

Cornwall, Archdeacon of, 9. 

— Earls of : see Edmund ; Richard. 

— see Laurence of ; Richard of, secular ; 
Richard Rufus of, Franciscan. 

Cossey, or Costesey: see Henry of. 
Costard, John, and Margery his wife, 

Cote, Hugh, 128. 
Cotter, Sir James, 124. 
Countess (ComitissaJ, Jewess at Oxford, 

Couton : see John de. 
Coventry, 217, 289; Grey Friars, dis- 
solution, 293: see Roger of Wesham. 
Covire, John, Minorite, 119, 293. 
Cowton : see Robert. 
Cradoc, or Craycocke, Ralph, 96. 



Cranmer, 281, n. 3, 288, n. 7, 289, 292. 

Crayford, or Crawfurthe, John, Minorite, 
120, n. 3; biogr. notice, 191. 

Creswell, Ralph, Observant, 88, n. 5, 
119, 293. 

Crofton, Edmund, bequest, 107. 

Crombe : see John de. 

Crompe, Henry, Cistercian, 85, 251. 

Cromwell, Thomas, reforms university, 
116; disposes of friars and their pro- 
perty, 120; letters to, 117, 118, 119, 
282 ; mentioned, 130, 132, 274, 285, 
286, 287. 

Crosby, John, citizen of London, 263. 
Cross, Crouche (de Cruce) : see Robert. 
Croy, Henry, Dominican, 165, n. 7. 
Cruche (de Cruce) : see Henry. 
Crusades, 7, 8, 63, 136, 138, n. 3, 140, 

153, 195, n, 4 : see also Missionaries. 
Crussebut, J., Cambridge Minorite, 49, 

n. 9. 

Cudnor, John, warden of Grey Friars, 

London, 276. 
Culvard, Andrew, and Alice his wife, 


— John, Mayor of Oxford, grants land 
to Minorites, 20, 303-5 ; represents 
Oxford in parliament, 21. 

Curson, Walter, bequest, 108. 
Curtes, William, Minorite, 279. 
Cusack, Isaac, preaches in Ireland, 86 ; 

biogr. notice, 266. 
Cyprian, St., works of, 292. 


Dagvyle, William, bequest, 106. 
Dalderby, John, bishop of Lincoln, 63-4, 

129, 159, 162, 163, 164, 165, 167, 

219, 220, 222. 
Dalmacus de Raxach, Minorite from 

Aragon, 243. 
Danvers, Sebyll, bequest, 107. 
Darlington, John, Dominican, 72, n. 4. 
David, Hugo, regent master, biogr. 

notice, 256. 

— John, lecturer to Minorites at Here- 
ford, 34, n. 3, 261, 313-14; pro- 
vincial minister, 259. 

— John, D.D., Oxford, 52, 53, n. 2, 
336; biogr. notice, 261. 

— Richard, Minorite, 116, n. 7, 289. 

— William, Minorite, 116, n. 7, biogr. 
notice, 289. 

Davys, Thomas, bequest, 107. 
Daynchurch : see Oliver de Encourt. 
Days, Roger : see Dewe. 
Deal, 292. 
Dee, John, 245. 
Delamere, forest, 215, n. i. 
Delphinus, ^gidius, general minister, 

Denbigh, Carmelites of, 2 74. 

Denmade : see Herbert. 

Denmark, English friars wanted for, 

140 ; king of, 257 ; Standish sent to, 


Denson, Thomas, 94. 

Deodatus, warden at Exeter, 217. 

Derby, surrender of the Black friars, 133. 

Derbyshire, 122, 156, n. 2, 219. 

Devon : see Richard of. 

Devorguila, wife of John Balliol, 9, 

158, 216-7. 
Dewe, Roger, provincial, 256; notice 

of, 259. 
Dieppe, 285. 

Divorce of Henry VIII: see Henry VIII. 
Dobbis, Alice, bequest, 106. 
Docking : see Thomas. 
Doclington, John of, bequest, 103. 
Dominican Order, constitutions of, 1228, 
37, n. 6, 90, n. 7. 

— Master of: see Jordan. 

— in England, 7, 8, 55, n. 3, 61, 
72, 73, seq., 80, 81, n. 7, 127, 137, 
156, 178, 183, 307, 308, 326, 334, 
n. 3. 

see Cambridge, Derby, Guildford, 

Langley Regis, Leicester, London, 

Doncaster, Grey Friars at, 282, 294, 

Donegal, Minorites of, 267. 

Dongan, John, buried in Grey Friars' 

cemetery, 27 ; bequest, 106. 
Donstede : see Simon Tunstede. 
Donwe, Roger : see Dewe. 
Dorchester (Oxon.), 63, 159, &c.: see 

Hugh of Hertepol. 
Dorchester (Dorset), Friars Minors at, 

84 ; mentioned, 263. 
Dorchester : see Warin of. 
Doling, Matthias, Minorite, 66, n. 10 ; 

biogr. notice, 256. 
Dorman, Edmund, 315. 
Dorsetshire, 191. 

Dover, 2, 157, 176, 308; bishop of, 11 6c 

Draper : see Milo. 

Drayton : see Richard of. 

Drewe, Edward, 55, n. 3. 

Droken', J, de, 161. 

Dublin, Friars Minors of, 68, n. 3. 

— Archbishops of, 129, n. i, 267. 
Duns : see John Duns Scotus. 
Dunstable, canons of, become Fran- 
ciscans, 180. 

Dunstan : see Thomas of St. 
Durham, bishops of, see Ric. Marsh, 
Ric. Kellawe, Ric. of Bury. 

— tax on clergy in the diocese, 98. 

— Church of, 292 ; library, ibid. 

— County, 153, 216. 



Durham College : see Oxford. 
Dyonisius, Minorite, 212, 323, 335. 
— Tully, Dominican, 266. 
Dysse, William, Minorite, 267. 


Eccleston : see Thomas of. 

Edes, John, biogr. notice, 254. 

Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, 218. 

Edmund, St. (Rich), Abp. of Canter- 
bury, 168, 192, 

Edmund : see G. of St. 

Ednam, Ric, Minorite, bishop of 
Bangor, 45, 46, n. 10, 51, 52, n. i, 
336-7 ; biogr. notice, 264. 

Edrope : see Henry of. 

Edward I, employs Minorites as am- 
bassadors, 7, 161 ; his Crusade, 8, 
153; stays at the Black Friars, 
Oxford, 72 ; grant to the Oxford 
Minorites, 97, 308-9 ; grant to friars 
in General Chapter, 219. 

Edward II, assigns to the Minorites the 
property of the Friars of the Sack in 
Oxford, 18-19, 301-3 ; supports 
Dominicans at Langley Regis, 22, 
53> 9 ; grant to the Oxford Minor- 
ites, 98, 309 ; marriage with Isabella, 
162 ; mentioned, 223. 

Edward III, stays at the Grey Friars, 
York, 27, 9 J mentioned, 60, n. 2, 
238, 239, 300. 

Edward IV, 98. 

Edward V, 98. 

Edward VI, 291, 292. 

Edward, the Black Prince, 8i,n.'j, 242. 

Edward, prince, 260. 

Elemeus, Ric, bequest, 109. 

Elias, general minister, 67, n. I, 69, 
135, 142, 177, 180, 181, 184, n. I. 

Eliphat, Robert, 222, n. 5 ; biogr. 
notice, 238. 

Elmys, EHzabeth, bequest, 107. 

Ely, bishopric of, 138, 260. 

Elyot, Sir Ric, judge, bequest, 108. 

Empoli : see Francis de S. Siraone. 

Encourt : see Oliver de. 

Enger (near Cologne), curious custom 
at, 235. 

Erasmus, 112, 113 ; relations to Henry 

Standish, 273. 
Erfurt, University, Franciscans at, 257 ; 

254, n. 6. 
Eric, King, of Denmark, 257. 
Erlandi, John, bp. of Roskild, 140, n. 6. 
Ernulphus : see Arnulphus. 
Eschvid, John : see Ashendon. 
Esse by : see Simon of. 
• — see William of. 

Essex, Archdeacon of, 49, n. 8; Earl 
of : see Bohun. 

Essex, 284, 287, 290. 

Eton, William : see Will, of Esseby. 

Etton, Guy, Minorite, and reformer, 
113, n. 7, 116, n. 7, 120, n. 3 ; bio- 
graphical notice, 290. 

Eueston : see William of Euston. 

Eustace de Merc, warden at Oxford, 
compelled to eat fish, 6 ; excluded 
from chapter, 69; biogr. notice, 126. 

Eustace de Normanville, lector, declines 
to lecture at Norwich, 65 ; biogr. 
notice, 139. 

Eustas, John, scholar, dies intestate, 
loi, 276. 

Evangelical Poverty ^ dispute concerning, 
75-8, 86, 129, 163, 164, 166, 167, 
225, 266, 320-335 ; cf. 92. 

— works on, 164, 165, 169, 215-6,222, 
224, 232, 234, 239, 240, 243, 248, 
255, 266 ; cf. 320-335. 

Evesham, Simon de Montfort, buried 
at, 33 {see Corrigenda). 

— see Hugh of. 
Ew, see John of. 
Ewelme, see N. de. 

Exeter, diocese of, 105 ; dean of, 7 ; 

subdean, 96. 
Exeter : Grey Friars' house at, 27, n. 9, 

217, 291 ; studium at, 35, n. 3. 

— friars preach at, 132. 

— persecution at, 132, 286, 289. 

— Adam of : see Adam of Oxford. 

— Stephen of : see Stephen of Ireland, 

— see William of. 
Eynsham, abbey, 237. 


Fabricius, G., quoted, 148. 
Fakenham : see Nicholas of. 
Falkenstein : see Beatrice of. 
Falley, John, 107, 268. 
Farmer, Henry, of Tusmor, 167. 
Faversham : see Haymo of. 
Feckyngtone, John, Minorite, Rector 

of Balliol Coll., 10; biogr. notice, 


Ferrara, bp. of, 224, n. 8. 

Fetiplace, Ric. bequest, 107. 

Fey, Jacob, biogr. notice, 252. 

Fisher, John, 273. 

Fitzralph : see Richard. 

Flavyngur, John, Minorite, lectures on 

decretals, 53; biogr. notice, 277. 
Flemengvill : see Robert de. 
Florence, general chapter at, 314. 

— friars Preachers at, 55, n. 3. 

— see Fey (Jacob), Nicholas de Burgo. 
Florence, John, Minorite, 46, n. 10. 
Foliot, Alice, 15, n. 2. 

Folvyle, W., 80, n. 2. 



Foreign friars at Oxford : see Oxford. 

Forest, John, Catholic martyr, 290. 

Foster, Thomas, 131. 

Fox, Edward, 281, n. 3. 

Foxal, Foxalls : see Foxholes. 

Foxe, Jane, bequest, 109. 

Foxholes, John, Minorite, biogr. notice, 

Foxle : see Walter de. 
France ; kings of, and country, 138, n. 

3, 140, 159, 161, 243, 253, 285.* 
French students expelled from Oxford, 


French Minorites at Oxford, 66, 187, 
244 ; expelled, 86. 

— see Paris. 

— Provincial of the Minorites in, 126, 

— Rob. Wellys, dies in, 256. 
Frances, Thomas, inception, 52, n. 10, 

53; biogr. notice, 279. 
Francis, St., of Assisi, i^n. i, 129, 176 ; 
appears in visions, 2, 142, n. 3 ; 
church at Oxford dedicated to, 22, 
24; his condemnation of learning, 29 ; 
mentioned, 6, n, 7, 81, 100, 129, 177, 
n. 6. 

— his Rule, observance and relaxations, 
7, II, 14, 22, 29, 33, 36, 55, 69, 91, 
97, 127, 135, 136, 147, 176, 181, 

183, 186, 187, 188, 190, 193, 194, 
2i5» 325, .327, 328, 331 : see Gregory 
IX, Benedict XII. 

Francis de Cardaillac, 243. 
Francis de Graynoylles, Minorite from 
Aragon, 243. 

— de Mayronibus, 262. 

Francis de S. Simone (of Pisa or 
Empoli), 66, n. 7; biogr. notice, 243. 

Francis of Savona (Sixtus IV), 265-6. 

Franciscan Order, General Chapters, 11, 
35, 66, notes 6 and 10, 90, 127, 135, 
I57» 159, 161, 166, 167, 176, 177, 
178, 183, 186, 194, 218, 219, 221, 
224, 229, 235, 242, 267, 275(?), 309, 

— Decrees relating to Oxford, 35, 66, 
notes 6, 10, 309, 314. 

— see Evangelical Poverty. 

— England ; character of the Order in, 

4, n. I, II, n. 3, 13, 14, 27, n. 9, 
29-30, 61, 69, 78-9, 82-3, 100, lOI, 
n. 5, III, 113, 115-6, 129, 320, seq. 

Provincial Chapters ; held annu- 
ally in England, 36, n. 4, 66, n. i . 

at Oxford, 4, 5, 69, 70, 126, 142, 

181, 183, 184, 218, 254. 

elsewhere, 69, and n. 4, 157, 176, 

184, 235, 250, 271, 314. 
records of the, lost, 89, 90. 

— provincial Ministers of England, 

appointment or deposition of, i, «. i, 

70, 127, 128, 177, 181, 183-4, 253, 
254, 255, 256, 259. 

Franciscan Order in England, custodies, 

68, 125, 133. 
— Studia : see Cambridge, Oxford. 
34 and n. 3, 35 and n. 3, 44, 51, 

64, n. 5, 65, 186, 188, 189, 249, 270, 
275 (276), 277, 284, 309,311,313-4, 

— Lecturers, appointment or election 
of, 30, 34» and n. 3, 35, n. 2, 36, 43, 

65, 66, 139, 140, 141, 142, 177, 181, 
183, 186, 189, 220, 235, 242, 313-4; 
cf. 329. 

— Monastic school at Canterbury 
presided over by a Franciscan, 66. 

— Monks and Canons enter the Fran- 
ciscan Order, 2, 3, 180, 237. 

Other friars become Minorites, 75. 

— Limit to age of admission to Order, 

— Dress of the Friars, 4. 

— Letters of Fraternity, 82, 90. 

— Suppression of the friaries, 1 16; 
pension to a Franciscan, 130. 

— Political teaching, 32-3, 81-2, 84, 85, 
86, 87, 114, 137, 141, 191, 242, 272. 

works on politics, 144, 145, 218, 

229-234, 244. 

— Individual friars : privileges granted 
to, 141, n. 2, 237, n. 5, 239, 247, 312. 

alms and exhibitions, 53-4, 91-2, 


bequests, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107, 

108, 143, 251, 261, 263, 268, 282, n. 
9, 318. 

private property, 78, 96, n. i, 

108, 109, 271, 273, 311. 

— Spiritual and Observant Friars, 77, 
88, 89, n. 4, 96, 114, 115, 163, 164, 
166, 215, 257, 265, 269, n. 6, 277, 
285, 286, 289, 290, 293. 

— Rivalry between Mendicant Orders, 

71, seq., 127, 183: see Dominican 
Order in England. 

— Convents : see Aberdeen, Aylesbury, 
Babwell, Bedford, Boston, Bridg- 
water, Bristol, Brusyard (Poor Clares), 
Cambridge, Canterbury, Chester, Col- 
chester, Coventry, Doncaster, Don- 
egal, Dorchester, Dublin, Evesham 
{see Corrigenda), Exeter, Gal way, 
Gloucester, Grantham, Greenwich, 
Hereford, Ipswich, Leicester, Lich- 
field, Lincoln, London, Lynn, Newark, 
Newcastle, Northampton, Norwich, 
Nottingham, Oxford, Reading, Rich- 
mond, Salisbury, Shrewsbury, South- 
ampton, Stamford, Ware, Winchester, 
Worcester, York. 



Franciscan Order : see Ambassadors. 

Catalogus illustrium Francisca- 





Frankfurt, council of, 225, 232; men- 
tioned, 288, n 7. 
Frederic II : see Isabella, wife of. 
Frederic of Thiiringen, 257. 
Freiburg : see John Lector of. 
Frewers : see Fryer. 

Friars : see Austin Friars ; Carmelites ; 
Dominicans ; Franciscans ; Sack, 
friars of the ; Trinitarians ; and Men- 
dicant Orders. 

Frideswide, St. : see Oxford. 

— see John of. 

Frisby, Roger, Minorite, executed, 87. 
Fryer, William, alderman, visits Oxford 

friaries, 117, 121 ; obtains lease of 

Grey Friars, 121, 122. 
Fugardi, Rogerus filius, 191, n. i. 
Fulgentius, commentaries on, 170. 
Fulham : see Robert de. 
Fullo, Radulph, Thomas, William, 15, 

n. 2, 19, n. 3. 
Fyfield, 25, n. 9, 104. 


G. de Sancto Edmundo, biogr. notice 
of, 189. 

Gaddesby or Gaddestyn : see Robert de. 
Gaieta : see Peter of. 
Gainsborough : see William of. 
Gallensis, Gualensis : see John Wallensis. 
Gallensis, John, of Volterra, 150. 
Galway, Franciscans of, 267. 
Gamages, Reginald, land in Oxford, 

Garaford : see Richard de. 
Gardener, John, principal of Beef Hall, 

Gardiner, Stephen, trial of, 284, n. i ; 
mentioned, 291. 

Gascoigne, Thomas, Chancellor of Ox- 
ford, on the Franciscan library, 57-9, 
61, n. 7 ; quoted Thomas Docking, 
151, n. 7. 

Gascony, Simon de Montfort in, 138, 

— seized by French King, 161. 
Gaufredi : see Raymund. 

Gaunt, John of. Earl of Lancaster, 81, 

n. 7, 84. 
Gaveston, Piers, 22, 27, 9. 
Gedleston (Gilstone?), 277, n. 6. 
Genoa, general chapters at, 127, 159, 

184, n. I, 186. 

— Franciscan province, 265. 

— plague at, 184. 

Gerald Odonis, Spiritual Minorite, 231. 

German, William, Minorite, 45, 50, n. 
I and 8 ; admitted to Univ. library, 
62, n. 3 ; biogr. notice, 275. 

Germany, provincial ministers of, 128, 
160, n. 9, 181, 188 : see Wygmund. 

— Minorites from, at Oxford, 66, 237, 

Ghent : see Henry of ; Simon of. 
Gigas : see Hermann Gygas. 
Gilbert of Grensted, of Oxford, 304. 
Gilbert Peckham, Minorite, fellow of 

Merton, biogr. notice, 238. 
Gilbert of Preston, 298. 
Gilbert (Stratton), 162, n. 6. 
Giles, friar, 105. 

— (Egidius), Minorite, 142, n. 3. 
Giuliortus de Limosano, wax-doctor, 43 ; 

biogr. notice, 239. 
Giuvenazzo, bp. of, 167. 
Glaseyere, Hugh, Minorite, 116, n. 7; 

biogr. notice, 292. 
Gloucester, Abbat of, 1 36 ; Archdeacons 

of, 106, 218, 290; Minorites at, 44, 

n. 1, 69, 176, 182, 268. 

— mentioned, 188, 296. 

— duke of, 259. 

— see Walter of. 

Goddard, William, provincial, 247 ; 
biogr. notice, 262-4. 

— Warden, London, 263. 
Godham : see Adam Wodham. 
Godstow, nunnery; reformed by Peck- 
ham, 74 ; alms to Oxford friars, 100. 

Golafre, Sir John, buried at Grey Friars, 
Oxford, 25. 

— John, lord of Langley, benefactor, 
25, 104. 

— William, buried at Grey Friars, Ox- 
ford, 25. 

Goldsmith, Margaret, bequest, 106. 
Goldsmith, Walter, Minorite, 271. 
Goldsmith, citizen of Oxford, 15, 20. 
Gonsalvo, minister general, 164, n. 3, 

Gonsalvo of Portugal, Observant Mino- 
rite, 45, 66, n. 9, 88, n. 3 ; inception 
of, 51-2 ; biogr, notice, 264. 

Good (Gude), Thomas : see Thomas 

Goodewyn, Thomas, bequest, 109. 

Goodfield (Goodfylde, Gudfeld), Walter, 
W^arden at Oxford ; 36, n. 9, 52, 53, 
n. 3 ; leases land, 97, 317 ; mentioned, 
271, n. 3, 274; biogr. notice, 131. 

— graces to, 337-8. 

Gorham, Nicholas, works of, 57, 166. 
Gorry (or Grey), John, Minorite of 

Dorchester, agitates among labourers, 

84, n. I. 
Gos, William, tailor, 94. 


Grafton, Edmund, lector, 172. 

Grammont, Order of, 185. 

Grantham, Minorite Convent in the 

Oxford custody, 68. 
Gras : see John le. 
Gratian, decretum of, 57. 
Graynoylles : see Francis de. 
Greek, study of, 42, 59, 112, 113, 249, 

283, 290. 

Greenwich, Observant friary, 88, 290. 
Gregory IX, pope, 8, 57, 69, 72, 179, 

184; explanation of the Rule of St. 

Francis, 325, 327, 331, 334. 
Gregory X, pope, 18, 
Gregory XI, pope, 242. 
Gregory, provincial minister of France, 


Gregory de Bosellis, Minorite, 183 ; 
biogr. notice, 186. 

Gregory of Rimini, 238, n. 3. 

Grene, John, 264. 

Grensted : see Gilbert. 

Grey de Retherfeld, John, gives land to 
Minorites, 20, 305-6. 

Grey Friars : see Franciscan Order. 

Grostete, Robert, bishop of Lincoln ; 
his sayings, 6 ; influence at Oxford, 
8 ; lectures to the Franciscans, 30, 
32, 67, 69, 177, 180, 183, 189, 192; 
bequeaths books to the Franciscans, 
57-9, 138; friendship with Adam 
Marsh, 48, 67, 127, 135, seq.\ in- 
fluence on Roger Bacon, 37, 139, 
192 ; sermon in praise of poverty, 
69 ; quarrel with Innocent IV, 59, 
n. I ; works ascribed to, 151, 223, 
226: see also 4, 61, n, 7, 62, n. i, 
128, 140, 141, 179, 187, 188, 189. 

Gryffith, Maurice, Dominican, 54, n. 6. 

Guaro : see William of Ware. 

Gudman, Ralph, Minorite, 276. 

Guido : see Agnes. 

Guildford, Dominicans at, 89, n. 4. 

Gulac : see Nicholas de. 

Gunter, James, has lease of part of the 
Grey Friars, 123. 

— Richard and Joanna, have part of 
the Grey Friars' property, 122, 123. 

Gunwardeby : see John of, 
Gwent : see Went, John. 


H. M., 152, n. I. 
Hadham, 284. 

Hadley, John, Minorite, 269. 

— R., Observant, 269, n. 6. 
Haldeswel : see Peter of Baldeswell. 
Halegod, Andrew, citizen of Oxford, 


— ^aurence, citizen of Oxford, 295. 

Hales : see Alexander of. 
— see Andrewes, Ric. 
Halifax, Rob. : see Eliphat. 
Hall, Anthony, bequest, 109. 
Halvesnahen : see Hubert of. 
Hampton, 293. 
Hanworth, 292. 
Hanyden : see Anneday. 
Harecourt, Ric, bequest, 108. 
Harlington, 292. 
Harm', Simondez, 275. 
Harmon, 275. 

Harvey, John, warden at Oxford, 54, 
3> 132, 317* 319 >• biogr. notice, 

Hasard, William, proctor, bequest, 107. 
Hastings, John, E. of Pembroke, 264. 
Haureau, M., 149. 

Haymo of Faversham, 7, n. 7 ; pro- 
vincial of England, 14, 177, iSi,n. 10, 
182, 183; prefers manual labour to 
mendicancy, 14; general minister, ii, 
127, 136. 

Hearne, Thomas, 124, 174. 

Hebrew, taught at Oxford, 59, and n. 2 ; 
at reformation, 112, 290. 

Heddele, Hedele, Hedley : see William 
of Heddele. 

FTeddrington, or Herington, Ric, 163. 

Hedyan, James, buried in Franciscan 
Church at Oxford, 26 ; bequest, 105. 

Hekeshovre : see Adam of Bechesoueres. 

Henley, 107. 

Henry III, King of England, grants to 
friars at Oxford, 5, 13, 14, 16, 17, 
18, 21, 22, 69, 70, 296-300, 307-8; 
Cambridge, 97, n. 5 ; Reading, 22 ; 
calls Mad Parliament at Oxford, 72 ; 
takes cross, 136; relations to Adam 
Marsh, 137-8; mentioned, 177, 191, 
302 ; his queen, 137. 

Henry IV, 70, 81, 87, 98, 247, 248, 
249, n. 2. 

Henry V, 98, n. i. 

Henry VI, 98-99 ; his council, 259. 

Henry VII, 98, n. i. 

Henry VIII, grant to Oxford Minorites, 
98, n. I ; royal supremacy, 114, 272, 
273, 287, 289, 291, 293; divorce, 
114-15, 269, 273, 280-1, 282; 
suppression of monasteries, 115, 
290 ; treatment of the friars' pro- 
perty in Oxford, 120, 122 ; court 
preachers of, 271 ; appoints N. de 
Burgo reader at Cardinal College, 
281, 282 : see also 285, 292. 

Henry of Apeltre, lector, 153, n. i ; 
biogr. notice, 156. 

Henry of Ast, minister general, 254, 
n. 9. 

Henry of Bath, 298. 



Henry of Brisingham, lector, 143, n. 11, 
151, n. 4; biogr. notice, 152. 

Henry of Burford, Minorite, 11. 

Henry of Ceruise, vicar of the pro- 
vincial, 178. 

Henry of Costesey (Cossey), biogr. 
notice, 234. 

Henry Cruche, lector, 134, 169. 

Henry de Edrope (Heythrop?), of Ox- 
ford, 304. 

Henry of Ghent, 154, n. 7. 

Henry, son of Henry, citizen of Oxford, 

Henry Lector, of Oxford, 152, 156. 
Henry of Oyta, 173. 
Henry of Reresby, 22 ; biogr. notice of, 

Henry Simeonis, his island in the 

Thames, 16, 17, 297. 
Henry Standish : see Standish. 
Henry Stretsham : see Stretsham. 
Henry of Sutton, 162, n. 16 ; biogr. 

notice, 219. 
Henry, son of Thomas, bailiff of Oxford, 


Hentham : see John of. 

Herberd, Herbert, Herebert, William, 

lector, 169, n. 2 ; biogr. notice, 


Herbert of Denmade, 307. 

Hereford, Grey Friars at, 254, 260; 

school, 34,;?. 3, 261, 313-4; burials 

at, 168, 174, 254. 

— bishop of : see Ralph Maidstone, 
Thomas of Cantilupe, Swinfeld (Ric), 

— dean of, 313. 

— Earl of, stays at Grey Friars, Exeter, 
27, 9 : see Bohun. 

— see A. of. 

— J. of : see Edes, John. 

— Nicholas, sermon against the friars, 
54, 84, 91, n. 8. 

Herefordshire, 286. 

Heresies, eastern, 8, 63, 179: see 
Knights Templars. 

— Franciscan, 70, 82, 85-6, 166, 167, 
257-9, 266-7 : see William of Ock- 

— at Oxford, 70, 73, 82, 85, 86, 166. 

— elsevs^here, 251, 256, 263. 

— see Reformation. 

Hermann of Cologne, Minorite student 
at Oxford, 69, n. 10, 235 ; biogr. 
notice, 236. 

— Gygas {or Gigas), 163, 237. 

— of Saxony, 237. 
Heme, church of, 285. 
Flertepol : see Hugh of. 
Hertford, 211, 213. 
Hertfordshire, 277, n. 6, 283, 284. 

Hertilpoll : see Hugh of Hertepol. 
Herveius de Saham, Chancellor, 133. 
Hevesham : see Hugh of Evesham. 
Heythrop : see Richard of. 
Hibernicus, &c. : see Ireland. 
Hilton, John, biogr. notice, 243. 
Hoger, abbat, 210. 

Hokenorton (Hooknorton), 15, n. 2, 

19, n. 2, 109, n. 2. 
Holawnton (Wilts.), 106. 
Holder, Robert, 94. 
Holiday, Sir Stephen, 292. 
Horley : see John of. 
Hotham : see Nicholas of Ocham. 
Hoveden or Howden : see Adam of, 

John of. 

Howe, John, buys sites of Friaries at 

Oxford, 122, 123. 
Hows, Will., 96, n. 2, 27.6. 
Hoye, Thomas, vicar of Bampton, will 

of, 110. 
Hoyta : see Henry of Oyta. 
Hozon (Hotham ?) : see William of 


Hubert of Halvesnahen, biogr. notice, 

Hugh Balsham, 138. 

— of Bampton, or Bath (Bathamp- 
ton?), provincial, 157. 

— of Cantilupe, 218. 

— of Corbrug, secular master, 331, 334. 

— of Evesham, 331, 333. 

— of Hertepol, lector and provincial : 
proctor of Balliol Coll., 10 ; disputes 
at Oxford, 48, 49 ; presents twenty- 
two friars to the bishop for license 
to hear confessions at Oxford, 63, 
129, 162, 163, 164, 165, 167, 219, 
220, 222 ; employed as ambassador, 
7, n. 10, 161 ; mentioned, 158, 160, 
218 ; biographical notice of, 158-9. 

— Karlelle, at the council of the 
earthquake, 84, 246. 

— of Lyndun, biogr. notice, 186. 

— of Manchester, Dominican, 161. 

— of Mistretune, Dominican, 38. 

— of Newcastle, 167, 3. 

— of Nottingham, 57, 166. 

— Willoughby (Wylluby), chancellor 
and Minorite, notice of, 235. 

Humphrey de Bohun : see Bohun. 
Hundertone, Master Gilbert, 56, n. 2. 
Hungary, Minorite province, 181. 
Hussites, 257, 3. 


Ilchester, R. Bacon born at, 191. 
Ingeham : see Solomon of. 
Ingewrthe : see Richard of. 
Innocent IV, pope, 59, n, i, 72, 77, 
136, 137, 183, 184, 190. 



Innocent VI, pope, 239, ,^12. 

Inquisition, 160, 162, 165, 252. 

Ipswich, Grey Friars at, 27, n. 6. 

Ireland ; Friars from, study at Oxford, 
66 ; visitation of, 1 26 ; provincial 
ministers of, 178, 261, 267: see 142, 
n. 5, 243, n. 2, 266. 

— see Carrewe (David) ; Cusack 
(Isaac) ; Hubert of Halvesnahen ; 
John Duns Scotus (?) ; Lorcan, Ric. ; 
Malachy of Ireland ; Maurice de 
Portu ; Menelaus McCormic ; Stephen 
of Ireland ; Thomas of Ireland ; 
Whythead, John. 

Irishe, Edmund, bailiff of Oxford, 93. 
Isabella, v^'ife of Frederick II, 6, 307. 

— vy^ife of Edward II, 162, 237. 
Italy, 281, 282 ; friars from, at Oxford, 

66 : see Agnellus ; Albert of Pisa ; 
Francis de S. Simone ; Fey (Jacob) ; 
John de Castro ; Laurentius Gul. de 
Savona ; Nicholas de Burgo ; Peter of 
Gaieta ; Philip of Castello. 


J., friar Minor, at Council of Lyons, 

128, n. 5. 
' Jack Upland,' Lollard writer, 83. 
James de Porta, Minorite, 173. 
James, Rob., bequest, 105. 
Jerome (St.), works of, in Franciscan 

library, Oxford, 58. 
Jerome of Ascoli (Nicholas IV), general 

minister, 156, n. i ; holds chapter at 

Paris, 194. 
Jerome of St. Mark, notice of, 239. 
Jewell, John, 290, 

Jews, protected by Adam Marsh, 137: 
see also 9, 167, n. 9, 169, 190. 

Joanna, princess of Wales, 245. 

Joanna, wife of Walter of Wycombe, 20, 

John XXI, pope, 155, n. 4. 

John XXII, pope, bulls in favour of the 
Dominicans at Oxford, 40 ; con- 
troversy with the Franciscans, 77, 92, 
n. I, 158, 166, 224-5, 229 seq., 239, 

John XXIII, pope, 249, 255. 

John, friar. Dr. of Oxford, advocates 

disendowment, 82. 
John, Minorite, gives away a book, 56, 

n. 6. 

John, Roger Bacon's pupil, 33, n. 4 ; 

biogr. notice, 211. 
John of Basingstoke, 206. 

— of Bekinkham, Minorite, 217, 318, 

— of Berwick, lector, biogr. notice of, 


John of Beverley, Minorite, 141, «. 9 ; 
biogr. notice, 186. 

— Canon : see Canon. 

— de Castro (Bologna), Minorite, 45, 
n. 9, 54, w. 3, 66, n. 7 ; biogr. notice, 

— de Clara, 309 ; biogr. notice, 218. 

— of Cobeham, 298. 

— of Codyngton, warden, biographical 
notice, 129. 

— of Coleshull, citizen of Oxford, 304. 

— of Couton, benefactor of the friars 
92, 310. 

— de Crombe, lector, biogr. notice, 166. 

— Duns Scotus, presented for license to 
hear confessions, 64 ; lectures abroad, 
68 ; mentioned, 112, 116, n. 2, 130, 
n. 2, 167, 213, 223, 224, 241, ;z. 4, 262, 
268, 270, 284 ; biographical notice of, 

— of Dunstable, joins Oxford Francis- 
cans ; notice of, 180. 

— of Ew, of Oxford, 304. 

— Feckyngtone : see Feck)'ngtone (John). 

— Gallensis of Volterra, 150. 

— of Gaunt : see Gaunt. 

— le Gras, secular master, expounds 
Franciscan Rule, 331 — 334. 

— of Gunwardeby, of Oxford, 304. 

— of Hentham, ^ syndiciis' 92, 235, 

— of Hereford : see Edes, John. 

— of Horley, lector, 163. 

— of Hovcden or Howden, lector, 172. 

— (of Kent), papal nuncio, 141, n. 2. 

— of Kethene, Minorite, 183. 

— of Lathbury, Minorite, 236 ; biogr. 
notice, 235 {cf. 56, n. 2). 

— Lector of Erfurt, 254, n, 6. 

— Lector of Freiburg, 144, n. 150. 

— of London, 206, 211. 

— London, 237. 

— London, warden of New College : 
see London. 

— of Maidstone, archdeacon of Bedford, 

— Mardisle : see Mardisle. 

— Marshall, 308. 

— of Meslay, visitor of the Oxford 
Dominicans, 334. 

— Nottingham, Minorite, 287. 

— of Nottingham, Minorite, witnesses a 
will. Id, 239. 

treasurer of York, 165. 

— of Okehampton, warden, 92, 310 ; 
biogr. notice, 129. 

— of Oxford, Minorite, 216. 

— Parens, minister general, 178. 

— of Parma, minister general, praises 
the English province, 11, n. 3 ; holds 
chapter at Oxford, 69, 70, 183 ; friend 




of Adam Marsh, 137: see alsoy 187, 
193, 4. 

John Peckham (Pecham, &c.), royal 
commissioner, 9 ; at Oxford, Paris, 
and Rome, 67 ; condemns errors at 
Oxford, 73 ; relations to Thomas 
Aquinas and Dominicans, 73, seg. ; 
favours Franciscans, 74, sends John 
Wallensis as ambassador, 144; works 
by, 150, 215; influenced by Roger 
Bacon, 195, n. 4 ; mentioned, 153, 
156, 157, 211 ; biographical notice, 

— of Persole, Pershore, lector, 48, 49, 
158, n. 6 ; biogr. notice, 159. 

— le Peyntour, auditor, 94, 311. 

— Picard, 172. 

— of Preston, lector, 169. 

— of Ratforde, lector, 169. 

— of Reading, abbat of Osney, joins 
Franciscans, 3 ; mentioned, 187 ; bio- 
graphical notice, 180, 

■ — of Reading, lector, 168. 

— of Reading, minister of Saxony, 181. 

— de Ridevaus, lector, 150, 236 ; biogr. 
notice of, 170-1. 

— of Rodyngton or Rudinton, lector 
and provincial, 174; notice of, 171. 

■ — de Rupellis, Minorite, 67. 

— de Rupescissa, Minorite, 208, n. i. 

— of St. Frideswide, mayor, 103, n. 7. 

— of St. John, bequest, 103. 

• — of Sanford, Abp. Dublin, 129, 
n. I. 

— of Stamford, custodian of Oxford, 
187; Provincial, 68, 138; at Lyons, 
127 ; biographical notice, 128. 

— de Stanle, Minorite, 224, 310, 

— of Stapleton, biogr. notice, 219. 

— of Tevi^kesbury, Minorite, gift to 
library, 60, 251. 

— of Thornton, lector, 168. 

— Tynmouth : see Tinmouth, John. 

— Tyssyngton : see Tyssyngton. 

— Wallensis, lector, 37, n. i, 170; at 
Paris, 68 ; biogr. notice, 143 ; works, 

— Wallensis, Minorite, 311, n. i. 

— of Waltham, bishop of Salisbury, be- 
quest, 104. 

— of Ware, 212 ; r/! 213, 6. 

— of Westburg, Minorite, 219. 

— of Westover, and Isolda, his wife, 
310, n. 2. 

— of Winchelsea, Minorite, notice of, 
223 ; cf. 256. 

— of Wylton, lector, biogr. notice, 166. 
monk, 166, n. 11. 

— de Wyntun, secular master, 331, 335, 

— of Zortone : see John of Thornton. 
•Johnson, Ehzabeth, bequest, no. 

JoUan of Nevill, 298. 

Jordan of Saxony, Master of Friars 
Preachers, 71, n. 4. 

Jordan, William, Dominican, 242. 

Jornton : see John of Thornton. 

Joseph, John, Minorite, 113, n. 7 ; bio- 
graphical notice, 288. 

Julian Caesarinus, cardinal, 249. 

Julius IIj pope, 267. 


Karlelle : see Hugo. 

Katharine of Aragon, 114, 115, 273, 

282 : see Henry VIII. 
Kell, Ambrose, Minorite, admitted to 

University library, 62, n. 3 ; 270. 
Kellawe, Ric. bp. of Durham, 98. 
Kemerdyn, Phil., loi, n. 3. 
Keneyshame, Robert, bedell, his will, 


Kent, 168; sheriff of, 99, 129,308. 

— nun of, 289, 290, n. 5. 

— persecution in, 293. 
Kethene : see John of. 
Kidderminster, Ric., abbat of Winch- 
combe, 49, n. 4, 269, 272. 

Kilwardby, Rob., Abp. of Canterbury, 
73, 160; provincial of the Dominicans, 
326, 327, 328, 329, 333, 334; upholds 
private judgment, 326. 

Kingesthorpe, Ric. : see Ric. of Inge- 

Kingsbury : see Thomas of Kyngesbery. 
Kirkby, 260, n. 7. 

Kirkham, Thomas, Minorite, 113, n. 7; 

opponent of King's divorce, 114; 

grace to, 338 ; biogr. notice, 282. 
Knights Hospitallers, house in Oxford, 


Knights Templars, 160, 162, 1650 

Knolle : see Walter de. 

Knottis, Thomas, biogr. notice, 284. 

Knowlys, Rob., Minorite, 284. 

Knox, James, of Bois-le-Duc, 245. 

Kydmersford : see Adam. 

Kydmynster, Ric. : see Kidderminster. 

Kynton, John, 97, n. 2, 107, 112, it. r, 
316; opposes reformation, 113; atti- 
tude to divorce, 115; biographical 
notice, 268. 

Kyritz, 257. 

Kyrswell : see Creswell, Ralph. 

Lakeor : see Adam de. 
Lamarensis : see William de Mara. 
Lambeth Palace, MS. from Franciscan 
library, Oxford, 59. 

— burial at, 29,:^. 

Lambourn (Berks) 107, (Essex) 290. 



Lambourn, Reginald, fellow of Merton 
Coll., Minorite, biogr. notice, 237. 

— Robert (or John), Minorite, biogr. 
notice of, 237. 

— Simon, of Merton Coll., 237, n. 9. 
Lancashire, 189, 271. 

Lancaster : see Gaunt, John of. 
Landen : see Walter de. 
'Lanercost Chronicle,' written by an 
Oxford Minorite, I, n. i, 27, 30, 167. 
Langberg, of Merton Coll., 137, ft. q. 
Langham, Simon, Abp. of Canterbury, 

Langley (Regis), Dominicans at, 22, 
53, n. 9. 

— see Golafre, John. 
Laodicea, bp. of, 188. 
Laon : see Raymund of. 
Lathbury : see John of. 

Latimer, Hugh, bp. of Worcester, iii. 
Laurence Briton (Wallensis), lector, 

134. 171. 

— of Cornwall, Minorite, 212. 

— of Sutthon, socuis of Adam Marsh, 
34, 140, n. 5 ; biogr. notice, 186. 

Laurentius Gulielmi de Traversagnis 
de Saona, biographical notice of, 265. 

Layton, sent to reform the University, 

Lector : see John. 

Ledbury, John, buys a book, 56, n. 2 

(cf. John Lathbury). 
Legnaco : see ^gidius de. 
Leicester, four Orders at, 103. 

— Dominicans at, 102. 

— Minorite convent, in the Oxford 
custody, 68; lectures at, 186, 275; 
rebel friars at, 87; burials at, 166, 

— Earl of : see Montfort, Simon de. 

— Grostete, archdeacon of, 1 79, tt. 4. 

— see Robert of. 

Leke (Leech), Ric, provincial, 259, 
Leke, Ric, brewer, buried at Grey 
Friars, Oxford, 26 ; lease of land to, 
97, 131, 274, 316-8 ; bequests, 108, 
318 ; servant of John Kynton, 269, 
n. 4, 316. 

Leland, John, visits Franciscan library, 
62 ; on R. Bacon's works, 195 ; 
mentioned, 149, 150, 199. 

Lemster : see William of Leominster. 

Leo X, pope, 110, 

Letheringfont, Minorite, Cambridge, 
49, n. 9. 

Letitia, wife of Simon, son of Benedict, 

15, 298-9. 
Lewes, battle, 72 ; priory, 154. 
Lichfield, Minorites of, 59, n. 3 ; burials 

^t, 169, 259. 

— bp. of: see Roger Wesham. 

Lichfield, diocese, 260, 289. 
Limoges : see Peter of. 
Limosano : see Giuliortus de. 
Lincoln, burials at, 139, 160. 

— bishops of : see Grostete, Richard of 
Gravesend, Sutton (Oliver), Dalderby. 

— William of Alnwick, Suffragan of, 

— archdeacon of, 9; diocese of, 257, 

— see Adam of. 

— John, citizen of London, 272. 
Lincolnshire, 189, 271. 
Lisbon, University, 242. 
Llandaff, bp. of, 255. 

Lock, Margery, 93. 
Lockylsey : see Ralph of. 
Lodore : see Richard le. 
Lollards, 83, 87, 248 : see Wiclif. 
Lombard, Peter : see Sentences. 
Lombardy, an Oxford Minorite teaches 
in, 67. 

London : Austin Friars, 263. 

— Black Friars, council of the Earth- 
quake at, 84, 246 ; prior of, 320, «. 

— Grey Friars: foundation, 2, 176, 

house and convent, 28, 89, n. 2, 

128, 132, 180, 189, 239, 258, 263, 
266, 274, 280, 311 ; numbers, 44, 
n. I. 

political meeting at, 282, n. 11. 

privileges to inmates, 237, 239, 

247; 312-3. 
property of a London Minorite, 

78, 311. 
church, 25. 

burials in, 126, 129, 130, 131, 

155, 162, 240, 241, 247, 251, 252, 
256, 263, 264, 265, 268, 269, 273, 
275, 277. 

— —Chapters at, 69, and n, 4, 235. 
custody, 175. 

schools, 35, n. 3, 130, 172, 181, 

186, 188, 246, 277, 306, 311. 

exhibition for a London Mi- 
norite, 53, n. 7, 

library, 144, n. 5, 150, 173, 233, 


dissolution, 288. 

Wardens, 78, n. 3, 83, 89, n, 2, 

112, 127, 131, 136, n. 4, 212, 258, 

263, 265, 269, 272, 276. 
Vice-warden, 129. 

— bishops of, 10, 258, 260 281, n. 3, 
284, n. I ; diocese, 261. 

— St. Paul's, convocation at, 257 ; pre- 
bendary of, 284 ; Cardmaker reader 
in, 291. 

Cross, sermons, 46, n. 9, 53, 113, 

A a 2 


130, 258, 263, 263, 278, 279, 284, 
285, 287, 289, 292. 
London, Parishes ; St. Andrew Under- 
shaft, 287 ; St. Bride's, Fleet Street, 
2QI ; St. George's, BotolphLane, 293, 
n. 3; St. Leonard's Shoreditch, 290; 
St. Martin's in the Fields, 286 ; St. 
Martin's Outwich, 283; St. Mary at 
Axe, 287 ; St. Mary at Bowe, 289 ; St. 
Mary Magdalen, Old Fish Street, 293, 
n. 7 ; St. Owen's, 128 ; St. Vedast's, 

— Bridge, head of a Franciscan rebel 
oh, 87. 

— Smithfield, burnings at, 29T. 

— Compter (prison), 291. 

— Fleet (prison), 291. 

— College of Physicians, 119-120. 

— Parliament at, A. Marsh called to, 
137;. 32, n. 3. 

— foreign traders in, 272. 

— mentioned, 99, 103, 104, 106, 281. 

— see John of; Thomas of. 
London, Dr. John, Warden of New 

College, no, n. i, 166, n. 8 ; Visits 

the Oxford friaries, 11 7- 121, 132; 

and other friaries, 133. 
Longespee, Ela, countess of Warwick, 

300, n. I. 
Loo, J., 96, n. I. 

Lorcan, Richard, Irish Minorite at 

Oxford, loi, 276. 
Louis IX (St.), King of France, 138, 

n. 3, 140. 

Louis of Bavaria, emperor, 225, 231, 

Lovell, William Lord, buried in Grey 
Friars Church, Oxford, 26, 106. 

Ludford, Simon, Minorite, becomes 
apothecary and physician, 119, 294. 

Ludgershall, 271. 

Lull, Lully, Raymund, 59, n. 2, 255. 

Lundia, abp. of, 140, n. 6. 

Lusetanus : see Peter. 

Luther, Martin, 113, 269, 281, 286. 

Lymynster : see Richard. 

Lynn, Grey Friars, numbers, 44, n. i, 

283; burial at, 129; mentioned, 271. 

Observant at, 277. 

Lyons, council of, 15, 18, 67, 127, 128, 

137, 140. 

— general chapter at, 159, 161, 218. 

— Franciscan school at, 66, n. 10. 
Lyra : see Nicholas de. 


M'^Carmacan, or M^Cormic: see Me- 

Madele : see Walter of. 
Magalona (Montpellier), bp. of, 144, 

n. 8. 

Magdeburg, abp. of, 257 

Mahomet, works on, 148. 

Maidstone : see John of ; Ralph of ; 

Thomas of Maydenstan. 
Major, John, 172, n. 11. 
Malachias of Ireland, Minorite, student 

at Oxford, 66, n. ^\ 223. 
Maldon, John, provost of Oriel^ bequest, 


Malevile, Richard, lector, 175. 
Mallaert, John, Minorite, 70, 253. 
Malmesbury, Henry, bequest, 103. 

— see Thomas of. 
Manchester : see Hugh of. 
Manners : see Peter of. 
Mansoarah, battle of, 138, n. 3, 140. 
Mantes, 127. 

Mara, forest of, 215, n. i, 

— see William de Mara. 
Marbres, John, 224, n. i. 

Mardisle (Mardeslay), John, provincial, 

argues against papal tribute, 81, 7, 

biogr. notice, 242. 
Maricourt (Maharncuria) : see Peter de. 
Marseilles, general chapter, 235. 
Marsh (de Marisco) : see Adam ; Richard ; 

Marshall, Earl, 7, 177. 
Marshall, Hugh, his tenement in Oxford, 

16, 298. 

— John, 308. 

Marsilius of Padua, 77, 114, n. 4, 224, 

Marston : see Roger. 

Martin IV, pope, 92, n. i, in, n. 6. 

— V, pope, constitutions for Friars 
Minors, 53, n. 8, 65, n. 6, 92, n, i, 

— king of Aragon, 255. 

— Warden at Oxford, mentioned, 186, 
189 ; biogr. notice, 129. 

— the old, Minorite, 129. 

— of Alnwick, lector, biogr. notice, 

— de Barton, Minorite, 129. 

— de Sta. Cruce, bequests, 102, 143. 
Martinus Pol onus, 164. 

Martoke, John, fellow of Merton, be- 
quest, 106. 

Mary, the Virgin, works on, &c., 49, 
67, n. 2, 212, 214, 242, 250, 254; cf. 

Mary, queen, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 

291, 292, 293. 
Maryner, William, citizen of London, 

53, 7- 

(Matthew), provincial of Dominicans, 
signs Charter for University, 8 ; 
ambassador, 137, 307. 

Matthew, Garret, 96, n. i. 

Matthew Doring : see Doring. 



Maurice de Portu, Minorite at Oxford, 
66, n. 5 ; biogr. notice, 267. 

Mawket, Giles, carpenter in Oxford, 

Maynelyn : see Tinmouth, John. 
Mayronis : see Francis de Mayronibus. 
Mediavilla : see Richard Middleton. 
Melitona, Middleton, Milton : see Wil- 
liam of Middleton. 
Melton : see William de. 
Mendicant Orders, 78, 79, 80-85. 

— bequest to, 218, n. 4. 

— pensions at the Dissolution, 119, 130. 

— provincials of, 80. 

— see Oxford, Mendicant Orders at ; 
Richard Fitzralph, Wiclif. 

Menelaus MacCormic, or MacCarma- 

'can, biogr, notice, 267. 
Menyl : see William de. 
Mepham, Ric, archdeacon of Oxford, 

grants land to the Minorites, 15, 17, 


Merc : see Eustace of. 

Mercator's Atlas, 245. 

Mercer : see Benedict le. 

Mercer : see Robert le. 

Merlawe : see Roger de. 

Merschton : see Roger Marston. 

Mertherderwa, Reginald, bequest, 105, 

261, n. 8. 
Merlon : see Walter de. 
Merton College : see Oxford. 
Meslay : see John of. 
Metz, general chapter, 183, 186: see 

Albert of. 

Michael de Cesena, general minister, 

168, 225, 229, 231. 
Middlesex, 122, 292. 
Middleton, John : see John de Wylton ; 

Richard ; William of Middleton. 
Midelton, abbey of, 84, n. i. 
Midford, 292. 

Milan, general chapter, 66, «. 6, 157 ; 
Franciscan schools, 267. 

— abp. of, 249. 

Miller : see Philip, and Richard. 
Milo, draper of Oxford, 296. 
Milton (near Oxford), 103. 
Mincy, William, Minorite at Oxford, 

[Minorites : see Franciscan Order. 
Mirandola, J. Pico de, 159, 234. 
Missionaries, friars as, 7, 128, 139, n. 8, 

140, 178, 179, 183, 244. 
Mistretune : see Hugh of. 
Mogynton : see Robert de. 
Monks, 78, 114, 119; attacks on, 81, 

253 : see Benedictines, Cistercians, 


Montfort, Amaury de, bequests, 102, 

Montfort, Eleanor de, 137, 186. 

— Simon de, Earl of Leicester, friend 
of Adam Marsh and Grostete, 32, 
137; honoured by the Franciscans, 
32-3, 72, 141, 212; letter to, 168; 
Gregory of Bosellis with, 186. 

Morgan, Oxford Dominican, 267. 
Morleyse, W^alter, bequest, 105. 
Morton, Walter, grants land to Minor- 
ites, 20. 

Morton, Sir William, 16, n. 3, 124; 

Anne his wife, 124. 
Moryn, Walter, 101. 
Morys, John, 93. 
Moses, Rabbi, works, 292. 
Muliner : see Miller. 
Multifemana (Meath diocese), 213. 
Multon, Ralph de, scholar, 187. 
Munich, 225. 

Musca : see John de Ridevaus. 
Mymekan, Roger, of Oxford, 304. 


N. de Ewelme, Chancellor, takes part 
in controversy between Dominicans 
and Franciscans, 77, 329, 330, 331, 
334, 335. 

Naples, University, \\ illiam of Alnwick 
teaches at, 167 ; Peter of Gaieta, D.D. 
of, 235. 

Narbonne, 144, n. 8 ; general chapter 

at, 194, u. I. 
Netter, Thomas, of Walden, Carmelite, 

58 ; pupil of VV. Woodford, 247. 
Nevill : see Jollan of. 
Newark, Observant Friars of, 286, 


Newcastle, Grey Friars, numbers, 44, 
n. I ; school, 35, n. 3 ; burial at, 
163 ; dissolution, 292 : see Hugh 

Newman, Rob., Minorite, reformer, 
113, n. 7, 119; has a living, 119; 
biogr. notice, 293. 

Newmarket : see Robert of. 

Newport : see William of. 

Nicholas IH, pope, 77, n. I, 155, 

— IV, pope : see Jerome of Ascoli. 

— of Anivers, 66, n. 6 ; biogr. notice, 

— de Burgo, lectures at Oxford, 36, w. 
9, 53, 2, 66, 7 ; his composition 
remitted, 51 : see 97, n. 1 ; humanist, 
113; supports royal divorce, 115; 
biogr. notice, 280. 

— of P'akenham, commissioner to de- 
pose provincial, 70 ; biogr. notice, 

— de Gulac, biogr. notice, 212. 

— Hereford : see Hereford. 



Nicholas, of Lynn, Carmelite, 245. 

— de Lyra, IMinorite, 32, n. 4, 257. 

— of Ocham, lector, mentioned, 229 ; 
biogr. notice, 158. 

— de Schomberg, or Scombergt, Ger- 
man Dominican, 281, n. 3. 

— Specialis, Minorite historian, 158, 

— de Tyngewick, 10, 168. 

— of Weston, citizen of Oxford, bequest, 


Norfolk, 99, 125, 130, 151, 169, 17S, 
180, 189, 234, 252, 315 : see Adam 

Normanville : see Eustace of. 

North Pole, voyage of an Oxford 
Franciscan to, 245. 

Northampton, Grey Friars, foundation, 
126, 178 ; in the Oxford custody, 
68 ; school, 64, n. ^\ z. friar of, 56, 
n. 2 : see also 180; burials at, 129, 
71. 6, 153, 236, 237. 

— archdeacon of, 4. 
Northamptonshire, 156, n. 2, 238. 
Northumberland, 153, 292. 

Norton, Agnes, buried in the Fran- 
ciscan Church, Oxford, 26 j bequest, 

Norwich, Grey Friars at, numbers, 44, 
n. I ; school, 64, 5, 65, 139, n. 8, 
140, 172, 249 : see also iii, 151, 153, 
158, 170, 241, 243, 256. 

— librar)^, MSS. in, 172, 173. 

— bp. of, 31, n. I, 167, n. I. 

— synod, 256. 

Notly, John, Minorite, 288. 

Nottingham, Grey friars at, in the 
Oxford custody, 68, 187, 250: see 
Augustine of ; Hugh of ; John of ; 
Robert of ; "William of (2). 

— county, 286. 

Nottynge : see John Nottingham. 
Noyf, Roger, 12, 2. 
Nutone, John, friar, lectures at Oxford, 

Nycopia : see Peter Pauli de. 


Observant Friars : see under Franciscan 

Ocham : see Nicholas of ; William of 

Ochampton : see John of. 
Ockham : see William of. 
Ocle or Okele, John, bequest, 104, 


Oen or Owen, Robert, citizen of Oxford, 

Oen or Owen, Robert, son of Robert, 
13; 20, n. 5, 296. 

O'Fihely : see Maurice de Portu. 
Oliver de Encourt, Dominican, 9, 

OHvi : see Peter John Olivi. 

Olliff, John, Minorite, 119, 294. 

O'Really, William, provincial of Ire- 
land, 261. 

Oterborne, Thomas, lector, biogr. notice 
of, 174. 

Ottaviano Scotto, printer at Venice, 267, 
n. 5. 

Otto Brunsfelsius, 287. 
Ottobon, legate, 156, 212. 
Oxford : Endowed Orders. 

Monks, expenses at inception, 51, 52 ; 
inception of a monk, 237. 

— numbers of students (Benedictine 
and Cistercian), 54. 

Dissolution, 1 16, 4, 119 : see Bene- 

?lictines, and Monks. 
Bee, fee of the abbat of: see Bee. 
Osney Abbey (Austin Canons), 15, 

71. 2, 19, 71. 2, 100, 107, 109, 71. 5, 

300, 71. I : see John of Reading. 
Re=vvley Abbey (Cistercians), 107. 
St. Frideswide's (Austin Canons), 15, 

71. 2, 46, 71. 9, 74, 84, 85, 107 : see 

John of St. Frideswide. 

Mendicant Orders. 
alms and bequests, 54, 100, 103-110, 


feasts and expenses at inception, 50, 

51, 246. 
necessary regency, 52. 
numbers of students, 54. 
excluded from congregation, 52, 261, 


— library, 62. 

attacks on and unpopularity of, 40, 

79, 84, 90, n. 6. 
support Abp. Arundel, 85. 
wax-doctors, 43, 239, 252. 
visitation and suppression, 116, 117, 


Austin Friars, 75, 103, 121, 160; 
258, 71. 7 : see Oxford, Mendicant 

Carmelites, 55, 71. i, 75, 84, 94, 7t. 10, 
103, 109, III, 121, 252 : see Oxford, 
Mendicant Orders. 

Dominicans, receive the Minorites, 
2 ; controversies with them, 59, 
71. 9, 71-8, 129, 151, 153, 155, 
156, 158, 212, 320-335; cf. 80, 
n. 2. 

— provincial prior signs charter for 
the University, 8. 

— controversy with the University, 
39-41, 65, 7t. 3, 165. 

— academical exercises at the Black 
Friars, 46, 49. 



Oxford : — Mendicant Orders. 
Dominicans, schools and scholars, 37, 
notes 4, 5, 6 ; 43, n. 7, 267. 

— numbers, 54. 

— prior of the, 9, 73, n. 3. 

— Mad Parliament at, 72 ; Edward 
(I) stays at, ibid. 

— feasts at the burial of Piers Gaves- 
ton, 27, «. 9. 

— accused of stirring up rebellion, 

— burial at, 104. 

— alms, 6, 23, n. I, 55, n. 3, 100, 
307, 308. 

— bequests to, 102, 103,104, 105, 106, 
107, 108, 109, no ; 261, n. 8. 

— (Preachers' Bridge, 17, n. 4.) 

— Dissolution, 118 ; lease of the site, 
1 21-124: see Oxford, Mendicant 

Franciscans: wTable of Contents; 
Franciscan Order. 
Custody, 68, 171-2, 180, 238. 
Friary, foundation of, 2-3, 178. 

— houses, 3, 12, 21-8, 176-7, 295, 
seq., 318, 320. 

Vice-chancellor's court at, 95-6, 


— Church, 3, 6, 21-6, 39, 46, 49, 
104, 105, 106, 117, 123, 124, 177, 
180, 182, 251, 273, 299, 318. 

— — sermons in, 46, 181, 275, 290. 

used as a sanctuary, 308. 

gild in, 24, no. 

— Churchyard, 17, 19, 27, 106, 122, 
123, 300. 302. 

— Property, held for the friars by the 
city, 3, 13, 295 ; by the King, 17, 
299 ; cf. 76-7, 322. 

— Boteham, 122, 123. 

— Paradise : see Oxford City. 

— garden leased to Richard Leke : 
see Leke. 

— Library, Part I, Ch. IV; 195, n. 
4, 251, 273, 283. 

— Schools, Part I, Ch. Ill; 21, 66, 
67, n. 2, 177, 186, 189, 246, 251, 
278, 284, 329. 

payments at inceptions, 41, 50- 

2, 132,258, 260, 264, 265, 267, 269, 
270, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 
280, 282, 283, 284, 336-8. 

gratuitous lecturing, 36, 53, 

131, 280, 338. 

foreign friars at, 18, 66, 309, 

312: see under names of the various 

Oxford Franciscans at other 

Universities, 66-7, 276 : see Bo- 
logna, Cambridge, Naples, Padua, 

^ Paris, Rome, Toulouse. 

Friary, Relations to Dominicans : see 
Oxford, Dominicans. 

— Number of friars, 43-4, 54. 

— Royal grant of 50 marcs, 97-9> 
129, 130, 217, 218, 224, 267, n. 2, 
308, 309, 315. 

— wardens, Part II, Ch. I ; vice- 
warden : see Bacheler Q."). 

— warden at the capture of Tripoli, 8. 

— chronicles by Oxford Franciscans : 
see Lanercost, Thomas of Eccleston ; 
cf. Bassett (J.), Martin of Alnwick, 
Oterbome (T.), Somer (J.). 

— voyage of an Oxford Franciscan to 
the North Pole, 245. 

— Dissolution, Part I, Ch. VIII; 
132, 292, 293, 294. 

Sack, Friars of the (or of the 
Penance of Jesus Christ), settle in 
Oxford, 17, 300 ; place bought 
from Walter Goldsmith, 20. 

— property comes into the hands of 
the Franciscans, iS, 19, 20, 44, n. 

I, 301-3- 
Oxford City : 

state of, at time of the Dissolution, 

citizens subscribe to buy a house for 

the Grey Friars, 13, 295-6. 
the poor of Oxford, 5-6, 307. 
Pestilence, 53, 279, 338. 
Robbers in the neighbourhood of, 4, 

188, 246. 
Document dated at, 512. 

Government and officers. 
Burgesses, 21. 

Mayors, 13, 17, 20, n. 5, 60, 103, 
117, 121, 170, 295, 296, 297, 299, 

Aldermen, 106, no, n. i, 117, 121, 

Bailiffs, 5, 69, n. 4, 93, 296, 297, 307, 

jurisdiction over the friars, 60, 92, 

Hustings Court, 92, loi, 310. 
sworn inquisitions, 15, n. i, 19, 20, 

28, n. 2, 303-5. 
Jirma bttrgi, 5, 69, it. 4, 121, 307. 
Local Divisions. 
Churches and Parishes — 
All Saints, 95, no. 
Carfax, proclamation at, 86 ; re- 
cords, 124, n. 6. 
Holywell, 109. 
St. Aldate, 14, n. 5. 
St. Budoc (Bodhoc), 14, 16, 17, 19, 

297j 300, 301, 302. 
St, Ebbe, parish, 2, 12, 13, 14, 15, 
28,94,95, 124,178,295,297,299; 
alms to friars, 100; church, 2 3, 26, 



Oxford : City — Chtmhes and Par- 

n. 2, 318; rector, charge of adul- 
tery against, 75, n. 2 ; tenement 
in, 105. 

St. Giles, 124, n. 6. 

St. Mary Magdalen, 103, n. 6, 107. 

St. Mary the Virgin : see under 
Oxford, University. 

St. Michael, 13, 296. 

St. Peter le Bailey, 74, 124, 6. 

St. Peter in the East, sermon at, 
280, 288. 
Streets, ^c. — 

Beef Lane, 28. 

Bridge Street, 27. 

Charles Street, 17, 4, 28. 

Church Place, 23, 28. 

Church Street, or Freren Street, 13, 

Grandpont (Folly Bridge), 104. 
Horsemonger Street, 298. 
Littlegate Street, 14, 16, 1 7, n. 4,28. 
Norfolk Street, 16, n. 3. 
Paradise garden, place, and square, 

15, n. 2, 16, n. 3, 19, 23, 122, 

123, 124. 
Penson's Gardens, 27. 
Preachers' Bridge, 17, n. 4. 
School Street, 37. 
Wheeler's Garden, 23. 
Cherwell, 28. 

Thames, 28; island in the, 16-17, 

Trill Mill Stream, 16, 19, 22, 27, 
T23, 297, 301. 
Buildings and Institutions — 

Bear inn, 95, 285. 

Fleur de Lys, 96. 

Bocardo, 94, 95, 115. 

Castle, 14, 297, 299, 

Eastgate, 12, n. 2. 

Hospital of St. John, 12, n. 2. 

Littlegate : see Watergate. 

Northgate, 16, 296, 298. 

Southgate, 1^, n. 5, 104. 

Watergate (t??- Littlegate), 14, 17, n. 
4, 23, 297, 299. 

Westgate, 16, 19, 23, 297, 299. 

Wall, 13, 14, 16, 20, 22, 23, 296, 
297, 299, 304. 

— mural mansion, 13, 296. 
Fair at Austin Friars, 121. 
Gild of St. Mary in the Grey Friars 

Church, no; cf. 24. 
Hospitallers (St. John of Jerusalem), 

house belonging to, 13, 296. 
— see Jews. 

Oxford: University. 

University : visited by Abp. Arundel, 

Oxford : University. 

85, 112: reformed by Cromwell, 

Government and Officers. 
Charter of Hen. Ill to, 8. 
Chancellor, delegate of the bp. of 

Lincoln, 8, n. 5, 217; election of, 

— court and jurisdiction, 8, 9, 93-7, 
loi, 130, 155, 268, 274, 276, 286, 

— proclamation against French stu- 
dents, 86. 

— conferment of degrees, 31, 10, 

38, 39. 40; 4i» 45, 4<5, 48, 49, 
165, n. 7, 253, 265, 274, cf. 280, 


— relation to the friars, 75, 77. 

— attitude to Wiclif, 84, 85, 251. 

— executor of a will, 102, n. i. 

— seal of, 260. 

— see Berton, William ; Colman, 
Robert, Minorite ; Eustace of Nor- 
maneville, Minorite ; Gascoigne, 
Thomas ; Hugh of Willoughby, 
Minorite ; N. de Ewelme ; Radulph 
of Sempringham; Richard Fitz- 
ralph ; Symon of Ghent. 

Vice-Chancellor, or Commissary, 95, 
1 10, 131, 132, 265, 268, 282, 316-7, 
318-9, 338 : see Chancellor, court. 

Proctors, 38, 40, 41, 45, 84, 107, 
130, n. 9, 165, n. 7, 258, n. 7, 
260, 267, 336. 

Congregation, 38, 40, 47, 48, 51, 82, 
141, 256, 260, 265, 270, 

— exclusion of friars from, 52 : see 
Oxford, Mendicant Orders. 

Bedells, 26, 50, 53, 278, 279, 330. 

Faculties ; study of Arts before The- 
ology, 37-42, 45, 50. 14I' 192, 265. 

Poem De laude Univ. Oxon, 253. 

Lutheran doctrines condemned, 269. 

Secular students ; numbers accord- 
ing to Ric. Fitzralph, 79-80 ; be- 
quests to, 109, 273 ; gifts to, 280, 
338; expenses at inception, 51; 
murder of a scholar, 17, 297; 
assault on a scholar, 269, n. 4. 

Northerners and Irish students, 142, 
n. 5. 

Local Divisions. — 

Colleges and Halls — 
All Souls. 

Balliol, connexion of Franciscans 
with, 9, 158, 168, 216-217, 260. 
— library, 61, 7 : see also, 79, 106. 
Beef Hall, 130. 

Brasenose College and Hall, 107, 
191, n. 4. 



Oxford : University — Colleges and 

Broadgates Hall, 95, 288. 
Christ Church, or Cardinal College, 


Corpus Christi, 109. 

Durham, 61, 7 ; alms to friars, 100 ; 

burial at, 269. 
Eagle Hall, 105. 
Exeter College, 108. 
Gloucester : see Oxford, Monks. 
Lincoln, 59, 61, n. 7, 107. 
Magdalen, 107, 109, 266, 269, 290; 

N. de Burgo lectures at, 282. 
Merton, founder, 9, 102; warden, 

loo-i ; fellows, 106, 130, n. 9, 

175, 251, n. 2; mentioned, 260; 

fellows of, become Franciscans, 

223, 237, 277. 

— Franciscans claimed as Mertonians, 
154, n. 4, 160, 191, n. 4, 214, n. i, 
219, n. 8. 

New, 7, n. 3, 58, n. 9, 289 : see 

London, J., warden of. 
Oriel, 59, n, 7, 61, n. 7, 104. 
Peckwater's Inn, 95. 
St. Bernard's College : see Oxford 

St. John's, 25, n. 9. 
Institutions and Buildings — 
University Chests, 256, 260. 
University Library, exclusion of the 

friars from, 62 ; admission to, 62, 

270, 275, 277. 
— Bodleian, 59, 60. 

— MSB. written at Oxford, 166, 208, 
225, 268, cf. 59, 60, 245, 252. 

— Books printed at, 226, 236. 

— Booksellers at, 61. 

— Archives, Tyssyngton's treatise 
kept in, 251. 

University Church (St. Mary's), 44, 
48, 49, 52, 84, 168, 270, 274, 275, 
278, 284, 285, 287, 290, 293. 

Schools, 31, 37, 41, 45, 46, 47, 261, 
262, 274, 275, 279, 336; building 
of, 41, 265. 

Margaret Professor of Divinity, 269. 
Oxford County, 122, 163. 

Sheriff, 5, 14, n. 7, 17, 23, n. i, 60, 
70, n. 3, 297, 298, 309. 

— receives land for the use of the 
Franciscans, 299. 

Oxford Diocese, 289. 

Archdeacon of: see Mepham, Ric, 
Robert Marsh; 49, n. 8, 75, loi, 
n. 5, 102, n. I. 
Archdeaconry of, 1 29 {see Confessions). 
Oxford, see Adam of; John of; 

Stephen of Ireland. 
Owayn, Henry, heirs of, 2a. 

Owen, Robert : see Oen. 
Owtred, J.: see Ughtred Bolton. 
Oyta : see Henry of. 


P. of Worcester, his bible, 56, n. 3* 

Padua, 266, 267 : see Anthony of, 

Marsilius of. 
Pady, John, mayor of Oxford, 13, 295. 
Palestine, 139, n. 8, 178 : see Saracens, 

Missionaries, Crusades. 
Palmer, Ralph, of Oxford, 296. 
Papudo : see Anthony. 
' Pardoners,' 83. 
Parens : see John. 
Paris, synod at, 194. 

— University, 66, n. 5, 73, n. i, 231, 
n. 2, 253. 

teaching of theology, 36-7. 

— Carmelites, 103. 

— Dominicans at, 36, 39, 43, n. 7, 
334, n. 3. 

— Franciscans : general chapters at 
Paris, 157, 194, 309. 

at, school for boys, 43. 

statutes, &c., respecting, 35, 51 : 

cf. 220, 235. 

English, called to, 67, 137, 189. 

Oxford Franciscans teach or study 

at, 139, 142, 143, 154, 162, 166, 
167, 182, 187, 192, 193, 213, 214, 
215, 220, 222, 223, 224, 238, 242, 
243, 244, 249, 283; cf 211, 266, 

degrees conferred by pope, 244. 

appointment of lecturers, 220. 

bequest to, 103. 

Observant Friars, 88. 

see also 49, n. 9, 56, 155, 176. 

Paris, Matthew, quoted, 31, 82, n. 3, 

139, 177. 191- 
Parkinson, 124. 
Parma : see John of. 
Parott, John : see Porrett. 
Passelewe, Rob., justice in Eyre, 23, 

n, I. 
Pastoureaux, 193. 

Paston, John, Eait., Sheriff, ^9, 130, 

Paul, St. : see Bible. 
Paul, Burgos, 257. 
Paulinus, 188. 

Payne, Hugh, Observant, 289. 
Peasant Revolt, 78, 7t. 4, 84. 
Peckham : see Gilbert. 

— see John. 

Pecock, Reginald, bp. of St. Asaph and 

Chichester, 263. 
Pekin, Franciscan bishop of, 244. 



Peldon, 287. 

Pembroke, Earl of, 264. 

Penerton, James, 94. 

Penitence : see Sack, friars of the ; and 

Oxford, Mendicant Orders, Friars of 

the Sack. 
Pennard, 158, n. 3. 

— William, of Oxford, 304. 
Pennis : see Peter de. 
Penreth, John, 60. 
Pentecost, bailiff of Oxford, 296. 
Peraud : see William de. 

Percevall, John, provincial minister, 

biogr. notice, 268. 
Pereson, John, bequest, 107. 
Perot, William, bequest, 107. 
Perpignan, general chapter, 229. 
Persole (Pershore) : see John of. 
Person, John, lector at London, 277. 
Perugia, general chapter, 166, 167, 


Peshall, Sir J., 124. 
Pestilence : see Oxford, City. 
Peter, lecturer to the friars, bp. in 
Scotland, 30, 31. 

— d'Ailly, cardinal, 231. 

— of Baldeswell, lector, 163. 

— of Gaieta, biogr. notice, 235. 

— John Olivi, 144, 157, 164, 214 
215, n. 

— ofLim.oges, 151, 226. 

— Lombard : see Senteitces. 

— Lusetanus, Minorite, 66, n. 9 ; 
biogr. notice, 270. 

— of Manners, Dominican, 39, 141. 

— of Maricourt (Maharncuria), 209. 

— Pauli de Nycopia, Oxford friar, 268. 

— de Pennis, work on Mahomet, 148. 

— Philargus of Candia : see Alexander 

— of Sutton, lector, 165. 

— of Tewkesbury, custodian of Oxford 
and provincial, 11, 68, 187 ; obtains 
papal privileges for the Order, 72 ; 
minister of Cologne, 188 ; vicar of 
Agnellus, 177; mentioned, i, n. 1, 
65, 7t. 4, 126, n. 3; 139, n. 8, 142; 
biographical notice. 

— son of Thorald, Mayor of Oxford, 20, 
n. 5, 296. 

— of Todworth, Minorite, 219. 
Peterborough, diocese, 289. 
Peyntour : see John le. 
Peyrson, Thomas, Minorite, 277. 
Philargus : see Alexander V. 

Philip the Fair, King of France, 159, 

Philip, miller, Oxford, 295. 

— of Bergamo, 148, 151. 

— of Briddilton, or Bridlington, lector, 

Philip of Castello (Arezzo), Minorite, 
biogr, notice, 243. 

— Torrington, bp. of Cashel, biogr. 
notice, 224. 

— Wallensis, lectures at Lyons, 67, n. i. 

— Zoriton : see Phil. Torrington. 
Pico, J., of Mirandola, 159. 

Pisa : see Agnellus of, Albert of, Bar- 
tholomew, Francis de S. Simone. 

— coimcil of, 249. 

Plummer, William, of Oxford, no, n. 
I, 318. 

Pokelington ; see William of. 
Poker, John, 95. 
Pole, Cardinal, 293. 
Polton, Philip, bequest, 106. 
Pomay : see William. 
Pontefract : see Thomas of. 
Pope, confers degrees, 35, 235, 242, 
243-4, 244. 

— influence in appointing provincial 
ministers, 70, 254, 255, 256, 261. 

— English tribute, 81, 242. 

Porrett, John, Minorite, admitted to 
University library, 62, 3 ; lectures 
on St. Paul, 113, n. 5 ; biogr. notice, 

Porta : see James de. 

Portu : see Maurice de. 

Portugal, friars from at Oxford, 66; 
Observants of, 265 : see Anthony 
Papudo, Gonsalvo of Portugal, Peter 
Lusetanus, Thomas of Portugal. 

Poverty : see Evangelical. 

Prato : see William de. 

Prest, wife of, burned, 286. 

Preston : see Gilbert of, John of. 

Prophet, John, dean of Hereford, 313-4. 

Pulet, Isaac, Jew, 9. 

Puller, Robert, Minorite, 96, n. 3, 285, 
286, 288, 290. 

Pye, Alderman, visits Oxford friaries, 
117, lease of the Grey Friars, 121-3. 


Quesuell, Peter, 224, n. i. 
Quinton (Quainton?), 25. 


R. de Wydeheye, lecturer to the monks 

at Canterbury, 66. 
Radford : see Thomas. 
Radley, 94. 

Radnor, Thomas, provincial, 262 ; 

biogr. notice, 260. 
Ralph of Colebruge, lector, 34, 71. 3 ; 

biogr. notice, 139. 

— of Lockysley, lector, 165. 

— of Maidstone, Minorite, bp. of Here- 
ford, helps to build Franciscan Church 
at Oxford, 3; biogr. notice, 182. 



Ralph, of Rheims, 177. 

— of Swelm (Ewelme?), Dominican 
prior at Oxford, 334. 

— de Toftis, lector, 157. 
Raphoe, bp. of, 267. 
Ratforde : see John of. 
Raxach : see Dalmacus de. 
Raymund Gaufredi, general minister, 

194; work by, 208 ; letter to, 218. 

— of Laon, recommends Roger Bacon 
to pope, 193. 

— Lullus : see Lully. 

— of Pennaforte, 57. 

Reading, Grey Friary, 4, i, 22, 23, 
27, notes 3, 5 ; 235-6, 255, 293. 

numbers, 44, n. i ; in the Oxford 

custody, 68 ; burial at, 260. 

— library, &c., 150, 166, 235-6. 

— Adam Marsh called to, 137. 

— monk of, 178. 

— see John of. 
Redclive: see Robert of. 

Rede, William, of Merton, 237, 238. 
Redovallensis : see John de Ridevaus. 
Reformation, 113, 269, 272, 273, 2S3, 

285, 286, 287, 289, 290, 291, 292, 


Reginald de sub muro, 19, 71. 3. 

Rense, council, 225. 

Repyngdon, Philip, Lollard, 84. 

Reresby: see Henry of. 

Retherleld (Rotherfield), 20, 305-6. 

Rice: see Robert ap. 

Richard, II, 25 ; favours Mendicants at 
Oxford, 41, cf. 252 ; Franciscans 
loyal to his memory, 86-7 ; grant to 
the Franciscans in arrear, 98 : see 
243, 245, 250, 253, 311, 312. 

— Earl of Cornwall and King of the 
Romans, benefactor of the Oxford 
Franciscans, 25; his heart buried in 
their church, 25 ; known to Adam 
Marsh, 137. 

— socius of W. of Nottingham, dies at 
Genoa, 184. 

— servant of J. de Couton, 92, 310. 

— Brynckley: see Brinkley. 

— de Bury, bp. of Durham, 61. 

— of Clare, escheator, 303. 

— of Conyngton (Coniton), lector, pro- 
vincial, 160, It. 5, 166; biogr. notice, 

— (Rufus) of Cornwall, lector ; his secre- 
tary, 56, n. 5, 187 ; at Paris, 66, n. 6, 
67 : bequest to, 102 ; mentioned, 151, 
n. 3; biogr. notice, 142-3. 

— of Cornwall, secular, 142, n. 5. 

— of Devon, Minorite, 2, 178. 

— of Drayton, lector, 168. 

— Fitzralph, abp. of Armagh, attack 
on the Mendicant Orders, 42, 77, 79, 

239-240,248,255; remarks on friars' 
libraries, 60-1 ; fellow of Balliol and 
chancellor, 79, 169. 
Richard, of Garaford, bequest, 104. 

— of Gravesend, bp. of Lincoln, 

— of Heythrop, of Oxford, 304. 

— of Ingewrthe, Minorite, 2, 178. 

— of Ireland : see Lorcan. 

— le Lodere, grants land to the Oxford 
Franciscans, 19, 301. 

— Lymynster, wax doctor, 43, 239. 

— Malevile : see Malevile. 

— Marsh, bp. of Durham, leaves library 
to Adam Marsh, 57, 135. 

— Middleton, works in Franciscan 
library, 58, «. II ; biogr. notice of, 

— the Miller, leases and grants house 
to Franciscans at Oxford, 3, 12, 13: 
see also 20, 71. 5, 296. 

— Rufus : see Richard (Rufus) of Corn- 

— le Ruys, 142, n. i. 

— of Slekcburne, or Slikeburne, con- 
fessor of Devorguila, 9 ; biogr. notice 
of, 216. 

— of Wallingford, abbat of St. Albans, 

— de Wauz, Minorite, 128, n. 5. 

— de \Vhitchford, collector of alms, 
9^. 310- 

— de \\ iche, bp. of Chichester, 1 36, 

Richeford, Oxford Dominican, 267. 
Richmond : see Britanny, John of. 

— (Yorkshire), Grey Friars of, 274. 
Rickes, John : see Rycks. 
Rigaldus, Minorite, 215. 

Rinaldo Conti, protector of the Order, 

69, 71. 7. 
Risby, Richard, Observant, 289. 
Robert, of Beverley, lector, 164. 

— of Bromyard, Dominican provincial, 

— of Capell, Minorite, 212, 335. 

— of Cowton, presented for license to 
hear confessions, 64 ; mentioned, 
170 ; biogr. notice, 222. 

— Cross, de Cruce, lector and pro- 
vincial, biogr. notice, 156-7. 

— de Sancta Cruce, 156, 71. 3. 

— Eliphat : see Eliphat. 

— of Flemengville, 9. 

— of Fulham, Minorite, lecturer to the 
monks at Canterbury, 66. 

— of Gaddesby, Minorite, 219. 

— Grostete : see Grostete. 

— Halifax : see Eliphat. 

— of Leicester, lector, proctor of Balliol 
Coll., 10; biogr. notice, 168. 



Robert Marsh, archdeacon of Oxford, 
135. 136. 

— le Mercer, lets house to Franciscans 
in Oxford, 2, 12, 13, 178: see also 
20, n. 5, 296. 

— of Mogynton, Minorite, 219. 

— of Newmarket, Dominican, 320, 321, 

324, 335. 

— of Nottingham, 298. 

— of Redclive, lector, 173. 
■ — ap Rice, 272. 

— of Thomham, custodian of Cam- 
bridge, 65, 139, n. 8. 

— de Trenge, warden of Merton, 100, 

— of Ware, biogr. notice, 211. 

— of Watlington, of Oxford, 304. 

— de Wysete (Wyshed), provincial, 

Roberts, Ric, 96, n. 3, 288. 
Roby, Minorite at Oxford, 265. 
Rochester, bp. of: see Merton, Walter 
de ; Fisher, John, 

— archdeacon : see Browne, Ric. 
Rockysley : see Ralph Lockysley. 
Rodano : see Alan of. 

Roderham, Ric, proctor of Balliol 

Coll. 10, 260. 
Roderic Witton, Minorite, 271. 
Rodnore, Ric, Minorite at Oxford, 265. 
Rodromo : see Adam Wodham. 
Roduricus, Minorite, 271. 
Rodyngton : see John of. 
Roger, king's almoner, 5, 307. 

— Dominican, 156. 

— Bacon : see Bacon. 

— de Barton, Minorite, 219. 

— Compotista, monk of Bury, 210. 

— Conway, provincial, mentioned, 79, 
238, 241, 312 ; biogr. notice, 239. 

— Frisby : see Frisby. 

— de Marston, lector and provincial, 
mentioned, 159; biogr. notice, 157. 

— de Merlawe (Marlow), 165, n. 2, 218. 

— of Thurkelby, 298. 

— of Wendover, 191. 

— of Wesham, lecturer to the friars, 
bp. of Lichfield, 30, 31 and n. 5, 168. 

Roger, Thomas, warden of Fanciscans, 
Gloucester, biogr. notice, 268. 

Rogers, John, bequest, 108. 

Rome; appeals to the pope, 39, 81, 
138, 186, 258. 

— Lateran Council, 267. 

— Franciscans, general chapters, 35, 
267 ; Roman province, 256 ; Oxford 
friars at, 127, 180; as ambassadors, 
159, 161, 177 ; as lecturers, 67, 155, 
161 ; deposition of Elias, 69, 181. 

— Albert of Pisa buried at, 181. 

— mentioned, 313. 

Romehale, 178. 

Romseye, John, regent master, 252. 
Roper, Richard, Minorite, 119, 293. 
Rose, Thomas, Minorite, 270. 
Roskild, bp. of, 140, n. 6. 
Rous, John, at Oxford, 25, n. 4, 26 ; 

quoted, 19T, 193, 195. 
Rufus, Adam, biogr. notice, 179. 

— Richard: Richard (Rufus) of Corn- 

Rundel, Thomas, lector, biogr. notice, 

Rupellis : see John de. 
Rupescissa : see John de. 
Russell, John, Minorite, biogr. notice, 

— John, bequest, 106. 

— Peter, provincial biographical notice, 

— Sir Robert, 106. 

— William, Warden of Grey Friars, 
London, heresies of, 85-6 ; biogr. 
notice, 257. 

Rycks, John, Minorite, reformer, iiz,n. 

5 ; biogr. notice, 286. 
Rygbye, Nicholas, 274. 
Ryley, Edward, Minorite, 113, 6; 

biographical notice, 287. 


Sabina, cardinal bp., protector of the 
Order, 70 ; see Clement IV. 

Sack, Friars of the, suppressed, 18 : see 
Oxford, Mendicant Orders. 

Saham : see Herveius de. 

St. Alban's, abbats of, 241, 248 ; docu- 
ment dated at, 297. 

S. Amando : see Alienora de. 

St. Andrew's, Vercelli, 135. 

St. Asaph, church of, 274 : see Standish, 

St. Crida, parish of (Exeter), 105. 

St. Cross : see Martin de Sta. Cruce ; 

Robert Cross. 
St. David's, bp. of, 30, 31, 136. 
St. Dunstan : see Thomas of. 
St. Edwardstowe, 107. 
St. John: see John of St. John. 
St. John of Jerusalem, brethren of, 13. 
St. Simon : see Francis de S. Simone. 
Salamanca, University, 242. 
Salford, Richard, Warden at Oxford, 

sues for a debt, 99, 315 ; biogr. notice, 


Salisbury, 104, 223. 

— Grey Friars, martyrology, 138, n. lo ; 
Convent, 223. 

Sail, Nicholas, Minorite, 286. 
Salomon : see Solomon. 
Sanders, Gilbert, Minorite, 47, 51, «. 
10, 52; biogr. notice, 275. 



Sanderson, John, Minorite, 275. 
Sanderson, Robert, Minorite, 50, n. i, 

52, II ; biogr. notice, 274. 
Sandon, Brian, syndicus of the Oxford 

Minorites, legal business, 93, 94; 

scandal about, 94: see also 96, n. i, 

119, 270. 
Sanford : see John de. 
Saracens, 8, 63, 128, 178, 179, 244. 
Sauvage : see Vincent le. 
Savernak forest, 2 1 . 
Savona, 266. 
Savonarola, 55, n. 3. 
Saxony, Franciscan province, 181, 257, 


Sawnders : see Sanders. 
Schankton, John, Minorite, bequest to, 
• 104, 251. 

Scharshille, William, biogr. notice, 

Schaton : see Walter de Chatton. 
Schism, the great, 249, 250, 252-3. 
Schomberg (Scombergt) : see Nicholas 

Schyrbourne : see William de. 

— John, 165, n. 8. 

Scotland, Minorites in, 66 ; provincial 
of, 180. 

— parliament in, 238. 

— mentioned, 290. 
Sco<:to : see Ottaviano. 
Scotus : see John Duns. 
Sebyndon, 105. 

Seller, J., w^arden at London, 269. 

Seman, John, bequest, 109. 

Sentences of Peter Lombard ; study of, 
37. 38, 45, 46, 47. 65, n. 3, 81, 131, 
143, 162, 242, 246, 249, 250, 257, 
262, 284, 292, 336-338 ; MTorks on, 
151, 152, 157, 158) 160, 164, 166, 
167, 168, 170, 172, 173, 182, 213, 
214, 216, 217, 220, 222, 223, n. 3, 
224, n. 5, 227, 235, 238, 242, 249, 

Serlo, dean of Exeter, 7, n. 5. 
Sewal, St., abp. of York, 136. 
Sherburn (Durham), master of the 

hospital, 102. 
Shifford, 107. 
Shotover, 5. 

Shrewsbury, Grey Friars, foundation, 

129 ; burial at, 168. 
Sicily, Minorite of, v^ax doctor, 43, 


Simcox, William, of Oxford, 319. 
Simeon : see Henry Simeonis. 
Simon, son of Benedict, 15, 298-9. 

— Bruni, Minorite at Toulouse, 311, 
n. I. 

— of Esseby, Minorite, 189. 

— '■'minister of Germany, 160, 9. 

Simon, of Ghent, Chancellor of Oxford, 
162, n. 16, 219, n. 4. 

— de Montfort : see Montfort. 

— Tunstede, regent master, provincial, 

60, 174; biogr. notice, 241. 
Sixtus IV, 266. 

Skelton, William, bequest, 105. 
Slekeburne, or Slikeburne : see Richard 

Smith, Gerard, Minorite, 53, n. 2 ; 
biogr. notice, 270. 

— James, Minorite, I19, 293. 

— John, Minorite, 45, 47, 51, n. 3, 
52 ; biogr. notice, 274. 

Minorite, 47, 49, n. 4, 51, 6; 

biogr. notice, 269. 

gent., 124. 

.Smyth : see Smith. 

Sneyt, 48. 

Snotly : see Notly. 

Solomon, warden of the London Fran- 
ciscans, 89, n. 2. 

Solomon of Ingeham, Dominican, 
accuses Franciscans, 76, 320, 321, 
324, 326, 327, 328, 329, 334-5. 

Somer, John, Minorite astronomer, 250, 
n. 3, 251, n. I ; biogr. notice, 

Somer, Thomas, of Oxford, 304. 
Sorel, Stephen, lector, 172. 
Southampton, wine at, 5 ; chapter of 
Minorites at, 69. 

— see Walter de Chatton. 
Sowche, John, bequest, 109. 

Spain, friars from, at Oxford, 66, 243. 

— Peter Russel teaches in, 255. 

— Albert of Pisa minister of, 181. 
Spellusbury, 109. 

Stafford, John, warden at Coventry, 

Staffordshire, 238. 

— John, Minorite, 119, 293. 
Stamford, Grey Friars, in Oxford 

custody, 68, 172 ; school at, 25, 
n. 3 (f) ; burial at, 165 ; mentioned, 

2.'^7- ^ 

— Carmelites, convocation, 85, 151. 

— see John of. 

Stan dish (Lanes.), 271, 274. 

— E., loi, n. 3. 

— Henry, Minorite, bp. of S. Asaph, 
bequests to Grey Friars, Oxford, 24, 

61, n. 6, 109, 276 ; opposes new 
learning, 112; upholds secular power, 
114; biogr. notice, 271-4. 

Stanle : see John de. 

Stanschaw, Thomas, lector, biogr. 

notice, 172. 
Stapleton : see John de. 
Stargil : see William de. 
Steeple Aston, 109, n. 2. 



Stephen, St., founder of the Order of 
Grammont, 185. 

— of Ireland, Minorite, 66, n. 5 ; 
biogr. notice, 213. 

— Sorel : see Sorel. 

— de Wytnn, secular master, 332, 334. 
Steventon priory, 16, n. 2, 20. 
Stisted, 287. 

Stokes, Peter, Carmelite, 84. 
Stokesley, John, bp. of London, 281, 
n. 3. 

Ston, John and Agnes, 56, n. 6. 
Stoughton, Rob., bookseller, 172. 
Strasburg (Argentina), province, 66, n. 

ID : see 290. 
Stratton, Gilbert, 162, n. 8. 
Straw, Jack, his confession, 78, n. 4. 
Strensham, Henry, 293, n. 3. 
Stretsham, Henry, Minorite, 116, n. 7, 


Strey, Thomas, of Colchester, 282, n. 9, 
Studeley, Christopher, Minorite, biogr. 

notice, 269. 
Suffolk, 99, 130, 166, 241, 315. 
Sunday, John, Minorite, 46, n. i, 10, 

336 ; biogr. notice, 262. 
Surrey, T63. 
Sussex, 154. 

Sutthon : see Laurence of. 

Sutton, 233: see Henry of, Peter of. 

— Oliver, bp. of Lincoln, 18. 
Swelm (Ewelme ?) : see Ralph of. 
Swerford, 109. 

Swinfeld, Ric, bp. of Hereford, 168, 

Swynshed, 241. 

Sylvester, pope, 257, n. 3. 

Symon, Rob., servant of Dr. Basker- 

feld, 132. 
Syria, 183: >r^^ Saracens. 


Taillur, Richard, of Oxford, 296. 

Talbot, Rob., 236. 

Tartars, 128, 244. 

Tate, J., will mentioned, 90, i. 

Taylor, John : see Cardmaker. 

Taler, Henry le, and Alice his wife, 16, 

20, n. 5. 
Templars: see Knights. 
Terra Laboris, Franciscan province, 235. 
Tewkesbury: see John of; Peter of. 
Thacker, Cromwell's servant, 117. 
Thomas, of Anesti, 138. 

— Aquinas, as viewed by Roger Bacon, 
42> 73, ^- I ; his teaching impu.<Tned, 
73-4, 154; attacked by W. de Mara, 
215, 216; works by, 154, 156, 236. 

— of Bameby, lector, biogr. notice, 

Thomas, de Bek', secular master, 331. 

— Berne well : see Bemewell. 

— of Bungay, lector and provincial, 
influenced by Bacon, 195, n. 4 ; 
biogr. notice of, 153. 

— of Cantilupe, St., bp. of Hereford, 
pupil of Peckham, 154. 

— Docking, lector, 36, n. 5, 37, n. i ; 
bible assigned to, 56, ^.-3; takes 
part in controversy with Dominicans, 
324^ 325, 326, 335; biogr. notice, 

— of Eccleston, his chronicle quoted, 
I, 6, II, 30, 65, 70, 71, 72, 126, 128, 
129, 134, 135, 143, 177, 178, 180, 
181, 182, 184, 185, 189, and notes 
passim', mentioned, 320; student at 
Oxford, 67 ; biogr. notice, 189-191. 

— of Ireland, doctor of the Sorbonne, 

— of Kingsbury (Kyngesbery, &c.), 
provincial, 60 ; mentioned, 242, w. 5, 
245, 251 ; biogr, notice, 250. 

— of London, benefactor of the Oxford 
friars, 92, 310, 

— of Maidstone (Maydenstan), biogr. 
notice, 186-7. 

— of Malmesbury, Dominican, 48. 

— Netter of Walden : see Netter. 

— Oterbome : see Oterborne. 

— of Pontefract, lector, 164. 

— of Portugal, biogr. notice, 242. 

— Radford, lector, 174. 

— Radnor : see Radnor. 

— Rundel, lector, 162. 

— of St. Dunstan, lector, 168. 

— Stanschaw, lector, 272. 

— de Valeynes, grants land to the 
Minorites at Oxford, 15, 21, 298. 

— Wallensis, lecturer to the Minorites, 
bp. of St. David's, 30, 31, 136. 

— Wallensis, or Walleys, Dominican, 
144, n. 7, 149, 150, 151, 170. 

— of Wycombe : see Waldere, Th. 

— of Wynchelse, Minorite, 256. 

— of York, lector, inception of, 38-9, 
128; lectures at Oxford, 65, n. 2; 
mentioned, 143, n. 2, 186 ; biogr. 
notice, 1 40-142. 

— John, bequest, 105. 

— William, obtains part of the Grey 
Friars' property, 122, 123. 

Thorald : see Peter, son of. 
Thorley, 283. 

Thornall, John, Minorite, 44, n. 4, 51, 
n. 7 ; grace to, 338 ; biogr. notice, 

Thornham: see Robert of. 
Thornton : see John of 
Throckmorton, Rob., bequest, 108. 
Thiiringen, 257, 



Thnrkelby : see Roger of. 

Tinmouth, John, Minorite, bp. of 

Argos, bequest to Oxford Minorites, 

io8 ; biogr. notice, 271. 
Tithemersch : see William. 
Todworth : see Peter of. 
Toledo, Minorite of, 209. 
Tomsun, John, Minorite, 116, n. 7, 


Tomsun, Thomas, Minorite, 116, n. 7, 

Toulouse, Minorite of, 208 ; general 
chapter, 219, 221. 

— University, 242, 311, n. i. 

Treners, Ric, Minorite, 262. 

Trenge : see Robert de. 

Trent (river), 302, 303, 304. 
■Treviso, Albert of Pisa, minister of, 181 ; 
see Henry de Ceruise. 

Trinitarian Friars, bequest to, 103. 

Tripoli, heroism of an Oxford Fran- 
ciscan at, 8. 

Tnlheim, 148. 

Trivet, Nicholas, Dominican, on J. 

Peckham, 155. 
Tryley : see Ryley. 

Tryvytlam (Trevytham), Ric, biogr. 

notice, 253. 
Tuam, abp. of, 267. 

Tully, Dionisius, Dominican, heretical 

teaching in Ireland, 266. 
Turco, Robert, 209. 
Tunstede : see Simon. 
Tuscany, Albert of Pisa, minister of, 

181 ; Bernard of Gascony, minister 

of, 311, n. I. 
Tyburn, Franciscans executed at, 87. 
Tyeys, Henry, grants land to the 

Minorites at Oxford, 19, 301. 
Tyndale, quoted, 112. 
Tyngewick : see Nicholas de. 
Tyssyngton, John, Minorite, regent 

master, 82, n. 2, 85; biogr. notice, 



Ubertino de Casali, Minorite, 215. 
Ughtred, Bolton, monk of Durham, 

81, n. 7, 242, 243, 253, n. 5, 254. 
Urban V, 311, n. i. 

Urban VI, pope, 243 ; oath of obedi- 
ence to, taken by English Franciscans, 


Valeynes : see Thomas de. 
Valeys, John, lector, 175. 
Valla, Laurence, 171, n. 2. 
Vallibus : see Anthony de. 
Varro : see William of Ware. 
A^avasour, William, warden at O.-xford, 

pension to, 119, n. 4; mentioned, 
268, n. 2 ; biogr. notice, 130. 

Venice, printing press at, 267, n. 5. 

Ver, G. de : see William of Ware. 

Vercelli, abbot of St. Andrew's at, 

Vienne, Council of, 163, 164. 
Vilers : see Valeys, John. 
Vincent Boys : see Boys. 

— le Sauvage, Dominican, 321, 323, 

Vodromio : see Adam Wodham. 
Volterra, J. Gallensis of, 150. 


Wakerfeld : see Alan of. 

Wakering Parva, 287. 

Walden : see Netter, (Thomas) of. 

Waldere, Thomas, of W^ycombe, be- 
quest, 102. 

Whales, 31 ; John Wallensis sent as 
ambassador to rebel Welsh, 144. 

Waleys, Henry, mayor of London, 219. 

— Thomas : see Thomas W^allensis. 
Walker, William, Minorite, lectures on 

St. Paul, 113, n. 5, 284. 
Walle, William, Minorite, 45, n. 6, 51, 

n. 8, 52; biogr. notice, 277. 
W^allensis : see John ; Laurence Briton ; 

Philip ; Thomas. 
W^allingford : see Richard of. 
W^allys : see Wellys, Robert. 
W' alonges : see Thomas de Valeyns. 
W'alshe, Gilbert, Minorite, 261. 

— Nicholas, Minorite, 261. 
Yv^alter de Berney, bequest, 104. 

— de Bosevile, Minorite, 219. 

— Brinkley : see Brinkley. 

— de Bukenham, friar of Babwell, 56, 
n. 4. 

— of Cantilupe, bp. of Worcester, 
137, 308- 

— de Chatton, lector, 60, 134; biogr. 
notice, 170. 

— canon of Dunstable, becomes Minorite, 

— de Foxle, lector, 169. 

— of Gloucester, escheator, 303. 

— de KnoUe, lector, 158. 

— de Landen, Minorite, 212, 320. 

— de Madele, lecturer in some Fran- 
ciscan convent, 34 ; biographical 
notice, 188. 

— de Merton, bp. of Rochester, &c., 
friend of Adam Marsh, and benefactor 
of the friars, 9, 102, 137, 187. 

Waltham : see John of. 
Ware (Herts.), Grey Friars of, 91, n. 4, 
211, 213 ; burial at, 259. 

— see John of ; Robert of ; William of. 



Warham, William, abp. of Canterbury, 
23» 115- 

Warin of Dorchester, and Juliana his 

wife, 1 6. 
Warminster : see Adam of. 
Warwick, countess of, 300, n. i. 
Wastenays, John, Minorite, biogr. notice, 


Waterford : see William of. 
Waterperry, 108. 
Waterstoke, 107, 
Watlington : see Robert of. 
Wauz : see Richard de. 
Waynflete, William, bp. of Winchester, 

Wearmouth, Adam Marsh had a living 
near, 135. 

Welle, John, Minorite D.D., his property 

stolen, 78; 175, 311. 
Welleford, 109. 

Wells, diocese, 261 ; canon of, 105 ; 
chancellor of, 291. 

— John, 175. 

Wellys, Robert, provincial, 255. 

Welsh : see Wales ; Wallensis. 

W^endover : see Roger of. 

Went, John, lector and provincial, 174. 

Wesham : see Roger of. 

Westburg : see John of. 

Westminster, burial at, 25 ; sermon at, 
284 ; council at, 81, n. 7, 242 ; 
mentioned, 267, 71. 2, 298, 300, 301, 
302, 306, 308, 310, 312, 315. 

Weston : see Nicholas de. 

— Ric. LL.B., 96, 287. 
Westover : see John of. 
Wetherset, 173, n. 6. 
Whatele : see William of. 
Wheathamstede, John, abbat of St. 

Albans, 248. 

Whitchford : see Richard de. 

Whitehead, David, reformer, 288, n. 7. 

Whyte, William, heresies, 256. 

Whythede, David, Minorite, 288. 

Whytheed, John, of Ireland, 255. 

Whytwell, John, Minorite, 51, 54, ^. 3 ; 
biogr. notice, 260. 

Wiche : see Richard de. 

Wiclif, quoted, 27, 43, 50, 78, 79; his 
English prose, 64 ; on friars' sermons, 
64, 71. 4: his poor priests, 82, n. 3; 
points of agreement with the friars, 
81, 114, n. 4; attack on the friars, 
81, seq. ; relations to W. Woodford, 
81, 246 ; works written against him, 
246, 248, 251; mentioned, 55, 112. 

Wileford, William, son of Richard de : 
see William. 

Wiley (Essex), 284. 

William, warden of the Fianciscans at 
Paris, 220. 

William, clerk of Oxford, 296. 

of Adreston, 304-5. 

of Auvergne, 192-3, 206. 

— de Colvile, Minorite, 179. 

— de Conchis, 247, n. 7. 

— Cornish, 212, 320. 

— of Esseby, warden of the Grey Friars, 
Oxford, 7, n. 7, 178, n. 2; biogr. 
notice, 125-6. 

— of Euston, of Oxford, 304, 

— ofExeter, Minorite, biogr.notice, 217. 

— of Gainsborough, lector, lectures at 
Rome, 68, provincial minister, 157, 
158 ; royal ambassador, 7, n. 10, 159 ; 
attends general chapter, 159, 218; 
bp. of Worcester, 162 ; biographical 
notice, 160-2. 

— of Heddele, lector, accompanies 
Prince Edward on Crusade, 8 ; men- 
tioned, 151, n. 4, 335 ; biogr. notice, 

— de Hodum, Hozon (Hotham ?), 156 ; 
cursory lecturer, 334. 

— of Leominster, friar, 134, n. 2 ; biogr. 
notice, 217. 

— lord Lovell : see Lovell. 

— de Mara, Minorite, influenced by 
Roger Bacon, 195, 4 ; biogr. notice, 

— of Constance, 216, tz. 3. 

— de Melton, heresies of, 86 ; biogr. 
uotice, 251. 

— de Menyl, proctor of Balliol College, 
10, 158. 

— of Middleton, Minorite, 214, n. 2. 

— of Newport, Minorite. 

— of Nottingham, provincial minister, 
126, 127, 128, 187 ; signs Henry Ill's 
charter to the University, 8 ; increase 
in the friars' property under him, 14 ; 
retort to a friar, 28 ; extends Univer- 
sity teaching, 65 ; friend of Grostete, 
69, n. I ; popularity, 70 ; obtains 
papal privileges for the Order, 72 ; 
mentioned, 126,127,128,129,136,139, 
n.8, 141, 155, n. 2, 165, 186, 187, 189, 
190; iDiographical notice, 182-185. 

— of Nottingham, lector and pro- 
vincial ; copies works of Nicholas 
Gorham, 57 ; mentioned, 185, 224, 
fz. 7 ; biogr. notice, 165. 

— of Ockham, lectures abroad, 68 ; 
followers at Oxford, 77, 173 ; on 
evangelical poverty, 77, 164 ; men- 
tioned, 151, n. 7, 166, n. 3, 168, 172, 
n. II, 216, 217, n. 3. 

— biographical notice, 224; works, 

— de Peraud, 147. 

— of Pokelington, Minorite, biogr. 
notice, 188. 



William de la Pomay, secular master, 

— de Prato, French Minorite, bp. of 
Pekin, 66, n. 6 ; biogr. notice, 244. 

— of St. Amour, 154. 

— of Schyrbourne, lector, biogr. notice, 

— of Shareshull, 238. 

— de Stargil, Dominican, 324, 325, 326, 

— Tithemersch, provincial, biogr. 
notice, 238. 

— of Ware, Minorite, biogr. notice, 213. 

— of Waterford, Minorite, 247, 249. 

— of Whatele, of Oxford, 304. 

— son of Richard de Wileford, of Ox- 
ford, his house bought for the 
Jklinorites, 13, 90, n. 6, 295-6. 

— de Wodeford, abbat, 249. 

— Woodford (Widford, Wydeforde, 
&c.), Minorite ; on the clothing of 
the Grey Friars in England, 4, «, i ; 
on the statutes of Benedict XII, 35, 
n. 2 ; robbed, 5 ; defends admission 
of children into the Orders, 80 ; re- 
lations to Wiclif, 81 ; papal privileges 
to, 312-3; quoted or mentioned, 42, 
167, 170, 195, n. 4, 213, 222, 252; 
biographical notice, 246-9. 

— of Worcester, description of the 
Grey Friars Church, Oxford, 24. 

— ol Wykeham, 58, n. 9. 

— of Wykham, Minorite, 212, 323. 

— of York, Minorite, 179. 
Williams, David, Minorite, 53, n. 6; 

biogr. notice, 278. 

— John, Minorite, biogr. notice, 287. 
Willoughby : see Hugh of. 
Wilsnach, miraculous blood of, 257. 
Wiltshire, 169. 

Winchcombe : see Kidderminster (Ric),